4.1 Dongchuan prefecture in Northeastern Yunnan 92

4.2 The mines in and near Dongchuan prefecture 93

4.3 The copper mines of Southern Dongchuan, ca. 1750–1850, with roads and plateaus 97

4.4 The route from the Maolu mines to Dongchuan, reconstructed according to the official regulations 99

4.5 Vegetation model of Dongchuan: 1700 112

4.6 Vegetation model of Dongchuan: 1720 113

4.7 Vegetation model of Dongchuan: 1740 114

4.8 Vegetation model of Dongchuan: 1760 115

4.9 Vegetation model of Dongchuan: 1780 116

4.10 Vegetation model of Dongchuan: 1800 117

4.11 Forests in Dongchuan, ca. 1970 118

9.1 The distribution of mayangzi boats 298

9.2 The distribution of qiuzi boats 339

11.1 Projected railway lines, late Qing 382

11.2 Projected lines and railway protection bureaus, Sichuan, 1911 403

11.3 Projected railway lines, 1914 414