List of Contributors

in High Seas Governance

List of Contributors

Robert Beckman

is the Head of the Ocean Law and Policy Programme and the former Director of the Centre for International Law (CIL). He is also an Associate Professor at the NUS Faculty of Law, an Adjunct Senior Fellow at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) at Nanyang Technological University, and a member of the National Executive Committee of CSCAP Singapore. Since 2009 he has lectured in the summer programme at the Rhodes Academy of Oceans Law and Policy in Rhodes, Greece, and he is a member of the Governing Board for the Rhodes Academy. He also lectures in the international maritime boundary workshops organised by CIL. He has published widely on ocean law and policy issues.

Aldo Chircop

(J.S.D., Dalhousie 1988) is Professor of Law and Canada Research Chair (Tier I) in Maritime Law and Policy at Dalhousie University, based at the Marine & Environmental Law Institute (MELAW, Schulich School of Law). He is also a researcher at the Ocean Frontier Institute, a faculty member at the International Development Studies Programme, and a research fellow at the Centre for the Study of Security and Sustainable Development. In 1988–92 he held directorships of the Mediterranean Institute (University of Malta) and International Ocean Institute, and was a member of Malta’s delegation to the Preparatory Commission established by the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. On joining Dalhousie in 1992, he was Director of the Marine Affairs Program until 2001. In 2003–05 he held the Canadian Chair in Marine Environmental Protection at the IMO’s World Maritime University, Sweden. Professor Chircop has published extensively on the law of the sea, maritime law and coastal management fields. His most recent book is Canadian Maritime Law (Aldo Chircop, William Moreira, Hugh Kindred and Edgar Gold (eds), Irwin Law 2016), and he is a co-editor of the Ocean Yearbook (Martinus Nijhoff). Professor Chircop’s research focuses on interstitial issues of the international law of the sea and maritime law, in particular the regulation of polar shipping, use of maritime regulatory tools for marine spatial planning and conservation, and development of Canadian maritime law. Among his several professional affiliations, Professor Chircop is a member of the Nova Scotia bar and Chair of the International Working Group on Polar Shipping of the Comité Maritime International.

Nicholas Gaskell

is Professor of Maritime and Commercial Law at the TC Beirne School of Law, University of Queensland and a member of its Marine and Shipping Law Unit (MASLU). Prof Gaskell previously worked for 33 years at the University of Southampton and its Institute of Maritime Law. He is a Barrister and Associate Tenant at Quadrant Chambers (London). For 15 years, he represented the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) at the International Maritime Organization’s Legal Committee and the IOPC Funds. He attended and participated in IMO Legal Committee and IMO diplomatic conferences, which resulted in international maritime law conventions, including the Salvage Convention 1989, 1992 Protocols to the CLC and Fund Convention, Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996, Limitation Convention (LLMC) 1996, Arrest Convention 1999, Bunker Pollution Convention 2001, Athens Convention 2002 and Nairobi Wreck Removal Convention 2007. He is a Titulary member of the Comité Maritime International (CMI) and a member of its International Working Group On ‘Unmanned Ships’. Prof. Gaskell has taught maritime law to governments, practitioners and students within the maritime legal and shipping professions both within Australia and internationally. He is a member of the editorial boards of Lloyd’s Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly, the International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law and Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce. Prof. Gaskell has authored/edited seven books, 41 book chapters and over 50 articles on maritime and commercial law, including maritime liabilities (e.g., collisions, salvage, wreck, passenger claims and limitation of liability); environmental claims (e.g., oil, bunker, chemical and nuclear pollution); carriage of goods by sea; and shipping regulation.

Günther Handl

is the Eberhard P. Deutsch Professor of Public International Law at Tulane University Law School. He holds law degrees from the University of Graz (Dr. iur.), Cambridge (LL.B.) and Yale (S.J.D.). He is the author of several books and many articles in the field of public international law, international environmental law, law of the sea and nuclear energy law. Professor Handl is the recipient of a number of awards, including the Prix Elisabeth Haub, 1997. He has served in an advisory capacity to governments and international organisations, including the United Nations Environment Programme, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank. He is Senior Project Consultant on ‘Policy and Law for Nuclear Safety and Security’ at the National University of Singapore.

Youna Lyons

is a bilingual former French litigator with more than 12 years of international practice in Asia and Europe. Passionate about the ocean, Ms. Lyons later studied oceanography and holds a Master’s degree in Marine Affairs from the University of Washington. She is a member of the CIL Ocean Law and Policy Programme and currently also pursuing a Ph.D. with the Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security at the University of Wollongong titled ‘Defining and Identifying Valuable and Sensitive Marine Areas in the South China Sea and States’ Obligations under International Law’. Her dual expertise in law and marine sciences uniquely positions her to integrate these fields for marine policy-making purposes and has led her to spearhead and coordinate several multidisciplinary research projects at CIL including the prospects for re-use of obsolete offshore installations as artificial reefs in Southeast Asia, sensitivity mapping for Singapore in the context of oil spill preparedness and response, and the mapping of shallow features in the South China Sea. Besides her Master’s degree in Marine Affairs, she also holds subject degrees in oceanography, an LL.M. and two Bachelor’s degrees from La Sorbonne in public and private international law and in procedural law respectively.

Millicent McCreath

is a member of the CIL Ocean Law and Policy Programme. She has an LL.M. (Law of the Sea) from the University of Tromsø, Norway, and a LL.B. (Hons)/B.A. (Environmental Studies) from the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. Millicent is admitted as a solicitor in New South Wales and completed her practical legal training at the Environmental Defenders Office, a public interest environmental law centre in Sydney. Prior to joining CIL Millicent was Tipstaff (judicial clerk) at the Land and Environment Court in Sydney, a specialist superior court with environment and planning jurisdiction. Her main research interests are focussed on marine environmental law and international dispute resolution.

Nilüfer Oral

is a member of the Law Faculty at Istanbul Bilgi University. She was elected to the United Nations International Law Commission for 2017–21. She is also Distinguished Senior Scholar at the Law of the Sea Institute, University of California Berkeley Law School, and was Scholar-In-Residence at the University of Virginia Law School in 2005. She has lectured on several occasions at the Rhodes Academy of Oceans Law and Policy. Dr. Oral was elected to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Council for Western Europe (2012–16) and is the IUCN Oceans Focal Point. She serves as Chair of the IUCN Academy on Environmental Law and Co-Chair of the Specialist Group on Oceans, Coasts and Coral Reefs for the IUCN World Commission on Environmental Law. Dr. Oral serves as a legal advisor to the Turkish Foreign Ministry on law of the sea and climate change and has participated in the Turkish delegation at the International Maritime Organization and as a negotiator at the climate change negotiations. She has also been involved as a legal expert in a number of projects with the Turkish Science Council on marine environmental issues, EU and UNDP. Dr. Oral is a member of the Board of Directors of the Jon Van Dyke Institute, Richardson School of Law, University of Hawai’i; the American Society of International Law; and the European Society of International Law. She is the editor of the International Straits of the World series (Brill/Nijhoff) and author of numerous other publications.

J. Ashley Roach

Captain, JAGC, US Navy (retired) was attorney adviser in the Office of the Legal Adviser, US Department of State, from 1988 until he retired in 2009, where he was responsible for law of the sea matters. Since 2014 he has been Visiting Senior Principal Research Fellow at CIL, where he has written, lectured and taught Arctic and other law of the sea issues in support of CIL’s Ocean Law and Policy Programme and CIL’s research programme for the Singapore Maritime and Port Authority. He has taught, advised and published extensively on national maritime claims and other law of the sea issues, including piracy and armed robbery at sea, at institutions such as the Rhodes Academy of Oceans Law and Policy. While at the State Department he negotiated and participated in the negotiation of numerous international agreements involving law of the sea issues. He received his LL.M. (highest honors in public international law and comparative law) from the George Washington University School of Law in 1971 and his J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1963.

Erik Røsæg

is a Professor at PluriCourts—Centre for the Study of the Legitimate Roles of the Judiciary in the Global Order, and is formerly the Director of the Scandinavian Institute of Maritime Law, University of Oslo. He teaches and writes in the fields of maritime law and third party interests in commercial law. He has been very involved in the negotiations of liability conventions at the IMO. He chairs the Norwegian Maritime Law Commission and has also chaired other committees preparing draft legislation. He has published extensively in national and international journals and books, and is frequently a speaker and consultant in a number of jurisdictions. He is currently involved in the Oslo Law of the Sea Forum and chairs the Arctic Committee of the University of Oslo.

Karen N. Scott

is Professor of Law at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand. Her research focuses on the law of the sea, the polar regions and international environmental law. She has published over 60 journal articles and book chapters in these areas, on issues such as ocean management, environmental governance, climate change and geoengineering. Recent publications include The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea (Donald R. Rothwell, Alex G. Oude Elferink, Karen N. Scott and Tim Stephens (eds), OUP 2015). Prof. Scott was the General Editor of the New Zealand Yearbook of International Law from 2009 to 2012 and remains a member of the Editorial Board. She was Vice President of the Australian and New Zealand Society of International Law (ANZSIL) from 2011 to 2016 and was Head of the School of Law from 2015 to 2018.

Zhen Sun

is a member of the CIL Ocean Law and Policy Programme, in which she focuses on legal issues in the Arctic and the protection of submarine cables. Her other research interests include maritime security, jurisdictional conflicts within the law of the sea, and international dispute resolution. She received her LL.B. from Hainan University Law School, an LL.M. in International Law from the China University of Political Science and Law, a further LL.M. (Distinction) in International Law from the University of Edinburgh, and a Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. She is admitted to the bar in the People’s Republic of China.

Robin Warner

is Professor and Deputy Director at the Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security (ANCORS), University of Wollongong, Australia. She was formerly Assistant Secretary of the International Crime Branch in the Attorney General’s Department from 2002 to 2007 and Director of International Law for the Australian Defence Force from 1997 to 1999. Her research interests include law of the sea, oceans governance, marine environmental law, climate law, and maritime regulation and enforcement. She is the author of Protecting the Oceans Beyond National Jurisdiction: Strengthening the International Law Framework (Martinus Nijhoff 2009), lead editor (with Simon Marsden) of Transboundary Environmental Governance: Inland Coastal and Marine Perspectives (Ashgate 2012), lead editor (with Clive Schofield) of Climate Change and the Oceans: Gauging the Legal and Policy Currents in the Asia Pacific (Edward Elgar 2012) and lead editor (with Stuart Kaye) of the Routledge Handbook of Maritime Regulation and Enforcement (Routledge 2015). Since becoming a full time academic in 2007, she has published over 70 books, journal articles, book chapters and other publications.

High Seas Governance

Gaps and Challenges


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