List of Illustrations

in Solitudo

1.1 Master of the Dresden William of Malavalle Drawing (active ca. 1480–1520), St. William of Maleval. Feather in brown over black chalk, 19.8 × 28.1 cm. Dresden, Kupferstich-Kabinett, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen (inv. no. C 1967–386). Image © Kupferstich-Kabinett Dresden; photo: Herbert Boswank 2

1.2 Master of the Dresden William of Malavalle Drawing, View over a Rocky Cliff toward a Church Tower. Feather in brown, 18.9 × 20.7 cm. Dresden, Kupferstich-Kabinett, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen (inv. no. C 3682). Image © Kupferstich-Kabinett Dresden; photo: Herbert Boswank 3

1.3 Master of the Dresden William of Malavalle Drawing, Rocks with View toward a Distant City Skyline. Feather in brown over black chalk, 18.8 × 27.8 cm. Dresden, Kupferstich-Kabinett, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen (inv. no. C 3995). Image © Kupferstich-Kabinett Dresden; photo: Herbert Boswank 4

1.4 Master of the Dresden William of Malavalle Drawing, Rocky Landscape with a Sleeping Figure and a City in the Background. Feather in brown over black chalk, 14 × 19.4 cm. Dresden, Kupferstich-Kabinett, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen (inv. no. C 4003). Image © Kupferstich-Kabinett Dresden; photo: Herbert Boswank 5

1.5 Albrecht Dürer, Cliff Landscape with Wanderer (ca. 1490/1495). Pen and brown black ink, 22.5 × 31.6 cm. Vienna, Albertina (inv. no. 3055). Image © Albertina, Vienna 6

1.6 Joachim Patinir, Landscape with St. Jerome (ca. 1520–1524). Oil on wood, 74 × 91 cm. Madrid, Museo del Prado (inv. no. 1614). Image © akg-images/Erich Lessing 9

1.7 Giovanni Bellini, St. Jerome in the Wilderness (ca. 1480). Oil on wood, 151 × 113 cm. Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi, Contini Bonacossi Collection (inv. no. C.B. 25). Image © akg-images/Rabatti & Domingie 10

1.8 Adriaen Collaert after Jan van der Straet, Plate 4, “Ferdinand Magellan on His Ship”, from Americae Retectio (ca. 1589). Engraving, 20.9 × 27.4 cm. London, The British Museum (inv. no. 1869,0213.224). Image © The British Museum, London 13

1.9 Jan Collaert the Younger after Jan van der Straet, Plate 2, “The Invention of the Magnetic Compass”, from Nova Reperta (ca. 1590). Engraving, 20.5 × 26.8 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-1904–1029). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 14

1.10 Jan Collaert the Younger after Jan van der Straet, Plate 18, “Amerigo Vespucci Discovering the Southern Cross”, from Nova Reperta (ca. 1580–1605). Engraving, 19.9 × 27.9 cm. London, The British Museum (inv. no. 1907,1121.5). Image © The British Museum, London 15

1.11 Anon. engraver after Jan van der Straet, Plate 7, “Distillatio”, from Nova Reperta (ca. 1590). Engraving, 20.4 × 26.8 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-1944–1037). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 16

2.1 Castle of the Bishop of Cavaillon, Vaucluse. Image © Public Domain (pixabay) 36

2.2 Petrarch, “My most pleasant transalpine solitude”, i.e. in Vaucluse. Pen drawing by Petrarch himself in his manuscript of Pliny the Elder, Naturalis historia (to book XVIII, paragraph 190) fol. 143r. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Ms. Lat. 6802). Image © BNF, Paris http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b90679875/f154.item 37

2.3 Photograph of the Fontaine de Vaucluse, Well of the Muses. Image © Public Domain (pixabay) 40

2.4 Photograph of rocky hills with pine trees around the Fontaine de Vaucluse. Image © Public Domain (pixabay) 40

2.5 Anon. artist, “Petrarch and Apollo Sitting at the Well of the Muses”. Illumination, 20 × 12 cm, in the Canzoniere manuscript written by Bartolomeo Sanvito, Padua (ca. 1500–1510). Cologny, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana, MS. 130, fol. 10v. Image © e-codices.unifr.ch (CC BY-NC 4.0) http://www.e-codices.unifr.ch/de/list/one/fmb/cb-0130 43

2.6 Photograph of Notre-Dame-de-Fontaine-de-Vaucluse. Image © Public Domain (pixabay) 51

2.7 Photograph of Mount Colzim near the Gulf of Suez with the monastery of St. Antonius. Image © Bertold Werner (GNU Free Documentation License) 56

2.8 Postcard showing the Oak of Mamre (1903). Image © Public Domain 60

3.1 Philips Galle after Maarten van Heemskerck, Portrait of Cornelius Musius (ca. 1604–1606). Engraving, 16.8 × 11.7 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. No. RP-P-1906–2444). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 83

3.2 Photograph of the monastery of St. Agatha, Delft. Image © Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, Amersfort 84

3.3 Coenraet Decker (engraver), “The Convent of St. Agatha and the Prinsenhof in Delft”, in Dirck van Bleyswijk, Beschryvinge der stadt Delft (Delft, Arnold Bon: 1667). Engraving, 18 × 27.1 cm. Delft, University of Technology (TR 536422). Image © University of Technology, Delft 85

3.4 Photograph of the entrance port of the Certosa di Pisa with the inscription ‘O beata solitudo/ O sola beatitudo’. Image © ghoulsguides.com 86

5.1 Johann Ulrich Kraus (engraver), Plate 42, “Alt-Schleissheim”, in Anton Wilhelm Ertl, Chur- Bayerischer Atlas […] (Nuremberg, Peter Paul Bleul: 1687). Engraving, 8.2 × 14.2 cm. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavar. 759–1). Image © Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich 145

5.2 Detail of Fig. 5.1: The chapel of St. William 145

5.3 Peter Candid, Vision of St. William of Malavalle (ca. 1600). Oil on canvas, 306.5 × 174.5 cm. Munich, Bayerische Verwaltung der staatlichen Schlösser, Gärten und Seen, Nymphenburg, Marstalldepot (inv. no. SAS-G-0001). Image © Bayerische Verwaltung der staatlichen Schlösser, Gärten und Seen, Munich 148

5.4 Anon. painter, The Vision of La Storta (1611). Oil on canvas, 182.5 × 132 cm. Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen (inv. no. 10212). Image © bpk/Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Munich 150

5.5 Anon. engraver, Chapel of St. Renatus, in Felix Milensius, Alphabetum de monachis e monasteriis Germaniae ac Sarmatiae citerioris (Prague, Caspar Kargesius: 1613) 269. Engraving, 15.6 × 11.2 cm. Ghent, University Library (BIB.HIST.009165). Image © University Library, Ghent 152

5.6 Michael Wening (engraver), The ‘Wilhelminische Veste’, from Historico-topographica descriptio. Das ist: Beschreibung deß Churfürsten- und Hertzogthumbs Ober- und Nidern Bayrn (Munich, Johann Lucas Straub: 1701). Engraving, 27 × 68.5 cm. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Hbks/F 18–1). Image © Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich 155

5.7 Jan I and Raphael I Sadeler after Maarten de Vos, Title page to Sylvae sacrae (1594). Engraving, 16.8 × 20.3 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-OB-60.276). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 160

5.8 Jan I and Raphael I Sadeler, “Paragramma”, from Sylvae sacrae (1594). Engraving, 16.8 × 20 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-OB-60.275). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 161

5.9 Jan I and Raphael I Sadeler after Maarten de Vos, Plate 1, “Chariton”, from Sylvae sacrae (1594). Engraving, 16.6 × 20 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-OB-60.277). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 163

5.10 Jan I and Raphael I Sadeler after Maarten de Vos, Plate 9, “Cyriac”, from Sylvae sacrae (1594). Engraving, 16.6 × 19.8 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-OB-60.285). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 164

5.11 Jan I and Raphael I Sadeler after Maarten de Vos, Plate 8, “Blasius”, from Sylvae sacrae (1594). Engraving, 16.3 × 19.8 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-OB-60.284). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 165

5.12 Jan I and Raphael I Sadeler after Maarten de Vos, Plate 5, “Fulgentius”, from Sylvae sacrae (1594). Engraving, 16.4 × 20 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-OB-60.281). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 166

5.13 Jan I and Raphael I Sadeler after Maarten de Vos, Plate 13, “Bavo”, from Sylvae sacrae (1594). Engraving, 16.8 × 19.8 × cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-OB-60.289). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 167

5.14 Jan I and Raphael I Sadeler after Maarten de Vos, Plate 17, “Friardus”, from Sylvae sacrae (1594). Engraving, 16.5 × 19.8 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-OB-60.293). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 168

5.15 Jan I and Raphael I Sadeler after Maarten de Vos, Plate 27, “William of Malavalle”, from Sylvae sacrae (1594). Engraving, 16.5 × 20 cm. Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (inv. no. RP-P-OB-60.303). Image © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 169

6.1 Maestro dell’Albero della Vita, Lignum vitae (1342 or 1347). Fresco. Bergamo, Santa Maria Maggiore. Image © Raphaèle Preisinger 185

6.2 Pacino di Bonaguida, Lignum vitae (1310–1320). Tempera on wood, 248 × 151 cm. Florence, Accademia delle Belle Arti (inv. no. 8459). Image © Ministero dei beni e delle attività culturali e del turismo 186

6.3 Detail of Fig. 6.1: Scenes from the Life of Christ 187

6.4 Taddeo Gaddi, Lignum vitae (ca. 1330–1366). Fresco, ca. 11.20 × 11.70 m. Florence, Museo dell’Opera di Santa Croce. Image © Ministero dei beni e delle attività culturali e del turismo 189

6.5 Detail of Fig. 6.4: Lignum vitae-scheme 190

6.6 Detail of Fig. 6.4: Stigmatisation of St. Francis 192

6.7 Detail of Fig. 6.4: Rescue of St. Benedict on Easter Day 193

6.8 Detail of Fig. 6.4: St. Louis of Toulouse Tending the Poor 194

6.9 Anon. artist, Fragment of a Lignum vitae (1302–1303). Fresco, ca. 431 × 281 cm. Padua, Basilica di Sant’Antonio, room adjacent to the chapter house. Image © Raphaèle Preisinger 196

6.10 Anon. artist, Fragment of a Lignum vitae sancti Francisci, condition before the temporary removal and conservation (1302–1309). Fresco, ca. 1160 × 672 cm. Padua, Basilica di Sant’Antonio, room adjacent to the chapter house. Image © Fototeca Centro Studi Antoniani, Padua 197

6.11 Maestro dell’Annunciazione (Maestro del Redentore?), Fragment of a Lignum vitae sancti Francisci (1310–1320). Fresco, ca. 590 × 637 cm. Verona, San Fermo Maggiore. Image © Raphaèle Preisinger 198

6.12 Anon. artist, Lignum sancti Dominici, condition before the flood of 1966 and subsequent removal and conservation (second half of the fourteenth century). Fresco. Florence, Santa Maria Novella, Chiostro Verde. Image © Ministero dei beni e delle attività culturali e del turismo 200

6.13 Anon. artist, Lignum sancti Dominici (second half of the fourteenth century). Fresco. Florence, Santa Maria Novella, Chiostro Verde. Detail with St. Dominic. Image © Raphaèle Preisinger 201

6.14 Anon. artist, Lignum sancti Dominici (second half of the fourteenth century). Fresco. Florence, Santa Maria Novella, Chiostro Verde. Detail with Scenes from the Life of St. Dominic. Image © Raphaèle Preisinger 202

7.1 Anton Wierix the Younger, Title page to Cor Jesu amanti sacrum (ca. 1586). Engraving, 93 × 59 cm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (inv. no. A 1269). Image © Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels 216

7.2 Anton Wierix the Younger, “Sat est, IESU, vulnerasti”, from Cor Jesu amanti sacrum (ca. 1586). Engraving, 92 × 57 cm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (inv. no. A 1280). Image © Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels 217

7.3 Anton Wierix the Younger, “Dum scrutaris in lucernis”, from Cor Jesu amanti sacrum (ca. 1586). Engraving, 93 × 58 cm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (inv. no. A 1273). Image © Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels 218

7.4 Anton Wierix the Younger, “En armatas flammis tendit”, from Cor Jesu amanti sacrum (ca. 1586). Engraving, 93 × 57 cm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (inv. no. A 1275). Image © Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels 219

7.5 Anton Wierix the Younger, “Bone IESU, fontes fluant”, from Cor Jesu amanti sacrum (ca. 1586). Engraving, 98 × 57 cm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (inv. no. A 1279). Image © Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels 220

7.6 Anton Wierix the Younger, “Sunt auscultent qui Platoni”, from Cor Jesu amanti sacrum (ca. 1586). Engraving, 92 × 56 cm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (inv. no. A 1281). Image © Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels 221

7.7 Anton Wierix the Younger, “Cor exulta, quid moraris?”, from Cor Jesu amanti sacrum (ca. 1586). Engraving, 93 × 57 cm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (inv. no. A 1282). Image © Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels 222

7.8 Anton Wierix the Younger, “Pulsa chordas, sonet chelys”, from Cor Jesu amanti sacrum (ca. 1586). Engraving, 93 × 58 cm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (inv. no. A 1283). Image © Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels 223

7.9 Anton Wierix the Younger, “Sume IESU penicilla”, from Cor Jesu amanti sacrum (ca. 1586). Engraving, 93 × 58 cm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (inv. no. A 1284). Image © Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels 224

7.10 Anton Wierix the Younger, “Quis hic vultum non serenet?”, from Cor Jesu amanti sacrum (ca. 1586). Engraving, 93 × 58 cm. Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium (inv. no. A 1285). Image © Royal Library of Belgium, Brussels 225

7.11 Boetius a Bolswert, Emblem 16, “Concupivit anima mea desiderare iustificationes tuas”, in Hugo Herman, Pia desideria (Antwerp, Henri Aertssen: 1624). Engraving, 8°. Louvain-la-Neuve, University Library (AL 15946). Image © University Library, Louvain-la-Neuve 235

7.12 Theodoor Galle, Imago Decima, “Cor Agno et annulo signatum in cultum pignoris gloriae conferendae a Redemptore”, in Pedro Bivero, Sacrum Oratorium (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana Balthasaris Moreti: 1634). Engraving, 4°. Louvain-la-Neuve, University Library (A 90321). Image © University Library, Louvain-la-Neuve 237

8.1 Theodoor Galle (?), Title page to Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 243

8.2 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Title page to Jan David, Veridicus Christianus (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1601). Engraving, 4°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.223). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 244

8.3 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Title page to Jan David, Occasio arrepta, neglecta. Huis commoda, illius incommoda (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1605). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case Y 682.D28). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 245

8.4 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Title page to Jan David, Duodecim specula Deum aliquando videre desideranti concinnata (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1610). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.216). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 246

8.5 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Frontispiece, “Reciprocal Invitation of the Bride and Bridegroom to their Respective Gardens”, in Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae […] (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 248

8.6 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Emblem 47, “Deposition from the Cross”, in Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae […] (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 250

8.7 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Emblem 6, “Mother of Holy Hope”, in Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae […] (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 251

8.8 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Emblem 2, “Trembling in the Garden”, in Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae […] (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 253

8.9 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Emblem 3, “Angelic Consolation”, in Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae […] (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 258

8.10 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Emblem 4, “Bloody Sweat”, in Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae […] (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 263

8.11 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Emblem 28, “Carrying of the Cross”, in Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae […] (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 268

8.12 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Emblem 29, “Simon of Cyrene”, in Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae […] (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 272

8.13 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Emblem 30, “Lamentation of the Women of Jerusalem”, in Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 277

8.14 Theodoor Galle and workshop of Philips Galle, Emblem 31, “Veronica, that is, Berenice”, in Jan David, Paradisus sponsi et sponsae (Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Ioannem Moretum: 1607; reprint ed., Antwerp, Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Balthasarem et Ioannem Moretos fratres: 1618). Engraving, 8°. Chicago, IL, The Newberry Library (Case W 1025.22). Image © The Newberry Library, Chicago, IL 281

9.1 Giovanni Bellini, St. Francis in the Desert (ca. 1475–1480). Tempera and oil on poplar panel, 124.4 × 141.9 cm. New York, NY, The Frick Collection (inv. no. 1915.1.03). Image © The Frick Collection, New York, NY 294

9.2 Jacopo Bellini, Stigmatization of St. Francis (ca. 1430–1455). Brown ink on paper, 38 × 26 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre D.A.G. (inv. no. 83–001093/ RF1533-81-folio65). Image © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée du Louvre)/Gérard Blot 298

9.3 Valentin Lefebre after Titian Vecellio, Madonna of the Pesaro Family (1682). Engraving, 53.9 × 29 cm. London, British Museum (inv. no. Nn,7.30.1). Image © The Trustees of the British Museum 302

9.4 Anon. artist, “Singing Monks”, in Franchino Gaffori, Practica Musicae (Venice, Agostino Zani: 1512). Woodcut, 2°. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (2 Mus.th 196). Image © Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich 303

9.5 Giovanni Bellini, St. Jerome in the Desert (ca. 1475–1480). Oil on wood, 151 × 113 cm. Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi (inv. no. C.B. 25). Image © akg-images/Rabatti & Domingie 305

10.1 Onorio Lunghi (architect), Chapel of Fra Mariano Fetti (1524–1527). Rome, San Silvestro al Quirinale. Image © Bibliotheca Hertziana 312

10.2 Polidoro da Caravaggio, Landscape with Scenes from the Life of Mary Magdalene (1524–1527). Fresco and other technique, 205 × 170 cm. Rome, San Silvestro al Quirinale, Chapel of Fra Mariano Fetti. Image © Bibliotheca Hertziana 313

10.3 Polidoro da Caravaggio, Landscape with Scenes from the Life of Catherine of Siena (1524–1527). Fresco and other technique, 205 × 170 cm. Rome, San Silvestro al Quirinale, Chapel of Fra Mariano Fetti. Image © Bibliotheca Hertziana 314

10.4 Fra Bartolomeo, God the Father with Mary Magdalen and Catherine of Siena (1508–1509). Oil on wood, 361 × 236 cm (inv. no. 88). Lucca, Museo Nazionale di Villa Guinigi. Image © Ministero dei Beni e della Attività Culturali e del Turismo 317

10.5 Detail of Fig. 10.3: Mystical marriage of Catherine of Siena 328

10.6 Detail of Fig. 10.3: Catherine of Siena before Pope Urban VI 329

10.7 Anon. engraver after Baldassare Peruzzi, The Vision of St. Bernard of Clairvaux (ca. 1550). Engraving, 20 × 13.6 cm. Rome, Istituto Centrale per la Grafica di Roma (inv. no. FC 31573). Image © Ministero dei Beni e della Attività Culturali e del Turismo 331

10.8 Fra Bartolomeo, The Vision of Bernard of Clairvaux (1504–1507). Oil on wood, 215 × 231 cm. Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi (inv. no. 3122). Image © Ministero dei Beni e della Attività Culturali e del Turismo 332

10.9 Etienne Dupérac, Nova Urbis Romae Descriptio (1577). Etching and Engraving, 79.4 × 100.7 cm. London, British Library (*23805(8)). Detail with the gardens of San Silvestro al Quirinale. Image © British Library, London 333

11.1 Pietro Francesco Petera, Giovanni Soldo of Camasco, Dionigi Bussola (sculptures) and Montaldo Brothers ‘Danedi’ (frescoes), Transfiguration Chapel (ca. 1572–1675). Polychromed sculpture and other media. Varallo, Sacro Monte. Detail of lower half of chapel without the viewing screen. Image © Riserva Naturale Speciale del Sacro Monte di Varallo 337

11.2 Pietro Francesco Petera, Giovanni Soldo of Camasco, Dionigi Bussola (sculptures) and Montaldo Brothers ‘Danedi’ (frescoes), Transfiguration Chapel (ca. 1572–1675). Polychromed sculpture and other media. Varallo, Sacro Monte. Detail of upper half of chapel without the viewing screen. Image © Riserva Naturale Speciale del Sacro Monte di Varallo 338

11.3 Galeazzo Alessi (designer), Exterior of the Transfiguration Chapel (ca. 1572–1664). Varallo, Sacro Monte. Image © Riserva Naturale Speciale del Sacro Monte di Varallo 340

11.4 Detail of Fig. 11.1: Left side of the Transfiguration Chapel 341

11.5 Detail of Fig. 11.1: Right side of the Transfiguration Chapel 342

11.6 Galeazzo Alessi, Vetriata for the Temptation Chapel, in Galeazzo Alessi, Libro dei Misteri (1565–1569) fol. 58r. Pen and ink on paper, 40.8 × 25.8 cm. Varallo, Biblioteca Civica “Farinone-Centa” di Varallo. Image © Biblioteca Civica di Varallo 348

11.7 Gaudenzio Sceti, Il Vero Ritratto di Sacro Monte di Varallo (ca. 1671). Etching, 36.1 × 25.7 cm. Archivio Civica Raccolta delle Stampe Achille Bertarelli (inv. no. P.V. m 30–48). Image © Archivio Bertarelli 349

11.8 Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio), The Transfiguration (ca. 1518–1520). Oil on wood, 410 × 279 cm. Vatican City, Pinacoteca Vaticana. Image © Scala/Art Resource 351

11.9 Galeazzo Alessi, Interior of the Transfiguration Chapel, in Libro dei Misteri (1565–1569) fol. 91r. Pen and ink on paper, 40.8 × 25.8 cm. Varallo, Biblioteca Civica “Farinone-Centa” di Varallo. Image © Biblioteca Civica di Varallo 355

11.10 Galeazzo Alessi, Viewing screen for the Transfiguration Chapel, in Libro dei Misteri (1565–1569) fol. 90r. Pen and ink on paper, 40.8 × 25.8 cm. Varallo, Biblioteca Civica “Farinone-Centa” di Varallo. Image © Biblioteca Civica di Varallo 357

11.11 Galeazzo Alessi, “A Drawing of the Figures of Purgatory”, in Libro dei Misteri (1565–1569) fol. 316r. Pen and ink on paper, 40.8 × 25.8 cm. Varallo, Biblioteca Civica “Farinone-Centa” di Varallo. Image © Biblioteca Civica di Varallo 358

12.1 Reconstruction of Justus of Ghent’s and Pedro Berruguete’s Famous Men (ca. 1474–1476) of the eastern wall of the studiolo of Federico da Montefeltro, Palazzo Ducale, Urbino. Image © Foto Moderna, Urbino 369

12.2 Reconstruction of Justus of Ghent’s and Pedro Berruguete’s Famous Men (ca. 1474–1476) of the northern and eastern walls of the studiolo of Federico da Montefeltro, Palazzo Ducale, Urbino. Image © Foto Moderna, Urbino 371

12.3 Justus of Ghent and Pedro Berruguete, Dante, painted for the studiolo of Federico da Montefeltro (ca. 1476). Oil on wood, 115 × 64.5 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre (inv. no. M.I. 648). Image © bpk/RMN-Grand Palais/Gérard Blot 375

12.4 Justus of Ghent and Pedro Berruguete, Petrarch, painted for the studiolo of Federico da Montefeltro (ca. 1476). Oil on wood, 111.2 × 57.9 cm. Urbino, Galleria Nazionale delle Marche (inv. no. 1990 D 45). Image © bpk/Scala 376

12.5 Justus of Ghent and Pedro Berruguete, Bessarion, painted for the studiolo of Federico da Montefeltro (ca. 1476). Oil on wood, 116 × 56.1 cm. Paris, Musée du Louvre (inv. no. M.I. 646). Image © bpk/RMN-Grand Palais/Gérard Blot 378

12.6 Workshop of Giuliano da Maiano, Federico da Montefeltro (ca. 1474). Wooden intarsia. Urbino, Palazzo Ducale, northern wall of the studiolo of Federico da Montefeltro. Image © Soprintendenza per i Beni Artistici e Storici delle Marche 388

12.7 Workshop of Giuliano da Maiano, Charity (ca. 1474). Wooden intarsia. Urbino, Palazzo Ducale, west wall of the studiolo of Federico da Montefeltro. Image © Soprintendenza per i Beni Artistici e Storici delle Marche 389

12.8 Piero della Francesca, Front and back of the diptych of Federico da Montefeltro and his wife Battista Sforza (ca. 1472–1474). Tempera on wood, 47 × 33 cm (each panel). Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi (inv. nos. 1890, 3342). Image © Galleria degli Uffizi/Studio Decouard. Photomontage: Christiane Hessler 396

12.9 Anon. artist (Altichiero?), Petrarch in His Study, painted for the ʻSala Virorum Illustriumʼ (or ʻSala dei Gigantiʼ) (1367–1379). Fresco. Siena, Palazzo Carrara. Image © Soprintendenza per i Beni Storici, Artistici per le Province di Venezia, Belluno, Padova e Treviso 399

12.10 Workshop of Evrard d’Espinques, “King Arthur Discovers Lancelot’s Paintings in the Prison Cell”, in Lancelot du Lac (compilation of various Arthurian romances, manuscript, written by Micheau Gonnot, Nemours, ca. 1470) fol. 193v. Miniature on parchment, 43 × 30 cm (page). Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Ms. fr. 112(3)). Image © Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris 401

13.1 Jean-Charles Hugue the Elder, Plan of the Casina Pio IV, in Paul Marie Letarouilly, Le Vatican et la basilique de Saint Pierre de Rome (Paris, Vve A. Morel et Cie, Éditeurs: 1882), vol. 2, Plate 12. Rome, Royal Dutch Institute (52.523 I36). Image © KNIR 415

13.2 Giovanni Lanfranco, St. Mary Magdalen Rising up to Heaven (ca. 1616). Oil on canvas, 109 × 78 cm. Naples, Museo di Capodimonte (inv. no. 341). Image © Luciano Pedicini 418

13.3 Philippe de Champaigne and workshop, St. Benedict nourished by His Disciple Romain (ca. 1655–1656). Oil on canvas, 108 × 149 cm. Brussels, Musees Royaux des Beaux Arts (inv. no. 26). Image © Koninklijke Musea voor Schone Kunsten van België, Brussels; photo: J. Geleyns—Ro scan 420

13.4 Anon. artist, Coupe de l’Hermitage du Palais Colonna (ca. 1687). Pen and wash on paper, 41 × 27 cm. Stockholm, Nationalmuseum (inv. no. THC 371). Image © Nationalmuseum, Stockholm 422

13.5 Anon. artist, Plan de l’Hermitage de Palais Colonna (ca. 1687). Pen and wash on paper, 28 × 40 cm. Stockholm, Nationalmuseum (inv. no. THC 370). Image © Nationalmuseum, Stockholm 423

13.6 Jacob Wilhelm Heckenauer, Hermitage in the Gardens of Schloss Salzdahlum (1706). Etching, 17 × 22 cm. Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum (inv. no. 6700). Image © Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum, Braunschweig 424

13.7 Ferdinando Fuga, Project for the Passionei Hermitage at Frascati (1739). Pen, brown ink, and wash on paper, 36 × 52 cm. Rome, Istituto Centrale per la Grafica (inv. no. FN 13901). Image © Istituto Centrale per la Grafica, Rome 426

13.8 Pier Leone Ghezzi, Caricature of Cardinal Passionei (1740) fol. 1. Pen and ink on paper. Vatican City, Vatican Library (inv. no. BAV Ottoboni Lat. 3118). Image © 2016 Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana 428

13.9 John Vardy, Section of the hermitage at Richmond, in John Vardy, Some Designs of M. Inigo Jones and Mr. Wm. Kent (London, John Vardy: 1744) plate 33. Etching, 43.4 × 28.4 cm (paper size). London, Royal Institute of British Architects (EW 1629). Image © RIBA, London 431

13.10 Friedrich August Krubsacius, Wahrscheinlicher Grundriß von des Plinius Landhauß und Garten Laurens genannt (ca. 1760). Pen, ink, and wash on paper, 48 × 68 cm. Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek (inv. no. Archaeol.177,6). Image © SLUB Dresden/Deutsche Fotothek/André Rous 432

13.11 Anon. artist, “Plan of the semicircular portico of the Villa Albani”, in Gaetano Quojani, Calcografia degli Edifizi di Roma (Rome, Gaetano Quojani: 1779), vol. 1, plate 36. Etching, 21 × 28 cm. Rome, Bibliotheca Hertziana (Dg 536–3791/1 raro). Image © Bibliotheca Hertziana, Rome 434

13.12 Anon. artist, Plan of the Winter Palace (mid-nineteenth century). Pen, indian ink, and watercolour on paper, 44 × 57 cm. St. Petersburg, Hermitage Museum (inv. no. OP-14454). Detail with the plan of the Small Hermitage. Image © The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg; photo: Pavel Demidov 437

15.1 Anon. artisans, Cabinet with mirror and chinoiseries (ca. 1750). Bayreuth, Hermitage, Old Palace, western wall. Image © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung, Munich; photo: Achim Bunz 481

15.2 Adam Rudolf Albini (plasterer), Detail of the ceiling of the cabinet (ca. 1750). Sculpted Soapstone and Painting, 4.25 × 4.29 m. Bayreuth, Hermitage, Old Palace. Image © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung, Munich; photo: Achim Bunz 482

15.3 François Mansart (architect), Michel Corneille (painter), and anon. artisans, Mirror Cabinet (ca. 1650). Maisons-Lafitte, Château de Maisons, Apartment in Italian style (appartement à l’italienne). Image © Centre des monuments nationaux; photo: Pascal Lemaître 484

15.4 Jules Hardouin-Mansart (architect) and Charles Le Brun (artist), Mirror Hall (1678–1686). Versailles, Palace of Versailles, State apartment, view from the Salon de la Guerre towards the Salon de la Paix. Image © RMN-Grand Palais (Château de Versailles) 485

15.5 Johann Friedrich Eosander (architect) and anon. artisans, Mirror and Porcelain Cabinet (1701–1706). Berlin, Charlottenburg Palace, Parade- and living rooms of King Frederik I, overall view, before destruction. Image © Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten Berlin-Brandenburg/Bildarchiv, Oberhofmarschallamt/Verwaltung der Staatlichen Schlösser und Gärten (1927–1945) 487

15.6 Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (architect) and Johann August Nahl (sculptor, plasterer), Golden Gallery (1740–1746), Berlin, Charlottenburg Palace, new wing. Image © Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten Berlin-Brandenburg/Bildarchiv; photo: Leo Seidel 488

15.7 Leopold Retti (architect) and anon. artisans, Mirror Cabinet (ca. 1740), Ansbach, Ansbach Residence, state apartment. Image © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung, Munich; photo: Lucinde Weiss 491

15.8 Balthasar Neumann (architect), Johann Wolfgang von der Auwera (sculptor), Antonio Bossi (sculptor, plasterer), Johann Baptist Talhofer (painter), Anton Josef Högler (painter), Georg Anton Urlaub (painter), Mirror Cabinet (1740–1745). Würzburg, Würzburg Residence, Southern Imperial Rooms, Reconstruction (1979–1987). Image © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung, Munich; photo: Maria Custodis 492

15.9 Erich Bachmann, Plan of the Old Palace. Bayreuth, Hermitage. Image © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung, Munich 494

15.10 Anon. artisans, Cabinet with mirror and chinoiseries (ca. 1750). Bayreuth, Hermitage, Old Palace. Image © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung, Munich; photo: Achim Bunz 499

15.11 Johann David Rantz (architect), Southern wing of the Old Palace (1715–1718). Bayreuth, Hermitage. Image © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung, Munich; photo: Achim Bunz 501

15.12 Johann David Rantz (architect) and anon. artisans, Grotto (1715–1723), Bayreuth, Hermitage, Old Palace. Image © Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung, Munich; photo: Achim Bunz 502

15.13 Antoine Pesne, Markgräfin Wilhelmine von Brandenburg-Bayreuth in Pilgertracht (ca. 1750). Oil on canvas, 145 × 111 cm. Potsdam, Sanssouci. Image © Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten Berlin-Brandenburg/Bildarchiv 505

17.1 Anon. artist, Commentary to Emblem 83, “Sylva placet Musis”, in Joachim Camerarius, Symbolorum et emblematum […] ex volatilibus et insectis desumtorum centuria tertia (Nuremberg, Johann Hofmann: 1596), fol. 82v. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Res/L.eleg.m 1347 w-3). Image © Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich, retrieved from https://bildsuche.digitale-sammlungen.de/index.html?c=viewer&bandnummer=bsb00028235&pimage=172&v=100&nav=&l=nl (CreativeCommons) 532

17.2 Hans Siebmacher, “Passer solitarius”, in Joachim Camerarius, Symbolorum et emblematum […] ex volatilibus et insectis desumtorum centuria tertia (Nuremberg, Johann Hofmann: 1596), fol. 83r. Engraving. 4°. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Res/L.eleg.m 1347 w-3). Image © Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich, retrieved from https://bildsuche.digitale-sammlungen.de/index.html?c=viewer&bandnummer=bsb00028235&pimage=173&v=100&nav=&l=nl (CreativeCommons) 532

17.3 Anon. engraver, “Alpine Accentor”, in Pierre Belon du Mans, Histoire de la nature des oyseaux […] (Paris, Guillaume Cavellat: 1555) 323. Woodcut, 2°. Los Angeles, CA, The Research Library at the Getty Research Institute (QL673.B45 1555). Image © Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/gri_33125008413490#page/n353/mode/2up 546

17.4 Anon. engraver, “Blue Rock Thrush”, in Conrad Gessner, Historiae animalium liber III., qui est de avium natura (Zurich, Froschauer: 1555) 584. Woodcut, 2°. Zurich, Zentralbibliothek (VD 16 G 1730, Vischer C 505). Image © Zentralbibliothek, Zurich, retrieved from http://www.e-rara.ch/zuz/content/pageview/2120636 (CreativeCommons) 548

17.5 Anon. engraver, “Alpine Accentor”, in Conrad Gessner, Historiae animalium liber III., qui est de avium natura (Zurich, Froschauer: 1555) 701. Woodcut, 2°. Zurich, Zentralbibliothek (VD 16 G 1730, Vischer C 505). Image © Zentralbibliothek, Zurich, retrieved from http://www.e-rara.ch/zuz/content/pageview/2120753 (CreativeCommons) 549

17.6 Anon. engraver, “Avis kyburgensis (Alpine Accentor)”, in Conrad Gessner, Historiae animalium liber III., qui est de avium natura (Frankfurt: Johannes Wechel: 1585) 79[7]. Woodcut, 2°. Halle, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt (G 1731). Image © Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt, Halle, retrieved from http://digitale.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/vd16/content/pageview/7240758 (CreativeCommons) 550

17.7 Anon. artist, “Passera solitaria”, in Giovanni Pietro Olina, Uccelliera overo discorso della natura e proprieta di diversi uccelli (Rome, Andrea Fei: 1622) fol. 13v. Etching, 4°. Göttingen, Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek (4 ZOOL IX, 2690 RARA). Image © Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek, Göttingen, retrieved from http://dfg-viewer.de/show/?tx_dlf%5Bpage%5D=38&tx_dlf%5Bid%5D=http%3A%2F%2Fgdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de%2Fmets_export.php%3FPPN%3DPPN479740488&tx_dlf%5Bdouble%5D=0&cHash=f4080699e0071082baade85e5c0d0f23 (CreativeCommons) 552

17.8 Dionisio Minaggio, “Paser Salutari”, Title page to Dionisio Minaggio, The Feather Book (1618). Feathers, 30.5 × 47.6 cm. Montreal, McGill University Library. Rare Books and Special Collections (folio ORHQ M66 cutter). Image © McGill University Library, Montreal, retrieved from Wikimedia Commons: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Feather_Book_of_Dionisio_Minaggio#/media/File:The_Feather_Book_of_Dionisio_Minaggio_-_title_page.JPG (CreativeCommons) 553

Solitudo

Spaces, Places, and Times of Solitude in Late Medieval and Early Modern Cultures

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