General IndexAboriginal groupsIndigenous groupsAccountability38, 150, 153, 165, 181, 187Africa2, 8, 19, 21, 34, 36, 48, 52, 58, 68, 75, 399, 455, 468, 471African National Congress (anc)2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8n, 10, 11, 12, 16, 19, 22, 23African Union48, 48n1Afrikaners2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 23Argentina112, 113, 193, 194, 195, 195n2, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 286, 468Assimilation(ist)80, 83, 86, 87, 92, 96, 105, 143n3, 146, 239, 240, 242, 245, 252, 284, 307, 326, 327, 334, 336, 342, 349, 350, 355, 356, 455, 456Asymmetry11, 130, 131, 140, 148, 157, 160, 195, 206, 212, 212n2, 213, 223, 224, 234, 237, 247, 249, 278, 279, 282, 288, 291, 296, 299, 300, 309, 316, 317, 319, 320, 326, 327, 331, 332, 343, 345, 347, 348, 349, 354, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 399n1, 455, 456, 462Australia112, 193, 196n2, 250, 278, 279, 289, 290, 326, 327, 334, 336, 337, 340, 341, 342, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 438, 456, 473Austria87, 195, 250, 267n1, 438Autonomy2, 27, 34, 35, 42, 44, 45, 52, 58, 59, 67, 73, 76, 80, 81, 89, 90, 92, 96, 104, 105, 113, 126, 126n1, 127, 131, 134, 144, 148, 150, 151, 153n, 154, 155, 161, 169, 174, 194, 203, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 211n1, 212, 213, 213n3, 214, 218, 219, 220, 221, 224, 225, 226, 234, 248, 268, 280, 291, 293, 304, 307, 308, 313, 317, 318, 320, 331, 332, 333, 354, 368, 371, 372, 379, 386, 399, 399n, 401, 401n1, 403, 403n3, 404, 404n1, 405, 406, 407, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 416, 418, 426, 455, 458, 463, 466, 467, 470, 474, 475Basque Country381, 404Belgium95, 98, 149n1, 151, 250, 279, 362Bosnia and Herzegovina112, 139, 140, 140n1, 140n2, 141, 141n1, 141n2, 141n3, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 147n2, 148, 149, 151, 152n1, 154, 156, 158, 158n2, 159n1, 160, 161, 403, 409, 409n2, 412n2, 413n2, 414, 415, 415n3, 468, 475Brazil112, 113, 164, 166, 166n, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 195, 289, 468, 469, 470, 477Canada95n1, 105n2, 112, 114, 115, 116, 116n, 117, 117n, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 125n, 126, 126n1, 127n3, 128, 128n1, 129, 130n2, 131, 132, 132n1, 133, 134, 151, 193, 196n3, 232, 233, 234, 235n, 237, 238, 238n, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 245n, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 278, 279, 284, 289, 290, 326, 327, 328, 329, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 342, 345, 346, 347, 349, 351, 353, 354, 355, 356, 362, 384n, 389n1, 403n1, 411, 415, 438, 455, 456, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 473Catalonia282, 300, 328, 329, 381, 381n, 388Centralization35, 50, 51, 67n, 89, 114, 115, 121, 126, 143, 148, 169, 174, 175, 186, 278, 282, 283, 285, 287, 288, 295, 296, 350China11, 371, 407Citizenship31, 51, 53, 61, 65, 68, 74, 75, 76, 77, 95, 96, 98n2, 172, 180, 232, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 259, 260, 260n2, 260n3, 260n5, 260n6, 261, 262, 262n1, 262n2, 263, 263n1, 263n3, 264, 264n2, 264n3, 265, 265n2, 266, 266n2, 267, 268, 268n3, 269, 269n, 270, 271, 271n2, 271n3, 272, 273, 273n1, 283, 286, 288, 290, 291, 292, 293, 305, 310, 311, 312, 314, 315, 319, 320, 332, 347, 363, 383n3, 454, 464, 465, 466, 468Civil society16, 17, 19, 52, 75, 97, 171, 181, 284, 453Colonialism16, 17, 20, 21, 117, 143n3, 164, 167, 170, 185, 186, 233, 238, 240, 241, 260, 260n2, 261, 262, 263, 264, 264n2, 290, 300, 301, 304, 305, 310, 312, 331, 337, 338, 339, 340, 346, 347, 377, 378, 382n, 468, 469Congo (Democratic Republic of)69Constitutional court9n3, 17, 18, 88, 89, 102, 103, 105, 112, 115, 118n3, 123, 124, 126n1, 127, 128, 128n1, 129, 130, 131, 132, 132n1, 133, 148, 152, 208, 208n1, 209, 211, 213, 222, 226, 244, 250, 251, 253, 260, 283, 285, 286, 287, 290, 294, 301, 303, 304, 306, 308, 389n1, 409, 412, 414, 415, 425, 478reform/amendment22, 32, 44, 90, 91, 92, 106, 113, 120, 121, 122, 129, 132, 178, 195, 197, 203, 206, 207, 209, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 218, 219, 222, 223, 225, 233, 234, 235, 243, 244, 244n, 246, 249, 251, 253, 283, 285, 286, 287, 294, 302, 307, 314, 317, 318, 319, 330, 352, 356, 370, 371, 424, 432, 438, 446, 449, 474Consultation38, 43, 51, 103, 175, 243, 346, 460, 472Cooperation85, 104, 105, 119, 131, 131n2, 161, 178, 249, 273, 343, 388, 388n1, 391, 429, 430, 431, 474, 477Council of EuropeEuropean Framework Convention for the Protection of National MinoritiesCulture5, 6, 7, 31, 32, 34, 44, 46, 75, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 89, 96, 98, 104, 105, 158n2, 165, 179, 238, 239, 244, 252, 284, 286, 290, 292, 293, 296, 299, 300, 352, 391, 401, 402, 405, 408n, 444, 459, 461, 464, 468, 470, 474, 476, 477Decentralization52, 121, 141, 166, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 179, 239, 249, 250, 278Decision-making35, 45, 49, 50, 52, 64, 68, 80, 90, 103, 121, 144n, 160, 178, 232, 400, 401, 402, 407, 408, 410, 411, 412, 416, 417, 453, 454, 457, 477Deliberation159, 215, 221, 273Democracy5, 7, 16, 19, 46, 48, 48n1, 95, 123, 158n1, 186, 280, 371, 394, 406consociational146, 147, 149, 151, 160, 171, 172, 412, 415n3, 416direct83, 84, 89, 90, 91, 94, 97, 105, 474federal187, 279, 362, 470, 475liberal73n1 120, 279, 377, 378, 380, 383, 385, 387, 388, 390, 391, 392n1, 395, 414, 454Devolution23, 52, 350, 475Disintegration58, 67, 145n2, 194, 377, 405Empowerment3, 27, 33, 34, 43, 44, 57, 62, 65, 67, 68, 75, 76, 77, 144, 156, 237, 400, 464, 478Environment(al)42, 99, 223, 333, 428, 435, 460Eritrea2, 3, 58n, 380Ethiopia2, 3, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 58n, 59, 59n1, 59n2, 59n3, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 66n2, 67, 67n, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 74n1, 74n2, 74n3, 75, 76, 151, 384n1, 407, 408, 454, 458, 460, 461, 471, 472Ethnicity2, 5, 6, 11, 13, 32, 68, 72, 74n3, 242, 253, 278, 287, 300, 316, 319, 320, 337, 413, 459European colonizationColonialismEuropean Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities3, 4,  79, 81, 95, 95n3, 96, 97, 98, 99, 103, 104, 106European Union (eu)232, 259, 260n1, 261, 262, 263n1, 263n3, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269n, 270, 270n1, 271, 271n1, 271n2, 271n3, 272, 273, 273n1, 274, 362, 380, 465, 466European council95, 263, 436European Court of Justice (ecj)232, 259, 260, 262n3, 265, 266, 266n2, 267, 268, 269n, 270, 272, 273, 465, 466, 275European parliament39Federal government33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 42n1, 44, 45, 49, 50n, 52, 53, 69, 71, 91, 101, 104, 126, 166, 175, 176, 177, 178, 180, 203, 239, 244, 245, 250, 251, 252, 254, 282, 284, 285, 286, 287, 299, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 310, 312, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 327, 342, 343, 344, 345, 349, 355, 389, 426, 430, 444, 455, 460, 465, 467, 471, 472, 473, 474Federalismasymmetrical11, 131, 140157, 278, 279, 282, 299, 300, 316, 317, 320, 362, 363, 364, 365, 369, 370, 371, 373, 399n, 455, 462centralized45, 133, 175, 176, 252cooperative131, 161, 424, 432decentralized166, 171, 173, 174, 239, 241, 278executive432, 473, 474multinational80, 81, 83, 134, 149, 150, 151, 156, 158n2, 160, 161, 247, 279, 289, 405, 406, 407, 409, 456, 460, 464, 465, 472, 476territorial83, 233First NationsIndigenous groupsFiscal imbalance194, 249, 254Flanders282France82, 91, 95, 289, 302, 303Gender21, 52, 253, 346Germany82, 85, 96, 98n2, 169, 250, 267n1, 269n, 280, 314, 362, 380, 424, 426, 427, 430, 432, 438, 468, 473, 474, 475, 477Globalization94, 403Governance2, 6, 22, 35, 38, 101, 145, 147n2, 154, 155n, 178, 179, 182, 187, 188, 234, 240, 249, 265, 290, 292, 316, 333, 366, 368, 373, 417, 454, 458, 461democratic5, 18, 161, 164, 172federal368self-11, 23, 150, 279, 327, 331, 335, 344, 345, 346, 349, 356, 456Human rights9, 32, 32n1, 53n, 73, 75, 76, 81, 89, 100, 106, 286, 244, 278, 288, 295, 319, 320, 377, 379, 380, 380n, 382, 383n2, 385, 385n1, 387, 403n1, 417Identity5, 7, 21, 27, 29, 30, 31, 34, 50, 53, 58, 62n2, 72, 80, 85, 87, 89, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99n2, 103, 106, 122, 123, 158, 161, 179, 186, 206n1, 232, 233, 241, 252, 268, 268n3, 284, 287, 299, 304, 318, 319, 320, 328, 329, 334, 336, 339, 341, 342, 354, 366, 368, 401, 404, 407, 408n, 409, 413, 416, 425, 438, 455, 459, 461, 462, 467, 469, 471, 472, 478national51, 158, 234, 235, 235n, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 242, 243, 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 286, 288, 378, 389, 390, 393, 394, 395, 464politics22, 244, 363, 457Immigration83, 88, 170, 242, 252, 282, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 296, 299, 313, 315, 319, 337, 341, 349, 404, 409Independence10, 11, 83, 141, 142, 142n2, 143n1, 155, 156, 158n2, 167, 194, 243, 253, 268, 272, 283, 292, 293, 296, 301, 303, 310, 311, 313, 338, 340, 341, 371, 380, 405, 414, 415India38n1, 89n, 279, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 408, 409, 411, 462Indigeneity61, 61n, 62, 64, 64n, 65, 66, 66n1, 67, 68, 74, 75, 76, 76n1, 279, 357, 454, 456Indigenous groups2, 6, 19, 21, 22, 23, 59, 60, 61, 62, 62n1, 64, 64n, 65, 65n, 66, 68, 71n3, 73, 76, 84, 93, 99, 232, 233, 234, 240, 245, 246, 248, 251, 252, 253, 279, 283, 290, 291, 294, 301, 315, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 377, 402, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459, 416, 466, 470Indirect rule17Individual rightsHuman rightsIndonesia20, 362Infrastructure35, 42, 47, 73, 383n3, 404Innovation48, 75, 121, 177, 232, 253, 312, 329, 463Institutionalization148, 234, 278, 288Integration33, 145, 146, 241, 242, 282, 285, 287, 456, 471economic37, 38, 193, 354european259, 260, 261, 264, 265, 268, 272, 273, 273n3, 362, 465, 466political166, 169, 170, 171, 187, 232, 254, 403, 469Intergovernmental relations122, 131, 174, 178, 249, 251, 327, 332, 348, 355, 437, 473Ireland384Italy82, 112, 206, 207, 278, 475, 478Language5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 23, 24, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 43, 44, 62n1, 63, 64, 67n, 71, 73n, 74n2, 80, 81, 82, 83, 86, 87, 88, 89, 92, 92n1, 93, 96, 98, 98n2, 99, 101, 104, 105, 155n, 156n, 206, 239, 243, 244, 262, 278, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 290, 292, 293, 294, 295, 299, 300, 319, 320, 334, 348, 352, 362, 369, 370, 401, 402, 408, 410, 411, 413, 442, 443, 444, 444n1, 445, 447, 448, 449, 450, 459, 461, 463, 478Legitimacy7, 16, 46, 51, 77, 112, 115, 120, 124, 125, 131, 132, 141, 145, 148, 217, 225, 232, 234, 242, 248, 250, 251, 269n, 273n2, 273n3, 280, 318, 334, 370, 377, 378, 379, 379n, 381, 382, 383, 383n1, 383n2, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 389n3, 390, 391, 392, 392n1, 393, 394, 395, 401, 412, 416, 416nMexico250, 289, 292, 295, 299, 337Migration13, 44, 85, 88, 92, 292, 293, 305, 462Minoritynational79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 104, 105n2, 106, 140n1, 245, 288, 401, 405, 412n1, 459rights81, 90, 94, 106, 240, 329, 363, 402, 403, 412Multicultural(ism)82, 105, 237, 242, 243, 247, 252, 253, 254, 279, 288, 289, 328, 349, 363, 373, 456, 462, 464Multination(al)80, 81, 83, 112, 122, 134, 149, 150, 151, 156, 158n2, 160, 161, 234, 237, 247, 251, 279, 289, 363, 405, 406, 407, 409, 456, 460, 462, 464, 465, 468, 472, 476, 477Nationalism2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 44, 50, 51, 52, 53, 112, 117, 122, 170, 186, 232, 239, 253, 236, 238, 239, 240, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 252, 253, 286, 292n, 295, 328, 339, 365, 369, 371, 377, 378, 381, 384, 391, 404, 406, 413, 454, 460, 472Nigeria2, 3, 45, 57, 58, 59, 59n1, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 66n1, 67, 69, 70, 70n2, 71, 72, 73, 74, 74n1, 74n2, 74n3, 75, 76, 454, 458, 460, 461Northern Ireland381, 384, 384n, 413, 413n3, 417Pakistan362, 371Party system33, 44, 45, 47, 48, 52, 53, 166, 170, 171, 172, 178, 246, 252, 413, 471, 473, 478Pluralism27, 44, 48, 53, 54, 121, 123, 158n2, 165, 234, 384Quebec122, 119, 122, 129, 132, 133, 134, 233, 239, 240, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 282, 300, 328, 329, 378n3, 381, 384n, 391, 393, 402, 403n1, 404, 411, 415, 466, 467Race7, 9, 10, 13, 74n2, 253, 278, 284, 287, 294, 299, 305, 319, 334, 349, 352, 459Racism13, 290, 455Re-centralization174, 175Referendum87, 90, 91, 121, 141, 142, 143n1, 156, 214n3, 215, 243, 244n, 246, 249, 250, 253, 263, 293, 352, 356, 391, 391n, 393nRegionalism39n, 50, 113, 206, 208, 209, 210, 213, 243Religion20, 29, 30, 31, 32, 39n, 74, 74n2, 74n3, 80, 82, 83, 85, 86, 89, 92, 96, 253, 278, 283, 292, 299, 300, 334, 337, 362, 370, 401, 402, 413, 459, 461christians28n1, 29, 49, 85, 86, 92, 100jews84, 86, 92, 93, 94, 99, 100, 282, 284, 286, 289, 459muslims29, 84, 92, 95, 99, 100, 140n1, 140n3, 142, 142n1, 362, 370Russia173, 284, 362, 407, 472Rwanda69Scotland300, 329, 381, 391Secession5, 11, 13, 15, 32, 33n, 34, 39n, 47, 52, 59n1, 130, 132n1, 140, 144, 243, 247, 248, 250, 254, 278, 279, 280, 328, 329, 362, 363, 368, 373, 377, 378, 378n3, 379, 380, 380n, 381, 381n, 383, 383n1, 383n2, 383n3, 384, 384n, 385, 387, 388, 388n2, 389, 389n1, 389n2, 389n4, 390, 390n3, 391, 391n, 392, 392n1, 392n3, 393, 394, 395, 405, 408, 454, 457, 463Self-determination3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 22, 23, 31, 32, 33, 80, 81, 166, 179, 269n, 279, 290, 291, 303, 308, 341, 345, 349, 351, 377, 378, 381, 383, 389, 389n2, 390n1, 393, 405Shared-rule34, 35, 43, 147, 150, 151, 161, 330, 363, 372Somalia407South Africa2, 5, 6, 7, 7n1, 9, 10, 11, 12n1, 12n2, 14, 15, 16, 20, 22, 23, 57, 454, 457, 459Spain250, 264, 266n2, 292, 294, 295, 314, 328, 329, 338, 362, 399n, 475Statedevelopmental3, 27, 28, 38, 39, 43, 47, 51, 472federal50, 85, 86, 157, 426, 464, 472, 474, 475, 476regional27, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 39n, 41, 43, 44, 44n, 45, 50, 50n, 51, 52, 460sovereignty3, 31, 112, 143, 154, 156, 157, 168, 233, 266, 272, 301, 313, 316, 332, 333, 379, 403, 445unitary29, 31, 39, 69, 79, 80, 96, 114, 143, 144, 145, 146, 149, 156, 161, 330, 403, 406, 471, 472, 474, 475Subsidiarity130, 131n3, 222, 446Sudan36Supreme CourtConstitutional CourtSwitzerland2, 3, 4, 79, 81, 82, 82n, 83, 83n1, 83n2, 84, 85, 86, 86n2, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 92n2, 93, 94, 94n1, 95, 97, 97n, 98, 99, 99n1, 99n2, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 167, 250, 278, 280, 401, 442, 443, 447, 449, 459, 465, 478Symmetry83, 147, 153n, 156, 157United Kingdom/Great Britain (uk) 105n239, 241, 295, 302, 314, 329,  338, 347, 384, 384n, 399n, 475United States (us)48, 48n1, 112, 213, 238, 250, 274, 278, 279, 282, 283, 284, 285, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 296, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 304n, 305, 305n, 306, 307, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 326, 327, 329, 331, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 346, 351, 353, 354, 356, 364, 382n, 407, 409, 455, 456, 473Women16, 19, 38n3, 61, 68n, 91n, 92n2, 116, 291, 350, 365, 464Yugoslavia140, 141, 141n1, 141n3, 142n2, 144, 380, 405Zulu2, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 23

Revisiting Unity and Diversity in Federal Countries

Changing Concepts, Reform Proposals and New Institutional Realities

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