Index

Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations. Page numbers followed by a t refer to tables. Sites, cities and regions outside Benin are, whenever possible, qualified by name of country in parenthesis.

Abdoulaye, Emir of Gwamdu18, 56Abdu Cuka56Abomey169Acacia macrostachya92Acacia nilotica287Achatinidae241Adansonia digitata (baobab)92, 218, 227, 229, 231, 232, 233Adanson’s mud turtle (Pelusios adansonii)248Ader (Niger)187adobe bricks70mud bricksAfrican birch (Anogeissus leiocarpa)38, 92, 235, 239African rice (Oryza glaberrima)134, 218, 219, 227, 227, 230, 231–232, 238, 253, 292agroforestry parklands234, 235, 238, 239, 292agursa23Akumbu (Mali)285Alibori (ALB 1)excavationin general532, 533, 534interpretation535sections534mention43, 45, 47radiocarbon dates535settlement22site532stratigraphy532, 534Alibori (ALB 2)crops230excavationin general535, 536interpretation539sections536, 538, 539mention43, 47pavements124, 538radiocarbon dates21, 540settlement22site535, 537stratigraphy133, 539, 539Alibori River37, 38, 41, 43, 294survey area45, 47–49, 48Allada130amphibians248animal remains251amphibians248analysis241as food refuse250birds248, 251fish241, 246–248, 250–251, 252identification242–247 tmammalsdomesticated249–250, 251–252, 292wild248–249, 251marine shells241, 252, 292reptiles248Anogeissus leiocarpa (African birch)38, 92, 235, 239Ansongo (Mali)286anthracology.wood charcoalantilopes249aquatic fauna, exploration133, 250–251archaeobotanical remainsDendicropsAfrican rice134, 218, 219, 227–228, 227, 230, 231–232, 238, 253, 292baobab92, 218, 227, 229, 231, 232, 233changes through time230–232, 231 tcotton218, 227, 228–229, 232, 233cowpea218–219, 228, 230fonio millet219, 231incense tree227, 229–230, 230 t, 231, 232 –233oil palm218, 229–230, 230 t, 232, 233pearl millet134, 218, 219, 230, 231, 232, 292sorghum134, 218, 219, 228, 230, 231, 232, 292trade232undetermined seeds and nuts230flotation sampling methodsarchaeobotanical survey216exploratory sampling216index trench217sample analysis217–218samples collected218–225 t, 219, 226archaeological landscapeDendiin general294Crossroads project surveys2012–201343, 44201443–44aim of42field walking strategy used in42, 43first42–43Niger Valley Survey Projectaim of44–45areas surveyed45, 45artefacts collected by46–48collection units46, 47distribution of sites in49field walking strategy used in44, 45–46size of sites in48, 48, 49presence of mounds in42surveys, early41–42archaeologyAtakora region25Chaîne de Gobnangou24dallols region23Dendicompared284–288and emerging West African themes288–293known before Crossroads project41as terra incognita3 archaeological landscapegap between memory and57Ghana288Kainji region24–25Niger River284–288Nigeria288–290and oral historical inquiries26, 27Parc W24Sokoto River region25surface93architecture/architectural remainsBirni Lafiaanalogies between Birnin Lafiya site and71–72analysis of urban form60–61birni61, 63, 72building typesin general64, 66circular structures66rectangular structures67regular elements66–67, 69singular elements67, 69cartography methodology60, 61compounds60, 61, 64, 67, 70construction techniques70development63open spaces61, 62, 64, 66road systems62, 64urban fabricdescription60–61transformations67, 69–70, 70Birnin Lafiyain general113–115, 115analogies between Birni Lafia and71–72associated with potsherd pavements101, 113, 129birni , absence99–100, 297compound wall72, 121, 128curvilinear form128function129geophysical surveys100–101, 113living spaces101, 101map116mud structures121, 122, 123, 128–129pavements.pavementspitsin general297laterite/clay-lined296–297, 494, 496raised92–93rectangular structural remains69, 101roof structures128, 239Room 111 6, 117, 118, 119, 120, 128, 488, 489–490, 4 91, 492Room 2118, 120, 128, 488, 490–491, 494Room 3119–120, 490, 491Room 4118, 119–120, 490, 491Room 5117, 119–120, 490, 49 1, 492Room 6121, 121, 491, 493, 494Room 7121, 491, 493, 494wattle and daub structures122, 123, 295wood structures123, 123construction techniques70, 125, 128–129, 295Dendi, homogeneity72Dia128, 129, 284Gao286as material culture58–59Oursi Hu-beero287surveys55Tin Tin Kanzaassociated with potsherd pavements112, 125, 127curvilinear form125, 128mud walls125, 128–129Tongo Maaré Diabal287Yendi302 mud structures; pavementsaridification20–22Arigani14, 16–17, 334Arvicanthis niloticus (unstriped grass rats)248Askia Dawud283Askia Mohammed8, 14 n96&97, 16, 283Askia Musa283Atakoraabandonment of mounds297archaeobotanical data216, 238archaeology25, 42findscowrie shells205pottery111, 168–169geography36–37oral inquiry at26Auchenoglanis catfish247Azadirachta indica64Baatombu12bagrid catfish (Bagrus sp .)246Baha Mound (Nigeria)24, 169, 291al-Bakri205, 210, 285Balanites aegyptiaca92Banikoara74, 79, 111, 303baobab (Adansonia digitata)92, 218, 227, 229, 231, 232, 233bards (gesere)54Barth, H .17–18, 300bats248bauxite beads201, 204beadsBirnin Lafiya199, 201, 202–203, 204Bogo Bogo199, 202Dia285Gao286glass134, 135, 202–203, 204, 285, 286, 287, 290dichroic203, 296Gorouberi199, 202, 203Kantoro203Kompa Dune203Kozungu204Kwara zeno135, 202–203Madekali204metal204Molla199, 202, 203of other material203–204plastic199segmented clay296shell199, 204stone199, 200, 201, 204, 285, 287, 290, 292–293, 295–296Tomboutou199, 202Tondo windi134, 203beadworkers295Beninarchaeological research in86–87geology31, 33, 34vegetation238Benin City129, 284, 288–289Bentyia (Mali)130, 286, 291, 293Bilimbiri Bero (Mali)286birane / birniBirni Lafia61, 63, 72Birnin Lafiya, absence99–100, 297Tondo windi134birds248, 251Birni Lafiaarchaeological landscape survey area45, 47–48architecture.architecture/architectural remainsaxonometric view68maps62proximity to Birnin Lafiya58, 59test pitting87Tondo windiBirnin Lafiya (BLAF)in general113–115abandonment134animal remains241, 247, 248–250, 252architecture.architecture/architectural remainsareas of craft activity97, 100, 297characteristics26crops219, 230, 231, 232, 238erosion93, 111, 113, 122, 124, 297excavationsmethodology94Trench 1analysis430–433 tinterpretation427sections428, 429site427, 428Trench 3/10interpretation496–497method, calendar and personnel486other sampling496pavements489process487rooms489–491site485, 485, 486zones487, 487, 493–494Trench 4analysis441–449tcontexts434–437, 43 5, 436, 437interpretation441sections438–440site434Trench 5analysis454–459 tinterpretation450location450sections452, 453site450, 451Trench 8analysis463–466 tcontexts461interpretation461location460sections462site460, 46 0, 461Trench 9in general467, 468analysis471–484tinterpretation471location467sections468, 469–470site467Trench 11analysis504–518 tcontexts499–501interpretation503–504sections501site498–499Trench 13interpretation525layers and contexts519–520, 522–523sections521–522, 523site519, 520findsbeads199, 201, 202–203, 204metal objects193–195, 196, 197overview450, 467, 471, 503pottery492in general292bases168folded strip roulettes47, 106, 132, 133, 164, 169forms167–168knotted strip roulettes165multiple-stick cord roulettes94, 132, 133, 166painted motifs166slags195–198, 198terracotta objects212as focus area26, 42, 87geology92geophysical survey.geophysical surveysinternal organisation99–100ironworking100 “ King ’ s rubbish heap ”94, 240, 249, 450limits31, 92, 96–98micro-morphology112mound87, 291occupation21–22, 291pavements.pavementsposition in landscape132–133radiocarbon dates427, 441, 450, 463, 471, 496, 504, 525site88, 114, 240soil composition39, 93stratigraphyin general133–135Trench 1429Trench 4-b438–440Trench 5450, 453Trench 8461, 462Trench 9467, 469–470Trench 11501, 501, 502, 503Trench 13521–522, 524surface archaeology93topography92vegetation92, 234, 235, 238–239wood charcoal samples235, 236 human skeletal remainsBlepharis linariifolia166Bodjekali33Bogo Bogo (GOG)animal remains248–250, 252excavationin general366, 367analysis369tinterpretation369sections367, 368findsbeads199, 202coins132 n2cowrie shells205, 208, 209glass artefacts548metal objects194overview369pottery135, 138, 164, 166radiocarbon dates369site240, 366stratigraphy135, 138, 366, 368, 369test pitting6 n1, 87bohor reedbuck (Redunca redunca)249Bokorobu (BOK)animal remains248excavationin general421, 422analysis423–426tinterpretation423sections422, 423finds, pottery138, 166as predecessor of Birni Lafia241settlement22site421stratigraphy134, 138, 421, 423test pitting48, 87Borassus aethiopium70Borassus spp. (Palmyra palm)38Borgou16–17, 73–74, 283, 286, 291, 299–301, 302, 303boundary objects (sensu Wenger)79Boureïma, Hamani (Tanda)81, 82Boyeri (BOY)excavationsin general359, 360analysis362–365 tinterpretation362sections360, 361, 362findscowrie shells205, 207overview359pottery136, 138, 164, 166site359stratigraphy136, 138, 359, 361, 362test pitting6 n1, 87 Bwayeri/Boyeribracelets134, 135, 137, 195, 249, 252, 548Brachiaria sp .231bricks.adobe bricks; mud bricksbuffalo (Syncerus caffer)249búkkà (circular wooden constructions)66bullfrog (Pyxicepalus edulis)248burials.human skeletal remainsBurkina Faso130, 165, 238under specific sitesbush duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia)249bushbucks (Tragelaphus scriptus)249Bwayeri/Boyeri303 BoyeriCA (Chef dArrondissement)53Calotropis procera92Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (CUMAA)296Cameroon77, 130, 165under specific sitesCanarium schweinfurthii (incense tree) 227,229–230, 230t, 231, 232–233Canis aureus/adustus (jackals)249Canis familiaris (dogs)249, 251Capra hircus (goats)250caracal (Felis caracal)249caravan trade13, 17–18, 19, 78, 286, 301, 302–303caries277carnelian beads202, 204, 285, 287, 290, 296catfish241, 246–248, 251, 252cats249cattle250, 251–252cattle figurines212, 212, 215cattle herding234Celtis integrifolia239ceramics.potteryChad77, 130Chad Basin27, 228Chaîne de Gobnangou (Burkina Faso)24Chambardia rubens241Charadriiformes248Chef d’Arrondissement (CA)54chefs de terre (labukoy)53–54chickens (Gallus domesticus)248, 251chief of the village, elected (délégués)54chronological markers132chronologyDendiethnographic enquiries56–57hiatus in133, 297regional sites of memory13, 15–17chronostratigraphy133–138Chrysobalanaceae235, 237, 239Ciconiidae (storks)248circular house, ruins of59Citharinidae247cities59clan names299clariid catfish (Clariidae)241, 246, 247–248, 251Cochlospermum spp .38Cola spp .237, 239colonial territories, cotton growing in73–74Combretum spp .38, 235, 237, 239comparative technology27–28, 53compounds (wúndáí / wúndí)in Birni Lafia60, 61, 64, 67, 70walls72, 121, 128, 285construction techniques70, 125, 128–129, 295Continental Terminal formation33, 34cotton (Gossypium sp.)growingcolonial territories73–74Dendi73–74, 218, 227, 228–229, 232, 233, 296spinning/weaving.textile productionvarieties74, 77courtyards66cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)218–219, 228, 230cowrie shellsAtakora205Bogo Bogo205, 208, 209Boyeri205, 207as chronological markers132classification206, 206tcollection10–11dating210determination206, 206tGorouberi136, 205Kargui137, 205Kissi210, 287Kompanti136, 205Kozungu132n1, 205, 210modificationburning207, 208circular wear208, 209dorsum removal207, 208, 210linear incisions207, 208, 209, 210Molla205, 207, 209, 210morphology207origin210overview208 tas pre-colonial currency12–13, 205ritual functions12–13size206, 206species206, 207Tin Tin Kanza132 n1, 205, 210Tomboutou205Tondo windi134, 205, 207Toutokayeri205, 207Nooru Bangu (cowrie pond); Monetariacraft activitiesareas97, 100, 297 architecture/architectural remains; beads; indigo dyeing; ironworking; pottery; textile productioncreative process214–215cribra orbitalia256, 273, 274Cricetomys gambianus (northern giant pouched rats)249crocodiles248, 253cropsAlibori230Birnin Lafiya219, 230, 231, 232, 238cultivation systems234DendiAfrican rice218, 219, 227–228, 227, 230, 231–232, 238, 253, 292baobab92, 218, 227, 229, 231, 232, 233changes through time230–232, 231 tcotton218, 227, 228–229, 232, 233cowpea218–219, 228, 230fonio millet219, 231incense tree227, 229–230, 230 t, 231, 232oil palm218, 229–230, 230 t, 232, 233pearl millet134, 218, 219, 230, 231, 232, 292sorghum134, 218, 228, 230, 231, 232, 292trade232undetermined seeds and nuts230Dia228, 230Gorouberi230Jenné - jeno231Kantoro219, 231Kozungu230Madekali219, 231, 590, 593Pekinga231Tin Tin Kanza219, 231, 341trade232 vegetationCrossroads of Empires research projectin general3aim26archaeological surveys 201185, 86, 88 2012–201343, 44, 87 201443–44, 87aim of42first42–43chronostratigraphy133–138comparative technology approach27–28, 53context3–4ethnographic enquiries.ethnographic enquiriesfive-phase chronological framework90, 230, 240geophysical survey programme.geophysical surveyslocal administrative buildings1, 4oral historical inquiries26, 27radiocarbon dates90radiocarbon datessites investigated26–27test pits88–89test pitsunderpinning story26cultivation systems234cultural taboos240, 253CUMAA (Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology)296Cypraea sp.Monetaria annulus; Monetaria monetaDallol Bosso (Niger)298, 302, 304Dallol Fogha (Niger)302, 304dallols region23, 38Daouda Bougaram/Boukara56debris, reuse69, 69decoration codes156–159 tdefense structures.birane/birnidélégués (elected chief of village)53Dendiarchaeobotanical remains.archaeobotanical remainsarchaeological landscape.archaeological landscapearchaeology.archaeologyarchitecture72architecture/architectural remainschronologyethnographic enquiries56–57hiatus in133, 297regional sites of memory13, 15–17climate35arrival of first Europeans56geomorphology32, 35history6–7, 283–284, 298hydrography35–38, 36inhabitants297–302iron production175ironworking.ironworkingnetworks.networks of exchangepaleoclimatic trends in21–22potterycompared to regional assemblages168–173ethnographic enquiries into54–55folded strip roulettesin general42, 47 t, 164 –165commonness164disuse139forms139, 167–168regional sites of memorychronology13, 15–17Katanga7–9, 15–16Mulabon14–15Nooru Bangu9–13, 18Turuwe/Torouwey13–14, 16–17research project.Crossroads of Empires research projectsettlement hiatus133, 297soils39, 39subsistence strategies240textile production in.textile productionvegetation38–39villages, historical sources on59–60under specific sitesDendi language297–298, 300, 301dental modification.toothdental pathology.toothDia (Mali)in general284architecture128, 129, 284crops228, 230findsbeads285pottery165, 166–167, 172–173slags285terracotta objects285occupation284potsherd pavements111, 130, 284–285settlement growth291sites284dichroic glass beads203, 296dietary cultures292Digitaria cf. exilis (fonio millet)219, 231Dikuanténi25, 26Diospyros mespiliformis38, 92Direction du Patrimoine Culturel3displacements60Distichodontidae247Djaboutchia21, 45, 47, 88djeney-ferey technique70Djenne12, 61n10, 70, 284, 285, 297Djougou25, 130, 300dogs (Canis familiaris)249, 251Domè (Togo)103domestication249–250, 251–252, 292doodjire (1931–1932)57ducks248Durbi Takusheyi (Nigeria)205earth extraction sites61, 65Elaeis guineensis (oil palm)218, 229–230, 230 t, 232, 233elephants (Loxodonta africana)249Elmina (Ghana)203enclosing walls.birane/birniEntata abyssinia38Equipe de Recherche Archéologique Béninoise (ERAB)85, 87Equus caballus (horses)249, 251ERAB (Equipe de Recherche Archéologique Béninoise)85, 87ERC (European Research Council)3erosion93, 111, 113, 122, 124, 297Essouk (Mali)229, 232, 284ethnographic enquiriesin general27–28aims53–55gap between archaeology and57informants in53–54, 55–56initial focus48interpreters in53interview techniques in53ironworking54–55, 174, 192narratives in54, 56–57European Research Council (ERC)3excavation methodologies94Fabaceae237fallows234, 238, 239famines56–57fauna.animal remains; aquatic faunaFicus spp .38, 92, 238field walking strategies42, 43, 44, 45–46figurines212, 213, 214, 215findscatalogue of small639–696beads; cowrie shells; metal objects; pottery; slags; terracotta objectsfirewood collection238fish hooks134fish/fishing241, 246–248, 250–251, 252five-phase chronological framework90, 230, 240floods (2012)57floors71, 71, 125, 126, 134, 286, 407 pavementsflotation217, 217fóndàì/fóndò (paths)62, 64fonio millet (Digitaria cf. exilis)219, 231food, cultural taboos240, 253forced work (poltol)57fortifications.birane/birnifowling251francolins248French colonialism70, 72, 73–74frogs248Fulani9, 15–16, 18, 56, 66, 79–80, 192, 295, 298Fulani blankets79–80, 81, 82funerary inscriptions286furnaces178, 187, 188–189Gajiganna (Nigeria)228Gallus domesticus (chickens)248, 251gande beeri (1913–1914)57Gao (Kaw Kaw; Mali)architecture286cemetery inscriptions286findsbeads286pottery166, 171, 286first records285–286floors286mention8, 284, 291occupation286potsherd pavements130sites286Gao Empire298Garbey Kourou (Niger)23–24, 203, 288, 291Garou (GAR)excavationanalysis577–578tin general575, 576interpretation575sections576finds, overview575radiocarbon dates575site575stratigraphy575, 576test pitting87Gbanogo174 n2geese248Geographical Information System (GIS)44–45geologyBenin31, 33, 34Birnin Lafiya92Madekali33Pekinga33Tin Tin Kanza33geometric patterns71, 71, 129geomorphology, Dendi32, 35geophysical maps97 , 98, 99geophysical surveysAfrica96Birnin Lafiyain general89, 90, 93, 96areas of craft activity100high-amplitude magnetic anomalies100internal organisation99–100ironworking100limits96–98living spaces101, 101maps97 , 98, 99size98structural remains100–101, 113Crossroads project89–90, 89Gorouberi89–90, 96magnetometer used in96Pekinga89–90, 96gesere (bards)54Ghana288, 302under specific sitesGIS (Geographical Information System)44–45glass artefactsbeads134, 135, 202–203, 204, 285, 286, 287, 290, 296Bogo Bogo548bottles543bracelets134, 135, 137, 285, 548as chronological markers132Molla54 3, 548Tomboutou548Tondo windi548goats (Capra hircus)250, 251–252Goethe University, Frankfurt235Gorouberi (GOB)animal remains249, 252crops230excavationsin general379, 380, 390, 391analysis384–389t, 393–394tinterpretation383, 391sections38 0, 382, 392findsbeads199, 202, 203cowrie shells136, 205overview383, 390–391pot containing bones381, 383pottery136, 166, 168slags174 n2terracotta objects213geophysical survey89–90, 96locations379, 390radiocarbon dates383, 392selection26settlement21, 133sites88 n3, 240, 379, 390stratigraphy136, 379, 382, 390, 392test pitting43, 87vegetation235, 237, 237 t, 239wood charcoal samples235, 237Gossypium sp. (cotton).cottonGoungoun formation31, 34Gourmantche (Gulmanceba)12, 15, 16, 24, 25, 111, 168, 169, 192, 298–299, 395, 399granaries67, 69, 71greater cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus)249Guene (GUE)excavationsin general582analysis584 tinterpretation582sections483finds, overview582selection26site483, 582stratigraphy137, 483, 582test pitting87Guene zeno (ENE)excavationin general579analysis581tinterpretation579sections580findsoverview579pottery164site579, 580stratigraphy137, 579, 580test pitting28, 87Guiera senegalensis235, 239guineafowls (Numida meleagris)248Gulmanceba (Gourmantche)12, 15, 16, 24, 25, 111, 168, 169, 192, 298–299, 395, 399gum diseases277Gymnarchus niloticus247haematite beads202Hambarkatelo (Mali)172Haplotilapiini (tilapia)241, 246, 247–248, 251hares (Lepus capensis/saxatilis)249Hausa8, 16, 23, 78, 187, 188, 292, 296, 300, 302, 303–304Hausaland229, 286, 302herding251–252Herpestidae (mongoose)249Heterotis niloticus241, 247hills, lateritic33horses (Equus caballus)249, 251human skeletal remainsin general254–256analysis256, 274Birnin LafiyaTrench11254, 255, 274, 277Trench16254, 255, 255, 256, 273, 274, 276zone G121determination256inventory256, 257– 272tKozungu255pathological issues256, 274Pekinga Baobab254, 256taphonomy256toothhunting251Hydrocynus sp. (tigerfish)246hydrography35–39, 36Hymenocardia acida38Ibn Battuta205, 289Ife.Ile IfeIgbo-Ukwu (Nigeria)201, 203, 286, 290, 291Ile Ife (Nigeria)203, 284, 289, 296incense tree (Canarium schweinfurthii)227, 229–230, 230 t, 231, 232 –233indigo dyeing8–9, 54–55, 301, 303–304inhabitantsDendi297–302Nooru Bangu10–13Turuwe/Torouwey13–14, 16–17, 135 migrationironworkingDendiarchaeological approach174blacksmiths192ethnographic enquiries54–55, 174, 192reconstructing189, 191–192smelting traditions175, 176–179 tno. 1175, 178–180, 180no. 2180–181no. 3181, 185–187, 186no. 4187–188, 188no. 5188–189Hausa187, 188metal objectsIsoberlinia doka38Issa Korombe56ivory249, 286, 290jackals (Canis aureus/adustus)249Jarma (Libya)211jasper beads (lantana stone beads)202, 292–293, 295–296Jenné-jeno (Mali)in general284African rice228, 230crops231mounds48mud brick technology129mud structures128potsherd pavements130pottery172settlement50mention284, 291juvenile health274ka bándá (rectangular structures)67Kaiama300Kainji region (Nigeria)129, 130, 284, 291, 295Kainji Rescue Archaeological Project (KRAP)24Kandi74, 79, 303Kandi formation31, 34Kaniana (Mali)172Kankan Musa16Kantoro (KRO)animal remains249, 252crops219, 231excavationsin general255, 551, 553analysis552t, 555–566tinterpretation552layers and contexts552sections553, 554findsbeads203overview552pottery165, 166, 168ironworking178–180, 182–183 t , 184radiocarbon dates552selection26settlement21, 22site241, 551stratigraphy554test pitting87Karfi (Nigeria)210Kargui (KGI)excavationin general526, 527, 568analysis567t, 570–574tinterpretation526, 529–531t, 567layers and contexts567sections527 , 528, 568, 569findscowrie shells137, 205metal objects194overview567pottery136, 138, 166radiocarbon dates528, 567site241, 526stratigraphy136–137, 138, 526, 528, 567, 569test pitting87mention298Karimama (KAR)excavationin general395, 396analysis397–398tinterpretation395sections396findsmetal objects194overview395pottery136, 138, 164, 166radiocarbon dates397site395stratigraphy136, 138, 395, 397test pitting28, 87Karimama (town)17, 19, 56–57, 136, 192kàtáì / kàtà (entrance buildings)64Katanga6–9, 15–16, 299, 303Kebbi river.Sokoto River regionkeylu bageize famine (1984)57Khaya senegalensis38, 235Khaya spp .239Kirikongo (Burkina Faso)128, 129, 130, 165, 172, 194, 284, 287, 291Kisra legend9 n41, 298Kissi (Burkina Faso)170, 171, 201, 203, 205, 210, 284, 287–288, 291–292Kitare (Ghana)302Kobs (Kobus kob)249kola road17, 18Kompa Dune (KOD)excavationsin general326analysis328–332 tinterpretation327sections326findsbeads203overview327pottery166, 168ironworking178, 182 tradiocarbon dates328selection26settlement21, 22site325, 325stratigraphy326, 326test pitting28, 43, 87vegetation236, 237 twood charcoal samples237Kompa Moussekoubou (KM)ironworking178–180, 181, 182 t , 183test pitting43vegetation237, 237 t, 239wood charcoal samples237mention325Kompanti (PTI)excavationin general336analysis337–338 tinterpretation336sections337findscowrie shells136, 205overview336pottery136, 164site336stratigraphy136, 336, 337test pitting6 n1, 87Korkodjengou18Korsimoro (Burkina Faso)180, 187–188Kouboukoukourou (ROU)animal remains252excavationsin general585analysis587–589 tinterpretation585sections58 6, 587finds, overview585occupation180pottery136, 137radiocarbon dates585sitein general241, 585, 586destruction/destruction risks44, 585stratigraphy137, 585, 587test pitting87Koumbi Saleh27, 284Kozungu (KOZ)animal remains248, 249, 252crops230excavationsin general405, 406analysis409–415 tinterpretation408sections406 , 407, 4 08findsbeads204cowrie shells132 n1, 205, 210overview406pottery133, 137–138, 166floors407human skeletal remains255radiocarbon dates21, 408settlement22site240, 405stratigraphy134, 138, 405, 406, 408test pitting48, 87KRAP (Kainji Rescue Archaeological Project)24Kufan Kanawa (Niger)274Kugha (Mali/Niger)205, 210Kursakata (Nigeria)228kùrùkùtáì / kùrùkùtù (circular earth constructions)66Kusulabu (KUS)excavationin general399, 400analysis401–404tinterpretation399sections401finds, overview399pavements400site399stratigraphy136, 399, 401test pitting87kútíjí (doorstep)64Kwara Tegui survey area45, 47–48Kwara zeno (KAZ)excavationsin general373, 374analysis376–378tinterpretation374sections374, 375findsglass beads135, 202–203metal objects135, 194overview373pottery135, 137–138, 166terracotta objects213radiocarbon dates376site373stratigraphy135, 138, 373, 375test pitting6 n1, 87LAAEP (Laboratoire d’Art, d’Archéologie et d’Expertises Patrimoniales)41, 85, 86–87labukoy (chefs de terre)53–54Landeroin, M.16–17, 56landscape60archaeological landscapeLanistes varicus241Lannea microcarpa92lantana stone beads (jasper beads)202, 292–293, 295–296laterite/clay-lined pit296–297, 494, 496lateritic hills33Lates niloticus (Nile perch)246–247Leja (Nigeria)185, 187Lepus capensis/saxatilis (hares)249lithics48living spaces101, 101Loxodonta africana (elephants)249lungfish (Protopterus annectens)247–248, 251Madekali (KLI)crops219, 231, 590, 593excavationsin general590, 591analysis593–600 tinterpretation593sections591–593findsbeads204overview590, 593pottery137, 138, 166, 168terracotta objects213geology33radiocarbon dates593settlement21, 22site241, 590stratigraphy137, 138, 590, 591–592test pitting87magnetometry96geophysical surveysMaiguiso, Karimama chief57malaria274Malè / Imale299–300Mali20, 27, 130, 173under specific sitesMali Bero8Malu299, 303mammalsdomesticated249–250, 251–252, 292wild248–249, 251Mande286, 304Mande language232, 298Manga grasslands20–21Manga mooru famine (1966 –1967)57al-Mansur283Marandet (Niger)284, 302Marãse304Marginella12marine shells241, 252, 292cowrie shellsMarxist revolution (1972)57material culture, architecture as58–59Mékrou River37, 168, 294Meliaceae239Méma region (Mali)285, 291metal objectsbeads204Birnin Lafiya193–195, 196 , 1 97Bogo Bogo194functional categories193functions194–195Kargui194Karimama194Kwara zeno135, 194Tin Tin Kanza197 ironworkingmetallurgy.ironworkingmigration3, 4, 9, 25, 54, 60, 78–79, 192, 303, 304 “ migration-wave ” scenario54mihrabs67Mimusops spp .237, 239Mokole299Molla (MOL)excavationsin general540analysis543–545tinterpretation540, 543sections542findsbeads199, 202, 203cowrie shells205, 207, 209, 210glass artefacts543, 548overview540pottery166site540stratigraphy540, 542test pitting87Mommassaga174 n2Monetaria annulus205, 207, 209, 210Monetaria moneta205, 207, 210mongoose (Herpestidae)249monitor lizards248, 253mormyrids (Mormyridae)246mosques67mud bricksDjenne fere style70, 129 adobe bricksmud structuresarchaeological detection of126–127Benin City289Birnin Lafiya112, 122, 123, 128–129Dia128, 129Gao286Jenné - Jeno128Kirikongo287Oursi Hu-beero287Sadia287Tin Tin Kanza125, 128–129Tongo Maaré Diabal287West Africa128–129Mulabon6, 7, 14Mulanche/Kumate8–9, 10, 13–17, 135, 299, 301–303, 304, 333, 579Muslims10, 211, 253, 285–286, 299–300, 301Mytragina inermis92narrow-strip weaving tradition77Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)4networks of exchange17–18, 27, 130, 288, 289, 291, 293, 294, 300, 304New Buipe (Ghana)169–170, 284, 288, 302Niamey (Niger)185, 187, 188, 192niébé228Niger Bend27Niger Riverin general35–36, 294archaeology284–288flow rates36, 37water levels20, 36, 37Niger Valley Survey Project (NVSP)aim44–45areas surveyed45, 45artefacts collected by46–48collection units46, 47distribution of sites49field walking strategy used in44, 45–46size of sites48, 4 8, 49Nigeria129–130, 288–290under specific sitesNile perch (Lates niloticus)246–247Nono232Nooru Bangu (cowrie pond)7in general6abandonment11–12cowry collection at10–13inhabitants10–13location9–10similarity in stories300mention210northern giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus)249Numida meleagris (guineafowl)248NVSP (Niger Valley Survey Project).Niger Valley Survey Project (NVSP)Odo Akaba130, 290oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)218, 229–230, 230 t, 232, 233Olive baboon (Papio anubis)249on-side sampling, pottery139–140, 140Opi (Nigeria)185, 187oral historical inquiries26, 27, 41–42Oryza glaberrima (African rice)134, 218, 219, 227, 227, 230, 231–232, 238, 253, 292osteoporosis274Oudalan (Burkina Faso)170, 171Oursi Hu-beero (Burkina Faso)127, 128–129, 130, 170, 171, 238, 284, 287, 291Ousmane dan Fodio18, 56Ovis aries (sheep)249–250, 251–252Oyo-Ilé (Old Oyo; Nigeria)15, 129, 185, 187, 284, 289, 292paleoclimatic trends20–22Parachanna obscura247Parc W24, 37, 168Parinari curatellifolia235, 237, 239Parkia biglobosa238paths (fóndàì / fóndò)62, 64pavementsbeau rouge103burned earth104lateriteBirnin Lafiyain general104, 110, 117, 120, 489description124location/distribution124temporal presence124Kirikongo287status functions103Togo103potsherdin general129–131, 295Alibori 2124, 538Benin City289Birnin Lafiyain general93, 112, 113, 293, 295associated with structures101, 113, 129combining different sherds109with decorated sherds108decoration of steps117, 124description123–124interpretation107location/distribution104–106, 107, 107, 111, 124with perforated sherds108reuse111, 113, 114S3/10114, 117, 118, 121, 121, 489S11499south of S3/10122, 122temporal presence124typology104–106, 110underlying121, 121without decoration109Dia111, 130, 284–285functions130–131status103, 107, 111geometric patterning129Greece130Ile Ife289Mediterranean130Pekinga124–125, 308stylesaesthetics131edge-laid129–131flat-laid129–131patterning129, 131regional distribution130Tin Tin Kanza125, 127, 128, 341, 346Togo103–104, 129Yorubaland129potsherd/pebblesTin Tin Kanza125, 126, 130, 131, 295, 346Yorubaland130use124white unknown material126pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)134, 218, 219, 230, 231, 232, 292Pekinga (PEK)animal remains249–250crops231erosion297excavationin general308analysis311–315 tinterpretation310layers and contexts307, 310sections309findsoverview310slag174 n2geology33geophysical survey89–90, 96ironworking180, 187, 191pavements124–125, 308radiocarbon dates311selection26settlement21, 22site240, 307stratigraphy134, 309, 310test pitting28, 87Pekinga (settlement)17–18, 56, 191Pekinga Baobab, human skeletal remains254, 256Pelomedusidae (terrapin)248Pelusios adansonii (Adanson’s mud turtle)248pendants202Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet)134, 218, 219, 230, 231, 232, 292Péntènga (Burkina Faso)21, 24, 168, 169peridontal diseases277Perma.AtakoraPhacochoerus africanus (warthogs)249phosphorus39piled/puddled mud structures123, 125Piliostigma reticulatum92pipe fragments135, 136, 213, 302plastic artefacts132, 199, 200politics, and pottery27poltol (forced work)57Polypterus sp247population movements.migrationpottery601–639bases168bowls167decorationappliqué167black polished/red painted135, 137, 138blepharis roulettes135, 136, 138, 166braided cord roulettes164, 173braided strip roulettes165, 172, 173carved wooden roulettes135, 138, 166, 172comb impressions169, 170, 171cross-hatched geometric designs135finger impressions170folded strip roulettes27, 42, 47, 47 t, 106, 132, 133, 134 –135, 135, 136, 137–138, 139, 164–165, 165, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173incised geometric162–163, 163incisions156, 162–163, 169knotted strip roulettes165mat impressions170, 171, 172multiple-stick cord roulettes94, 132, 133, 165–166, 173painted motifs166, 169, 172perforations166–167plaited grass roulettes169–170plaited strip roulettes172polished stab marks170polishing/burnishing167, 170, 171polychrome171rolled impression164roulettesas chronological markers132classification164roulettes on multiple cores165sgraffito27single impression/stamping163–164twisted cord roulettes135, 136, 137, 138, 164, 170, 171, 172types47 t, 156 –159 twavy-line137formsbottles167bowls167, 171carinated vessels168, 169, 172closed vessels167dishes/plates172long-necked polychrome139organic-tempered jars171overview167–168slightly closed vessels167 “ Utility Ware ” at New Buipe170Gourmantche169methodology used with142illustration142refitting140, 167sherd-by-sherd analysisbody sherds141, 156decoration codes156–159 t , 160–162decoration techniques142rim sherds142, 143–144 t , 145–155on-site sampling139–140, 140trench analysis140, 141 tand politics27post-medieval styles137–138present-day traditions139rims143–144 t , 145–155associated with carinated vessels168compared to regional assemblages171, 172decoration codes160–163and settlement hiatus297shaping techniquespounding on a concave mould135, 136, 137–138, 170sherdscollected by NVSP46–47mound with high density111undecorated47use in ceremonies111 pavements, potsherd; under specific sitesprimates248–249Promontoire (Mali) 167Prosopis africana235, 237, 239Protopterus annectens (lungfish)247–248, 251Pterocarpus erinaceus92, 235, 238–239Pyxicepalus edulis (bullfrog)248quartz/quartzite beads201, 202Quaternary deposits33–34, 34, 35, 92radiocarbon datesimprecision133in general90overview696–709 tSites:Alibori 1535Alibori 221, 540Birnin Lafiya427, 441, 450, 463, 471, 496, 504, 525Bogo Bogo369Garou575Gorouberi383, 392Kantoro552Kargui528, 567Karimama397Kompa Dune328Kouboukoukourou585Kozungu21, 408Kwara zeno376Madekali593Pekinga311Tin Tin Kanza347–358Tondo windi417Torouwey334Toutokayeri318radiolarian rock beads201raised pits92–93rats248, 249rectangular structures67, 69, 101Redunca redunca (bohor reedbuck)249reptiles248reusedebris69, 69, 111potsherd pavements111, 113, 114road systems62rodents248, 249roof structures70, 239roulettes decorations.pottery, decorationRoyal Anthropological Institute/Emslie Horniman Anthropological Scholarship Fund81Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences241Royal Museum for Central Africa3rubbish processing64Rubiaceae235, 238–239ruins, of houses58, 59sacrifices10–11Sadia (Mali)128–129, 173, 284, 287, 291Sakawan88 n3salt trade302, 304Samsou Beri16Saouga (Burkina Faso)170Sarneh286savannah buffalo (Syncerus caffer)249Savè region130, 165, 169, 290scurvy274sééroga (rectangular structures)67Sendé formation33, 34Seno plain (Mali)173, 292serval (Leptailurus serval)249settlements, growth291shea butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa)38, 92, 235, 237–238, 239sheep (Ovis aries)249, 251–252shell beads199, 200, 204sieving88, 89siliceous stone201Silima288, 302Sirifi9, 10, 17, 301site clustering291slagBirnin Lafiya195–198, 198collected by NVSP48Dia285Gorouberi174 n2Pekinga174 n2smelting tradition no. 1178–179smelting tradition no. 2180–181, 185smelting tradition no. 3181, 185–186smelting tradition no. 4187, 188smelting tradition no. 5188–189Tin Tin Kanza174slave families64slave trade10, 232, 300, 304slavery77–78snakes248, 253soda trade302softshell turtles (Trionychidae)248soil extraction sites61, 65soil plastering techniques71, 71soils39, 39, 93Sokoto Caliphate56, 295, 298, 304Sokoto River region25Songhai8–9, 12, 14, 16–19, 27, 283, 286, 298, 304Songhai Empire6Songhai language297–298, 299Songhai Mamar Hamey14Sonni Ali16sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)134, 218, 219, 228, 230, 231, 232, 292Sorko8–9, 17Sorotomo (Mali)228–229Sota River37, 294Sota River survey area45, 47–49, 49spindle whorls75, 76, 77, 137, 200, 203–204, 213, 229, 296spinning.textile productionstone artefactsbeads199, 200, 201, 204, 285, 287, 290, 292–293, 295–296pendants202storks (Ciconiidae)248stratigraphyAlibori 1532, 534Alibori 2133, 539, 539Birnin Lafiyain general133–135Trench 1429Trench 4-b438–440Trench 5450, 453Trench 8461, 462Trench 9467, 469–470Trench 11501, 50 1, 502, 503Trench 13521–522, 524Bogo Bogo135, 138, 366, 368, 369Bokorobu134, 138, 421, 423Boyeri136, 138, 359, 361, 362Garou575, 576Gorouberi136, 379, 382, 390, 392Guene137, 483, 582Guene zeno137, 579, 580Kantoro554Kargui136–137, 138, 526, 528, 567, 569Karimama136, 138, 395, 397Kompa Dune326, 326Kompanti136, 336, 337Kouboukoukourou137, 585, 587Kozungu134, 138, 405, 406, 408Kusulabu136, 399, 401Kwara zeno135, 138, 373, 375Madekali137, 138, 590, 591–592Molla540, 542Pekinga134, 309, 310Tin Tin Kanza134, 355, 356Tomboutou546, 548Tondo windi417Torouwey135–136, 334, 334Toutokayeri136, 316, 317streets (vons)61, 64subsistence strategies240Sunni Ali283surface archaeology93surnames299, 301Sylvicapra grimmia (bush duiker)249Syncerus caffer (buffalo)249Synodontis catfish241Tado (Togo)103–104Tamarindus indica92Tamkalla chiefdom56Tanda (Boureima, Hamani)81, 82Tanguieta area111taphonomy256Tārīkh al-fattāsh6, 16, 22, 232, 283 n1, 298Tārīkh as-Sūdān6, 16, 22, 283, 286, 298Tegdaoust (Mauritania)283tell-type sites94Terminalia spp .235, 238–239terracotta objectsanthropomorphic212, 213, 214, 215, 285beads/pendants203, 214classification211, 211 tinterpretation214utilitarian135, 136, 213–214zoomorphic212, 212, 215, 285Sites:potteryBirnin Lafiya212Dia285Gorouberi213Kwara zeno213Madekali213Tondo windi213Torouwey213Toutokayeri213terrapins (Pelomedusidae)248test pitsas excavation strategy88–89inside villages57in region6 n1, 28, 43, 48, 87textile productionDendiin general73, 78acquiring cotton74beginning77carding cotton75ethnographic enquiries into54–55ginning cotton74, 75spinning cotton75–77weavers77–79weaving cottonindigo dyeing; textilesin general77–79decline in79end80resurgence in79textileshand-craftedBanikoara, Kandi and Nikki79Dendi78Niger79traditional value79 textile productionindustrial, Dendi79indigo dyeing; textile productionThryonomys swinderianus (greater cane rat)249Tichitt ceramic tradition284tigerfish (Hydrocynus sp.)246tilapia (Haplotilapiini)241, 246, 247–248, 251Tilemsi Valley (Mali)164, 219, 274Timbuktu (Mali)285Tin Tin Kanza (TTK)animal remains247, 248, 252architecture112, 128crops219, 231, 341destruction layers340destruction risks339discovery339excavationsTTK-13-S1in general340, 340analysis347 t, 348 –354 tlayers and contexts340–341sections342–346TTK-13-S11in general355, 356, 357analysis358 tsections356, 358findscowrie shells132 n1, 205, 210metal objects197overview346–347, 357pottery167slags174geology33hearth295, 341pavementspotsherd125, 127, 128, 341, 346potsherd/pebbles125, 126, 130, 131, 295, 346TTK-13-S1341, 341, 346–347unknown white material126radiocarbon dates347–358rebuilding297selection26settlement21, 22site240, 339stratigraphy134, 355, 356test pitting43, 87vegetation237–238, 237 t, 239wood charcoal samples237toads248Togo103–104, 129Toladié (Mali)285tombos23, 103Tomboutou (TOU)excavationsin general546analysis547 t, 549 –550 tinterpretation547sections547, 548findsbeads199, 202coins132 n2cowrie shells205glass artefacts548overview546pottery164, 166, 168ironworking183 t, 188 –189, 189, 190, 191settlement growth291sites44, 546stratigraphy546, 548test pitting87Tombouze (Mali)285, 291Tondikwarey24Tondo windi (TOW)animal remains241, 248, 250birni134excavationin general241, 416analysis418–420 tinterpretation417layers and contexts416sections416findsbeads134, 203cowrie shells134, 205, 207fish hooks134glass artefacts548overview416pottery134–135, 166terracotta objects213radiocarbon dates417site416stratigraphy417test pitting48, 87Tong Hills (Ghana)288Tongo Maaré Diabal (Mali)287tools, metal194–195, 197toothabscesses277antemortem modification274, 277, 279antemortem wear274, 276, 277calculus deposits277, 279carious lesions277linear enamel hypoplasia279non-metric traits277, 278, 279visual inventory275topography, Birnin Lafiya92Torouwey (TRO)excavationin general333, 334analysis335tinterpretation334sections334findsoverview334pottery135, 164–165, 166terracotta objects213radiocarbon dates334site333–334stratigraphy135–136, 334, 334test pitting6 n1, 87 Turuwe/TorouweyToutokayeri (TTO)excavationsin general316, 317analysis318–324 tinterpretation317–318sections317findscowrie shells205, 207overview317pottery166, 168terracotta objects213radiocarbon dates318settlement22site316stratigraphy136, 316, 317test pitting87trachoma274tradebeads204caravan13, 17–18, 19, 78, 286, 301, 302–303cotton229crops232fish248handcrafted textiles78, 79industrial textiles79jasper / lantana295–296networks17–18, 27, 130, 288, 289, 291, 293, 294, 300, 302, 303–304riverine286, 290salt302, 304slaves10, 232, 300, 304soda302and surnames301Tragelaphus scriptus (bushbuck)249Traore9, 10, 17, 301, 302–303Trionychidae (softshell turtle)248Tunis130turtles248Turuwe/Torouweyin general6, 7abandonment14chronology of occupation16–17control of river crossings13, 18inhabitants13–14, 16–17, 135location13 Torouweytuyères179, 180–181, 185, 187, 188Tyenga9, 12, 14, 137, 192, 232, 298, 299, 579typo-morphological analysis58Ulaira (Nigeria)24–25, 94n6, 129–130, 168, 169Université Abdou Moumouni3Université Abomey Calavi3, 41, 85Université Libre de Bruxelles3University College London217University of East Anglia3University of Stirling3unstriped grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus)248Vallées du Niger (1993)23, 3vegetal remains.archaeobotanical remainsvegetationBenin238Birnin Lafiya92, 234, 235, 238–239Dendi38–39development234Gorouberi235, 237, 237t, 239Kompa Dune237, 237tKompa Moussekoubou237, 237t, 239Tin Tin Kanza237–238, 237t, 239woody234 cropsVigna unguiculata (cowpea)218–219, 228, 230villageshistorical sources59–60test pits inside57under specific sitesVitellaria paradoxa (shea butter tree)38, 92, 235, 237–238, 239Vitex spp .235, 238Viverridae249vons (streets)61, 64Vulcanite beads199wallscompound72, 121, 128, 285maintenance71mud72, 125, 128–129, 285, 287birane/birniWangara229, 300, 301, 303–304warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus)249waste zones (smelting)178, 180wattle and daub structures122, 123, 295weapons194, 197weavers77–79weaving.textile productionwedding blankets79–80, 81, 82Wèrè formation31, 34werendài / werendà (rectangular structures)67West African Sahel20–21, 164womenginning cotton75spinning cotton75–77, 76wood charcoalsamples237 tanalysis234Birnin Lafiya235, 236collected235destroyed house239Gorouberi235, 237identification235interpretation237–239Kompa Dune237Kompa Moussekoubou237Tin Tin Kanza237wood structures123, 123Yaqut al-Hamawi285Yelwa (Nigeria)24, 291Yendi302Yohongou.AtakoraYoruba8–9, 11, 12, 13, 15–16, 19, 290, 295, 299–300 Oyo-IléYoruba languages299Yorubaland18, 129, 130, 286, 292Yoûfi289Zarma8, 16, 18, 56, 79–80, 81, 192, 298–300Le Zarmatarey (Gado)23Ziziphus spp .92, 238

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