Co-management, of course, is not a panacea. Its applicability is limited. Its take-off point is rather high on the scale of social development. It presupposes the existence of infrastructure — cooperatives, village councils, organized user groups, etc. Poor coastal villages in poor countries do not have this sort of infrastructure, and the task of making them active partners in integrated coastal management is daunting. And yet if integrated coastal management does not include them, integrated coastal management is neither integrated nor sustainable. The upgrading of livelihoods in poor coastal villages is also essential if migration of the poorest people to the shanty towns of coastal megacities is to be halted and further urban sprawl, entailing further degradation of the coastal environment and exposing swelling masses of poor to the hazards of natural or anthropogenic catastrophes, are to be prevented. Ways must be found to include the inhabitants both of poor villages and coastal megacities in integrated coastal management.


The Future of Ocean Governance and Capacity Development

Essays in Honor of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002)