1.1 Slippery Footing. Brink of the Nam Tsam. Engraving by Gaston Vuillier 7

1.2 Passage of the Lysiang Kiang, or Black River. Engraving by Gaston Vuillier 11

1.3 Street in Tali-Fou. Engraving by Gaston Vuillier13

1.4 Type of Mahomedan Face, in Yünnan 14

1.5 Hanging Bridge over the Yang-pi. Engraving by Gaston Vuillier15

4.1–4.2 The ascent from Jianshan on the road from the Xiaojiang valley to the Huize Plateau 101

6.1 Copper produced in Yunnan for governmental use (in million jin) 171

7.1 Production of coins by casting in upright piece moulds 188

7.2 Production of cash coins by means of stack casting 189

7.3 Coin tree of brass Guangxu zhongbao coins, Baoquanju Mint, Beijing, China, about 1905 ad, British Museum 191

7.4a Working processes in a Chinese mint during the 17th century: Casting 198

7.4b Working processes in a Chinese mint during the 17th century: Filing smooth 199

7.5 Lead content in Chinese bronze and brass coins (ca. 200 bc–1900 ad) 200

7.6 Scene inside a Chinese mint during the late Qing period 203

7.7 Percentage of wages to be spent on different types of mint workers according to the imperial regulation of 1769 205

8.1 Quentin Massys’ The Moneylender and His Wife (1514, detail) 274

8.2a–b Nested cup-weight aboard a sunken Portuguese vessel (early 16th century) near the coast of Namibia 274

8.3a–k Nested cup-weight for China (18th/19th century) from the Laufkoetter Collection 275

8.4 ‘Eye of Horus’—‘Horusauge of the Egyptian metrology’ 276

8.5a–b Pile de Charlemagne (1460–1510) from the Musée National des TechniquesCollection des poids et mesures, Paris 276

8.6a–b Portuguese Quintal / Marco-padrão de D. Manuel i (1770/1499) from the Museu de Metrologia des Instituto Português da Qualidade 277

8.7 Nested cup-weight used in the Dutch East-Indies (v.o.c.), originally of 8 pounds, adjusted to 128 silver Spanish Reales of Eight in Batavia 278

8.8 Standard-weight (Stats Slaper) of Batavia, adjusted to the weight of 128 Reales by the Batavian sealer Abraham Crena in 1705, from the University-Museum Utrecht 278

9.1 A large Mayangzi travelling downriver under three pairs of yaolu 294

9.2 The kuazi of Robert Logan Jack and his party 295

9.3 Elevation and plan of an Upper Changjiang Mayangzi 299

9.4 The Xintan 305

9.5 A team of rowers 313

9.6 The night shelter of the crew 313

9.7 The tiller-house that was also the skipper’s kitchen 315

9.8 Shorthand sketch of a boat travelling downriver in Chongqing harbour, showing the key features of downriver navigation 316

9.9 A small Mayangzi getting under way in Yichang harbour 319

9.10 Two wuban accompanying a kuazi 320

9.11 The drum tied to the main mast, with the skipper and his family posing for the photo 323

9.12 A freight boat under oars downriver of Yibin 325

9.13 A laohuaqiu under oars 337

9.14 Elevation drawing and plan of the laohuaqiu 337