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Indexacademyanti-intellectualism in, 206, 239, 293canons of philosophy in, 195–197, 196n4contemporary changes in nature of, 313–315fact-value divide in, 247–248fracture between Jewish philosophy and, 30humanities in, 199, 207, 239, 247–248hyperspecialization in, 234–235, 288identity politics in, 321interdisciplinary programs, 26, 195–196, 198–200, 199n8, 206–207, 242, 288–290interest in Jewish philosophy in Chinese, 274–276Jewish philosophy as European philosophy in, 37justification of hegemony, 33marginalization of theology in, 237–238meaning and boundaries of philosophy in, 271movement of Jewish philosophy from, to Jewish communities, 5, 12–13, 79, 80–81, 85–86, 90, 92–96, 101, 239, 243–244, 299–300, 305narrowness and isolation of philosophy departments, 272–274non-Jewish universities as prime producers of Jewish philosophy, 14–15, 15n28place for Jewish philosophy in, 240–243professionalization of Jewish philosophy within, 14, 15, 22, 100–101religious studies department as home of Jewish philosophy, 34, 35study of ethics in, 277value of study of Jewish philosophy to students, 201–204Academy of Jewish Philosophy, 17, 69, 70action theory, 224–226Adorno, Theodor W., 171, 174After Virtue (MacIntyre), 230Aḥaronim, 325–326, 327Akiba (Rabbi) and revelation, 119, 120Altmann, Alexander, 42altruism, limits of, 226–228, 228n39Amir, Yehoyada, 83, 86, 87, 88analytic philosophyaction theory, 224–226articles critical of, 214n15contemporary arguments, 213–215contemporary religious philosophy and, 24, 211–212continental philosophy and, 10–11, 209–210early arguments, 212–213hairsplitting distinctions in language, 211, 211n6historical consciousness of, 229–230Jewish philosophy and tools of, 298–299Judaism as primarily religion of practice and, 214–215limits of altruism, 227–229, 228n39logical positivism and, 211moral responsibility and, 218–221prayer and, 222–224religiously committed Jewish philosophers’ contributions to, 24resurgence of, 216secular dominance, 229volitional attachments as constraints, 166Shatz, Davidanti-intellectualism, 206, 239, 293anti-Semitism, 308, 320–321, 323antitraditionalist school, 55–56, 153, 153n6, 154, 156–164AristotleAlexandrian reading of,281–282Maimonides and,133moral action and, 279–280rational knowledge, 280n15Ricoeur and, 188art and existentialism, 136–137Association for the Philosophy of Judaism (APJ), 214, 241“As Thyself: The Limits of Altruism in Jewish Ethics” (Shatz), 227–229Augustine, 277–281Austin, J. L., 211n6authorityrationality and, 158–164social nature of, 152–153, 155Badatan, Costica, 210–211Baron, Salo W., 63Batnitzky, Leora, 256, 259Beinart, Peter, 307Benbaji, Yitzhak, 154, 155–156, 165, 166, 168Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel (Fishbane), 139BINA: Center for Jewish Identity and Hebrew Culture, 16Blanchot, Maurice, 173–174, 182, 187–188Bleich, J. David, 51–52Blumenthal, David R., 47, 207Borowitz, Eugeneautonomous individual and, 137each individual’s search for meaning and, 139individual’s relationship with God, 137–138language game approach, 140Library of Contemporary Jewish Philosophers, 45, 137–138, 140Brafman, Yonatan Y., xi, 20–21, 98–114Brandom, Robert, 105, 155–156, 165–166, 167–168Brody, Samuel Hayim, xi, 26, 291–309Brown, Peter, 278–279Buber, Martin, 137California Ethics Committee on stem cell research, 125–126Chaim of Brisk (Rabbi), 222–223, 224Christianity and philosophyAugustinian perspective, 277–281dominance of Christianity and, 285–287fact-value divide and, 252–254modernity and, 279problematics of, 74the will, 278n10Clark, Maudemarie, 210Clinton Health Care Task Force, 123, 124–125, 127–128Cogitata Metaphysica (Spinoza), 73Cohen, Hermann, 21, 135Cohen, Leonard, 191–192communal rights, rise of interest in, 62–64communist ideology, 63–64consciousness and friendship, 188–189contemporary epistemology, 145–148continental philosophyanalytic philosophy and, 10–11, 209–210existentialism and, 138Jewish philosophy and, 36language of, 75Cooper, John M., 285–287covenant theology, 45Crane, Jonathan K., 115creative friendship, 189–190Creatively Undecided (Fisch), 155, 165–167“Crisis Theology and the Jewish Community” (Borowitz), 45critique model of Jewish philosophy, 109–114cultural reproduction, 105–109Damasio, Antonio, 276Davidson, Donald, 225deconstructionism, 141, 142Dennett, Daniel, 273denominational thinking, 108, 113–114dependence, ontological versus epistemic, 219–221Derrida, Jacques, 141, 240Descartes, René, 73, 253, 277, 278n10, 281Deutsch, Eliot, 189–190Dewey, John, 261Diamond, Jim, 51Diaspora Jewish communitiesdebate about State of Israel, 304–305, 305n16denominational thinking and, 108education and, 111–112, 140, 239–240engagement in political philosophy by, 295fragmented nature of, 23, 43importance of relationship in face-to-face, 179–180as the internal Other, 293–294modern mystical, 182–185oligarchic nature of, 306, 306nn17–18as part of “establishment,”315, 321as sonorous communities, 171, 172, 173, 179–181using music to extend boundaries of, 181–182Diaspora Jewish communities and Jewish philosophyas context for, 15, 16, 16n32, 20–21disappearance of philosopher-rabbis, 171–172engaging, in Jewish philosophy, 20–21in France, 10n19German Jewry and, 324, 325impact of Jewish philosophy on, 15, 26, 87–92, 95–97, 96n30, 122–128interpretation and critique of, by Jewish philosophy, 110–111movement of Jewish philosophy from academy to, 5, 12–13, 79, 80–81, 85–86, 90, 92–96, 101, 239, 243–244, 299–300, 305as natural social base for Jewish philosophy, 101need to cultivate interest in Jewish philosophy, 243–244preservation of, with Jewish philosophy, 105–109professionalization of Jewish philosophy and, 100–101Dignity of Difference, The (Sacks), 43–44, 44n7Divine Command Ethics: Jewish and Christian Perspectives (Michael Harris), 219–221divine command theory, 220–221Dobbs-Weinstein, Idit, 278n10Dorff, Elliot N., xi, 21, 45–46, 115–129educationas basis of religious experience, 140Jewish commitment to, 239–240use of media formats outside of academic, 111–112of women, 205academyEfron, Noah, 165, 167“Eliezer Schweid: An Intellectual Portrait” (Levin), 43embryonic stem cell research, religious perspectives on, 125–126, 126n18Enlightenment, 134–135, 249, 254–255epistemic dependence, 219–221essentialism, 255, 321ethicsaltruism, 227–229, 228n39autonomous individual and, 137as constrained by classical sources, 46as elemental, 21, 46–47, 135–136, 209fact-value divide and, 251God and, 219–221, 298pull and push of, 209religion as requiring suspension of, 136study of, in academy, 277ethnic consciousness, rise of, 62–64Euthyphro dilemma, 219–221existentialism, 136–139, 140Expanding the Palace of Torah (Ross), 54–55Experience of God and the Rationality of Religious Belief (Gellman), 213fact-value dividedescribed, 248humanities study and, 247–248negative consequences of adoption of, 263–265origins, 25, 248, 248n3, 252–254philosophy’s recognition of immanent limits of scientific knowledge, 260rabbinic thinking and, 265–270, 266n33, 267nn34–35, 268n36responses to, 25, 250–251, 253, 255n21, 255–265unknowability/unintelligibility of theological and ethical claims, 251wedding between objectivity and subjectivity in inquiry and, 266–267falasifa, 282, 283Ferreira, M. Jamie, 168–169Fisch, Menachemantitraditionalist school of thought and, 22–23, 153, 153n6, 154, 156–157, 164on foundational disagreements in Judaism, 268–269on foundational theologies at heart of Jewish canon, 157–158on Frankfurt, 168intractability of cultural battles, 166Library of Contemporary Jewish Philosophers, 55–56, 153pragmatism and, 154–159rabbinic thinking as post–fact-value form of Jewish philosophical thinking, 265, 269–270resolution of issues of cultural politics, 165–167on two books metaphor, 252–253Yavneh cycle and, 158–160Fishbane, Michael, 52, 138–139Fisher, Cass, xi–xii, 231–246Fleg, Edmond, 10n19Fons Vitae (Ibn Gabirol), 74Ford Foundation, 277Foster, Daniel, 307n21Frank, Daniel, 213–215Frankfurt, Harryformation of volitional attachments as not rational, 168free will and, 217resurgence of analytic philosophy, 216volitional attachments as constraints, 166Franks, Paul W., 57–58, 318free will, 216–218, 260–261, 278n10, 278–281friendship theorybridge between transcendent and immanent yearnings, 187–188creative type of Deutsch, 189–190divine and, 185emotional typology, 186–187moral typology, 187philosophic categories of Ricoeur, 188–190typologies of Kant, 186–187Future Tense (Sacks), 44n7Fu Youde, 275Garb, Jonathan, 48, 172Garfield, Jay L., 36–37, 272Gellman, Jerome Yehudah, 212, 213gender and Jewish philosophy, 176n22, 176–177“Gettier cases,”56, 56n54Glazer, Aubrey L., xii, 23, 171–192Godof Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob versus the God of philosophers, 132, 296n10, 296–297distinction between Torah and, in Judaism, 144–145Enlightenment and, 134–135ethics and, 219–221, 298as fallible, 157free will and, 216–218halakhah as way to know, 327independent existence of, 244, 245as irreducible to human thought and natural world, 145Judaism as self-validating system legitimated by, 140kabbalistic doctrine of the identity of Being and, 54language game metaphor and, 141Maimonides as benchmark for all Jewish thinking about, 133–134as perfect being, 73, 95–96pluralism and, 118–119, 122relationship between, and morality in Judaism, 218–221, 254, 258Sabbath as existential freedom linking humanity to, 67understanding message of, 119–121visual form of, in Kabbalah, 142God’s Kindness Has Overwhelmed Us (Gellman), 213Goldberg, J. J., 237n9Goldman, Alvin, 225Goodman, Lenn E., xii, 48–49, 61–76, 134, 147Green, Arthur, 53–54, 107, 138, 139Grisez, Germain, 44The Guide of the Perplexed (Maimonides), 74, 83–84Guide of the Perplexed of the Time (Krochmal), 82, 85, 86, 87–88, 89–90, 92guru phenomenon, 72–73Gutting, Gary, 230Habermas, Jürgen, 110habits and worldview, 261–262Hadot, Pierre, 285halakhahAḥaronim and, 325–326, 327analytic philosophy and, 222–229ethics in Judaism as closer to, than theology, 46House of Shammai versus House of Hillel, 55–56Jewish philosophy as branch of, 52unrevisability of, 267nn34–35, 267–268Halakhic Man (Soloveitchik), 106Halevi, Judah, 73, 74, 296n10“halo effect,”227–228Harris, Michael, 219–221Harris, Robert A., 249Harrison, Peter, 25, 252Harvey, Warren Zev, xii, 41–59Hayes, Christine, 161Hazony, Yoram, 15n28, 69, 70Hegel, W. F., 105, 261, 263Heidegger, 141–142hermeneutics, 139–140, 143–144Heschel, Abraham Joshua, 54, 138, 247“Hierarchical Theories of Freedom and the Hardening of Hearts” (Shatz), 216–218historydescriptive philosophy, 296, 296n7God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob versus the God of philosophers, 132, 296n10, 296–297levels of recursive weirdness, 297–298, 299, 300role of, in Jewish philosophy, 38, 70–71Hollinger, David, 211Hughes, Aaron W., 29–39constructive nature of Jewish philosophy, 318constructive versus descriptive philosophy, 296n7inaccessibility of Jewish philosophy to Jewish communities, 79interdisciplinary studies in academy, 198–199on Jewish studies, 319on Library of Contemporary Jewish Philosophers, 271, 291, 299–300on tools of analytic philosophy and Jewish philosophy, 298, 299on Wolfson, 50works, xii–xiii, 3, 4–5, 195, 198–199human knowledge, limitations of, 118–119, 120–121Human Nature and Conduct (Dewey), 261Hume, David, 249Ibn Gabirol, Solomon, 74Idel, Moshe, 47–48, 172identity politicsin academy, 321Jews as part of “establishment” and, 315Library of Contemporary Jewish Philosophers, 27, 316–317ideology model of Jewish philosophy, 105–109, 112, 113“If Philosophy Won’t Diversify, Let’s Call It What It Really Is” (Garfield and Van Norden), 36–37“In Defense of ‘The West’” (Foster), 307n21intention and prayer, 222–224Irigaray, Luce, 178, 179Ishmael (Rabbi), 119Israeldebate in Diaspora Jewish communities about, 304–305, 305n16Jewish philosophy in, 15–16, 26, 42–43oligarchic nature of, 306, 306nn17–18rise of anti-liberal populist nationalism and, 308Israel, Jonathan, 248n3, 249Jankélévitch, Vladimir, 10n19Jerusalem (Mendelssohn), 205, 206Jerusalem: Or on Religious Power and Judaism (Mendelssohn), 236–237Jewish geography, 69Jewish identitycommitment to, in post-Holocaust world, 320interest in Jewish philosophy and, 319–320link with specific ideology, 108–109questionable status in modern world of, 320–321self-questioning and, 326–327“Jewish Philosophical Theology Project,”15n28Jewish philosophyadvice for embarking on practice of, 71–76American Jewish seminaries and, 247biographical nature of, 11–12, 11n22as branch of halakhah, 52categorization in canons of, 197as collision of particularistic demands and universal concerns, 6communication issues, 233–239, 242–243, 245–246constructive versus descriptive, 295–296, 296n7constructive versus reflective, 318contemporary interest in, 25as continually changing, 58as critique model, 109–114defining, 5n10, 6, 41, 100, 101–102embryonic stem cell research and, 125–126, 126n18engagement with dialectics of particular and universal, 12as European philosophy, 37factors in renaissance of, 63–64as field rather than discipline, 234fragility of, 153, 164funding, 15n28, 24gender and, 176n22, 176–177as ideology model, 105–109, 112, 113impact of technology, 17–18institutional settings of, 14–17, 16n32Jewish identity and interest in, 319–320Jewish Question and, 317–318, 322languages of, 41Library of Contemporary Jewish Philosophers as forcing reconception of, 231matter and form of, 100methodology, 10–11movement of, from academy to Jewish communities, 5, 12–13, 79, 80–81, 85–86, 90, 92–96, 101, 239, 243–244, 299–300, 305need to return to rationalism, 21, 147–148negative perceptions about, 4, 5as not really philosophy, 36as paradoxical philosophy, 41pivotal events as impetus for subjects studied, 99postmodernism and, 142, 231–232practices of Judaism generate problems addressed by, 89–91questions about nature of, 5–6return to logos, 144robustness of, 4role of history of, to contemporary, 38, 70–71role of skepticism, 318–319, 327as sine qua non to Jewish existence, 18as sociocultural and religious force, 7–8, 8n17as stream of classical philosophy, 271–272study of, as producing more sophisticated version of Judaism, 91tension with Judaism, 84–85, 132–134theocentric bias of modern, 157as therapy model, 102–105tools of analytic philosophy and, 298–299tradition of text study as model, 139as universalizing, rationalizing, 32–33use of educational media, 111–112writing in a Jewish way, 300–302Diaspora Jewish communities and Jewish philosophy“Jewish Philosophy: An Obituary” (Mendes-Flohr), 296Jewish Philosophy for the Twenty-First Century: Personal Reflections (Tirosh-Samuelson and Hughes), 3, 298Jewish Philosophy Past and Present, Contemporary Responses to Classical Sources (Frank and Segal), 213–215, 214n15Jewish QuestionAḥaronim and, 325–326, 327anti-Semitism as stimulus for, 320–321, 323elements, 311–312German Jewry and, 324, 327Jewish philosophy no longer addressing, 317–318need to reflect on, again, 322reopening of, 27, 327–328Jewish studies programs, 63, 79Jewish “thinking,”256, 258–259John Templeton Foundation, 15n28Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy, 235, 236Judaismabsence of revealed truths in, 236–237conceptually and morally consistent reworking of ideas and institutions, 66–67covenant as basis of, 45as “cultural-linguistic” system, 140, 141cultural translation of liturgical music and, 180–182distinction between Torah and God, 144–145essential theological principles of, 147–148ethics as closer to halakhah than theology, 46ethics as elemental, 21, 46–47, 135–136, 209existentialism and, 137, 138giving more space to women in, 54–55Jewish philosophy and reason as basis of, 32–33marginalization of theology in academy, 238in modernity as inherently vulnerable, 326pluralism and, 43, 118practices of, generate problems philosophy addresses, 89–91as primarily religion of images and practice not belief, 67, 214–215, 237, 237n9pursuit of ideal and, 51rabbinic theology, 244–245relationship between God and morality, 218–221as self-validating system legitimated by God, 140study of philosophy as producing more sophisticated version of, 91survival of, as story of repeated reinvention within theme, 64–66tension with Jewish philosophy, 84–85, 132–134“Judaism and the Religious Crisis of Modern Science” (Fisch), 252, 265“Judaism Is Alive and Well, Just Evolving” (Goldberg), 237n9Kabbalahattempt to systematize Zohar, 42n3doctrine of identity of Being and God, 54as embodiment of forces of obscurantism, 32as Spinoza plus mystery, 54visual form of God, 142Kant, Immanuel, 134, 135–136, 186–187Kaplan, Mordecai, 247Karinthy, Frigyes, 69Katz, Claire E., xiii, 24, 195–208Kavka, Martin, xiii, 22, 151–169Kellison, Rosemary, 153–154Kellner, Menachem, 50–51, 134Kepnes, Steven, xiii, 21, 131–150Kierkegaard, Søren, 136Kraemer, Joel, 283Krochmal, Nachmanbackground of, 81, 83Maimonides and, 83, 86mode of inquiry for studying philosophy and maintaining faith, 84–85necessity of philosophical studies, 87–92relevance of Jewish philosophy to Jewish communal life, 20, 85–86, 93–94Kuzari (Halevi), 74language game approach to philosophy, 140–141languages of Jewish philosophy, 41Lebens, Samuel, 241Leibowitz, Yeshayahu, 111Levin, Leonard, 43Levinas, Emmanuel, 10n19, 73, 228n39, 240“Levinas and Judaism” (Putnam), 228n39Lewinsohn, Jed, 225–226Library of Contemporary Jewish Philosophersas addressing humanities, 207–208authority structure of, 22Blumenthal, 47Borowitz, 45, 137–138, 140contents, 6–7, 8, 9–11, 13, 82, 175–177, 232–233, 236defining Jewish philosophy, 41Dorff, 45–46female Jewish philosophers and, 176, 176n22Fisch, 55–56, 153Fishbane, 138–139as forcing reconception of Jewish philosophy, 231format, 8–9genesis and development of, 3–4, 29–30Goodman, 48–49, 134Green, 53–54, 138Idel, 47–48identity politics and, 27, 316–317integration of analytic and Jewish philosophy in, 212, 213n10Kellner, 50–51, 134Morgan, 57–58notion of “authorities” and, 152–153, 155Novak, 44–45Plaskow, 46–47purpose, 5, 39, 80, 151–152, 271, 272, 299–300Ross, 54–55, 140–141Sacks, 43–44Sagi, 49–50, 137, 141Samuelson, 53Schweid, 42–43Shatz, 56–57as testament to Jewish rationalism, 31Wolfson, 50, 138, 141–142Liebes, Yehuda, 42n3“Links” (Karinthy), 69Locke, John, 134–135logical positivismacademy and, 196n4analytic philosophy and, 211eclipse of, 61–62fact-value divide and, 248–249logocentrism, 141“lonely Jew,”43“Lonely Jew and Judaism, The” (Schweid), 43Longstaff, Patricia Hirl, 288MacIntyre, Alasdair, 230Maimonides, Mosesas benchmark for all Jewish thinking about God, 133–134genres written in by, 74influence on Krochmal, 83, 86influence on Spinoza, 283integration of Judaism and philosophy, 133–134intellectualist interpretation of moral agency, 282–283as intellectual mystic, 47laws of prayer, 222on purpose of The Guide of the Perplexed, 83–84rational knowledge, 280n15scientific naturalism, 277Making It Explicit (Brandom), 167–168Mayse, Ariel Evan, 54medieval Jewish philosophy, 32n5“Menachem Kellner: An Intellectual Portrait” (Diamond), 51Mendelssohn, Mosesabsence of revealed truths in Judaism, 236–237on Jewish concepts/doctrines, 152–153limits on state power, 205, 206Mendes-Flohr, Paul, 26, 296, 299, 308Metaphysic of Morals (Kant), 186–187“Michael Fishbane: An Intellectual Portrait” (Shonkoff), 52, 139“Michael Morgan: An Intellectual Portrait” (Franks), 57–58midrash, normative unity and theistic continuity of, 66Misemer, Sarah, 201Mittleman, Alan, 63modernityChristian notion of human nature and, 279equated with secularity, 64giving up on, 292–293inherent vulnerability of Judaism in, 326Kant and, 135–136Modern Judaism, 235, 236“Modern Orthodoxy and the Challenge of Feminism” (Ross), 207–208morality/moral agencyAlexandrian reading of Aristotle and, 282as form of character development, 279free will, 216–218, 260–261, 278n10, 278–281intellectualist interpretation of Maimonides, 282–283Judaism and, 218–221origin of, 277, 278rationality and, 283relationship between God and, in Judaism, 218–221, 254, 258revelation as acknowledgment of God as unique source of, 254, 258“more,” the religious/sacred, 250–251, 253Morgan, Michael, 57–58Morgenbesser, Sidney, 57“Moshe Idel: An Intellectual Portrait” (Garb), 48musiccreation of zones between temporalities, 174–175cultural translation of liturgical, 180–182dialectic of musical thinking, 171, 173–174efficacy of, as collective prayer, 171unhappy consciousness and, 191–192using, to extend boundaries of faith communities, 181–182sonorous communitiesmysticismexistentialism and, 137friendship and, 190–191Maimonides and, 47modern Jewish communities and, 182–185reevaluation of work of Scholem, 48relationship to poetry and philosophy, 50Nahme, Paul E., xiii–xiv, 26–27, 311–328National Human Resources Protections Advisory Commission (NHRPAC), 126–127Natural History of Religion (Hume), 249natural right, 254Neuhaus, Richard John, 115neurophilosophy, 25New Directions in Jewish Philosophy (Hughes and Wolfson), 4–5Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 282Nietzsche, Friedrich, 173non-Jewish communities and Jewish philosophy, 80–81“Norbert M. Samuelson: An Intellectual Portrait” (Simon), 53Novak, David, 44–45, 265–268, 266n33, 267nn34–35Nozick, Robert, 209obscurantism, Kabbalah as embodiment of forces of, 32“On Levinas and Judaism” (Putnam), 209ontological dependence, 219–221Panksepp, Jaak, 276Pascal, 296, 297Pedaya, Haviva, 176n22Peirce, Charles Sanders, 154, 163peoplehood, as prejudice/quasi-racism, 143“Perpetual Covenant of Jewish Learning, The” (Fisch), 153, 153n6phenomenology, 139–140, 143Phenomenology (Hegel), 261, 263philosopher-rabbis, 22–23, 171–172Philosophical Explanations (Nozick), 209Philosophical Investigations (Wittgenstein), 102–103philosophyargumentation and, 49, 57border with theology, 301–302categorization in canons of, 195–197, 196n4diverse genres of, 74end of, 142–143Enlightenment and, 134–135epistemological and practical goals of, 131–132ethnic-based rationalities and, 36existentialism, 136–139, 140isolation from life, 274, 275as language game, 140–141meaning and boundaries of, in academy, 271as morally limited, 255n21, 255–256political, versus political science, 256–258, 257n24portrayal of, as neutral and universal, 195, 198–199, 205as possessing absolute truth, 254, 293post-structuralism, 141–142recognition of immanent limits of scientific knowledge, 260relationship to poetry and mysticism, 50relationship to religion and revelation, 52of religion, 34, 35as rival to Judaism, 132training in, and participation in public policy debates, 21, 122–128truth as central issue of, 148as way of life, 11, 11n22analytic philosophyPhilosophy and Law (Strauss), 254–257, 255n21“Philosophy in Halakha: the Case of Intentional Action” (Lewinsohn), 225–226Pines, Shlomo, 48, 282Plantinga, Alvin, 212, 213Plaskow, Judith, 46–47pluralismbasis for belief in, 118–119in debate, 119–121difficulties of, 122fragmented communities within Judaism and, 43language game approach and, 140in practice, 121–122using music to extend boundaries of faith communities, 181–182poetry, relationship to mysticism and philosophy, 50political philosophy versus political science, 256–258, 257n24politics, political debates, and public policyabout State of Israel, 304impact of Jewish philosophy on, 15–16, 16n32Jewish philosophy’s need to enter, 26oligarchic natures of US and Israel, 306, 306nn17–18politics of identity, 308n23, 308–309practical wisdom and, 257–258religion in public discussion of, 115–117, 122rise in anti-liberal populist nationalism and, 306–308, 307n21, 323as site of truth, 293toleration of differences, 122–123training in philosophy and participation in, 21, 122–128Popper, Karl, 274Posen Foundation, 16positivism, eclipse of, 61–62postmodernism, 142, 231–232post-structuralism, 141–142practical wisdom, 257pragmatism, 154–159prayer and intention, 222–224priority of practice theory, 215public policy.politics, political debates, and public policyPutnam, Hilary, 103, 209–210, 228n39, 248–249rabbinic thinking, 265–270, 266n33, 267nn34–35, 268n36rabbi/philosophers, 22–23, 171–172Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650–1750 (Israel), 248n3, 249Rashkover, Randi, xiv, 25, 247–270rationalismas basis for religious belief, 45, 57n58Enlightenment and, 134–135Library of Contemporary Jewish Philosophers as testament to Jewish, 31need for Jewish philosophy to return to, 21, 147–148Spinoza and, 135rationalityauthority and, 158–164in classical Greek philosophy, 286as game of “deontic scorekeeping,”155, 165–167as inherent in all, 280n15intersubjective discourse as requirement of, 156moral agency and, 283philosophy and ethnic-based, 36priority of practice theory and, 215religious experience and, 212–213volitional attachments and, 166, 168analytic philosophyRational Rabbis (Fisch), 56–57, 153, 153n6, 156, 158–159Ravven, Heidi M., xiv, 25, 271–290“Reflections” (Bleich), 52Reichmuth, Stefan, 186religionclaims of truth, 35as companion to “practical reason,”135education and, 140modern study of, 249–250in public political debates and public policy, 115–117, 122relationship of philosophy and revelation to, 52, 212as requiring suspension of ethics, 136social scientific reduction of religion, 248–250“Religious Communities, Secular Societies, and Sexuality: One Jewish Opinion” (Novak), 267n35Rethinking Jewish Philosophy: Beyond Particularism and Universalism (Hughes), 195, 198–199revelationdebate about extent and nature of, 119–120defining, 55encounter to explain experience of, 137in exegesis, 139God as unique source of morality and, 254, 258modern religious experience and belief in, 212philosophy’s inability to disprove or prove, 255n21, 255–256relationship to religion and philosophy, 52, 212traditions based on, 258Revelation and the God of Israel (Samuelson), 212Ricoeur, Paul, 188–190“Role of Dogma in Judaism, The” (Novak), 266n33Rorty, Richard, 107–108, 296–297Rosenzweig, Franzencounter to explain experience of revelation, 137Fisher on, 232primal irreducible elements, 145Putnam’s interpretation of, 103theological realism and, 245“Rosenzweig and Wittgenstein” (Putnam), 103Ross, Tamar, 54–55, 140–141, 207Rudolph, Otto, 250Saadia, 68Sabbath, as sign of freedom, 67Sacks, Elias R., xiv, 20, 79–97Sacks, Jonathan, 43–44, 107Sagi, Avi, 49–50, 137, 141Salanter, Yisrael, 228n39Samuelson, Norbert M.epistemological scale from belief to knowledge, 146essential theological principles of Judaism, 147–148influence of, 69Library of Contemporary Jewish Philosophers, 3, 53on Maimonides’ synthesis of Judaism and philosophy, 133revelation and rationality, 212Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 250Scholem, Gershom, 48Schweid, Eliezer, 13, 42–43“Science, Religion, and Rationality: A Neo-Hegelian Approach” (Fisch), 154–155, 156, 157, 165“Science as Vocation” (Weber), 25sciencesclassification in, 291–292fact-value dividescientific worldview, 146–147Scriptural Reasoning, 303secularity, equation with modernity of, 64Segal, Aaron, 213–215self-sacrifice, 227–228Shalom Hartman Institute, 16Shame and Necessity (Williams), 230Shatz, Davidextreme altruism, 227–229, 228n39free will and, 216–218Library of Contemporary Jewish Philosophers, 56–57overview of, 216Shonkoff, Sam Berrin, 52, 139Sidorsky, David, 45Simon, Jules, 53Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Broader Social Impacts Committee, 127Soloveitchik, Joseph B.background, 247existentialism and, 138Jewish philosophy as reserver of Jewish culture, 106, 107prayer and intention, 223–224Shatz on, 57sonorous communitiescreation of, 172, 179–181defining, 171history, 173Speculum of the Other Woman (Irigaray), 178Spinoza, Baruchbiological conception of human nature, 284as example of what Jewish philosophy can be and do, 68–69fact-value divide and, 248n3goal of, 135influence of Descartes on, 73, 277influence of Maimonides on, 277, 283materialism and, 278n10as philosopher whose works should be lived, 287as “proto-biologist,”276–277Star of Redemption (Rosenzweig), 145Strauss, Leo, 25, 254–260, 255n21, 256n24, 293Stump, Eleonore, 211n6, 214n15, 216–218Substance and Subject, 258–259, 263, 264supernaturalism, 277Sztuden, Alex, xiv–xv, 26, 209–230Taylor, Charles, 181technology, 17–18, 111–112, 149theological realism, 21, 144–145, 245theologyagenda of, 266n33border with philosophy, 301–302covenant, 45essential principles of Judaism and, 147–148ethics as closer to halakhah than, 46fact-value divide and, 251foundational, at heart of Jewish canon, 157–158marginalization of, in academy, 237–238need for journals of, 236–238rabbinic, 244–245therapy model of Jewish philosophy, 102–105Through a Speculum that Shines (Wolfson), 142Through Vegetal Being (Irigaray), 178Tiberean Hasidism and aliyah of 1777, 182–185Tikvah Fund, 15n28“Time, Creation, and the Mirror of Narcissus” (Goodman), 147Tirosh-Samuelson, Hava, 3–27constructive nature of Jewish philosophy, 318constructive versus descriptive philosophy, 296n7definition of Jewish philosophy, 100inaccessibility of Jewish philosophy to Jewish communities, 79on Library of Contemporary Jewish Philosophers, 271, 291, 299–300on tools of analytic philosophy and Jewish philosophy, 298, 299works, xvTishby, Isaiah, 42n3tradition versus traditionalism, 153–154transcendence, 148–149, 187–188truthabsence of revealed, in Judaism, 236–237in analytic philosophy, 298as central issue of philosophy, 148language game approach and, 141Maimonides and, 133phenomenology and, 139–140philosophy as possessing absolute, 254, 293politics and, 293religious claims of, 35Sacks and, 43–44, 44n7science and, 248n3subjectivity as path to, 136vulgarization and trivialization of, by untrammeled nationalism, 208–209two books metaphor, 252–253Two Models of Jewish Philosophy (Rynhold), 215Understanding the Sick and the Healthy (Rosenzweig), 103unhappy consciousness, 191n88, 191–192Vajda, Georges, 47values, 254fact-value divideVan Norden, Bryan W., 36–37, 272vegetal thinking, 178–179View from Within: Normativity and the Limits of Self Criticism, The (Fisch and Benbaji), 154, 155–156, 165–167, 168Vindication of the Rights of Women, The (Wollstonecraft), 205voluntarism, 279–280, 281Weber, Max, 25Western philosophy.philosophyWettstein, Howard, 214–215What Is Ancient Philosophy? (Hadot), 285Williams, Bernard, 230Wise, Isaac Meyer, 247Wissenschaft des Judentums movement, 25, 250, 256Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 102–103, 140–141Wolfson, Elliot R., 4–5, 50, 138, 141–142Wolfson, Harry, 32n5Wollstonecraft, Mary, 205womeneducation of, 205giving more space in Judaism to, 54–55Jewish philosophy and, 176n22, 176–177language game approach and, 141Worship of the Heart (Soloveitchik), 223–224Yavneh cycle, 158–160Zevit, Ziony, 237–238Zohar, attempt to systematize, 42n3