2.1 Expenditure of the Huguang Huiguang in 1771 50

2.2 Discrepancies between income expected and received by the Huguang Huiguan 53

4.1 Consumption of the fictive mining town 103

4.2 The consumption of the mines and smelters 104

4.3 Transport to and out of the mining town 106

4.4 Output of the Dongchuan mines 110

6.1 Copper bought by the provincial mint on the private market of Hankou 154

7.1 Payment for workers in the mints during the 18th century 204

7.2 Numbers of workers and furnaces during the Middle Qing period (examples) 207

7.3 Numbers of craftsmen in the Baozheju mint in Zhejiang 208

7.4 Annual coin production of important dynasties 209

7.5 Daily output per person in early Ming period mints 210

7.6 Coins produced per craftsman in Chinese over different time periods 210

7.7 Labour organisation at the Venetian Zecca during the 14th century 212

8.1 Weight units and numerical ratios: Chinese examples from commercial pocketbooks 229

8.2 Marks and engravings on cups of a Spanish-Chinese nested-weight (18th/19th cent.) 237

8.3 Numerical and metric identification of individual cups of a 2-pound nested weight 238

8.4 The development of minuscule units of reckoning and precise weighing in Europe 244

8.5 Numerical divisions of selected European coin and weight standards 248

8.6 Metrological interpretation of two standard nested master-weights in France and Portugal 250

8.7 Coin and weight standards used by the voc (Vereenigde Oost Indie Compagnie) in Asia 253

9.1 Boat sizes in Eastern Sichuan, regulations quoted in Tongyun shengguanjue 331

11.1 Maritime customs statistics on opium exports from Sichuan and Yunnan 389

11.2 Income of the Sichuan-Hankou Railway Co. 398