Figures and Tables

in Heaven and Earth United
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Figures

2.1 Astrolabe-equatorium, c. 1350; detail of limb (Merton College, Oxford, SC/OB/AST/2) 32

2.2 Diagram of the Merton astrolabe-equatorium, showing the probable workings of the epicycle and common deferent radius 34

2.3 Astrolabe-equatorium, c. 1350; back (Merton College, Oxford, SC/OB/AST/2) 35

2.4 Astrolabe-equatorium, c. 1350; detail of the back (Merton College, Oxford, SC/OB/AST/2) 38

3.1 Astrological plate for calculating the house divisions, unsigned, 1516 (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, WI 22) 44

3.2 Front of an astrological-medical plate for calculating the crises of an illness, by Erasmus Habermel, 1585 (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, WI 1808) 47

3.3 Back of the astrological-medical plate, showing information related to the lunar cycle, by Erasmus Habermel, 1585 (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, WI 1808) 49

3.4 Plate displaying astrological and medical information, by Georg Hartmann, 1554 (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, HB 2713) 52

3.5 Astrological-medical engraving with information about the crises, by Georg Hartmann, 1538 (Herzog-August-Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel, 15 Astron. 2°, 1a) 55

3.6 Medical plate showing temperaments, horary divisions and astrological aspects, by Georg Hartmann, 1554 (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, HB 25492) 57

4.1 Double spread of astrological diptych, by Thomas Hood (British Library Board, Add. MS 71494) 62

4.2 Detail of Thomas Hood’s astrological table showing the rotating index and volvelle of critical days (British Library Board, Add. MS 71494) 64

4.3 Double spread of astrological diptych, by Thomas Hood, 1597 (British Library Board, Add. MS 71495) 65

4.4 Printed astrological disc, by Gerard Mercator, 1551 (Historisches Museum Basel, inv. 1876.20) 73

4.5 Circular table with volvelle and index, from Claude Dariot, Ad astrorum iudicia facilis introductio, Lyon, Apud Mauritium Roy et Ludovicum Pesnot, 1557 74

4.6 Circular table with index from Claude Dariot, Ad astrorum iudicia facilis introductio, Lyon, Apud Mauritium Roy et Ludovicum Pesnot, 1557 75

4.7 Tulip rete silhouettes of Gerard Mercator (type 1, left) and Gualterus Arsenius (type 2, right) 79

4.8 Detail of the rete of Thomas Hood’s tulip astrolabe showing his signature inside the central strapwork circle as well as the two impaled flanking circles (British Library Board, Add. MS 71495) 80

5.1 Astrolabe, by Tobias Volckmer the Elder, 1593; detail of back (Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum, Braunschweig, LMB 22994) 88

5.2 Astrolabe, by Tobias Volckmer the Elder, 1594; back (British Museum, London, 1888, 1201.280) 89

5.3 Astrolabe, by Tobias Volckmer the Elder, 1593; back (Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum, Braunschweig, LMB 22994) 90

5.4 Astrolabe, by Tobias Volckmer the Elder, 1601; back (Stift Seitenstetten, Austria) 91

5.5 Astrological tablet owned by Heinrich Rantzau, 1574; outer faces; Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz Berlin, Kunstgewerbemuseum 93

5.6 The essential dignities of the planets, from Cyprianus Leovitius, Brevis et perspicua ratio iudicandi genituras, ex physicis causis et vera experientia extructa, London, 1558 94

5.7 Astrological tablet owned by Heinrich Rantzau, 1574; inner faces; Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz Berlin, Kunstgewerbemuseum 97

5.8 Astrological tablet owned by Heinrich Rantzau, 1574; inner face (detail); Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz Berlin, Kunstgewerbemuseum 98

6.1 Aspectarium on an astronomical compendium, by Humfrey Cole, 1569 (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, no. AST0172) 111

6.2 Astrolabe, French, c. 1630; front, showing the Rojas projection, lunar volvelle and aspectarium (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, no. AST0564) 113

6.3 Astrological aspectarium; from Alchabitius cum comento: Cum gratia et privilegio, Venice, per Joannem et Gregorium de Gregoriis fratres, 1502 115

6.4 Silvered brass nocturnal, by Hans Dorn, Vienna, 1491 (British Museum, no. 1894,0615.1) 117

6.5 Ray diagram aspectarium on an astronomical compendium, by Charles Whitwell, about 1600 (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, no. AST0468) 119

6.6 Paper volvelle to demonstrate the planetary aspects; from Petrus Apianus, Astronomicum Caesareum, Ingolstadt, 1540 (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, no. ZBA7658) 120

6.7 Nocturnal with aspectarium, zodiac scale and index pointers for the Sun and Moon, by Ulrich Schniep, Munich, 1581 (Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, inv. no. 51384) 122

7.1 Astronomical turret clock in Padua, by Jacopo Dondi and Novello Dondi dall’Orologio 135

7.2 Astronomical turret clock in Clusone, by Pietro Fanzago, 1583 136

7.3 Astronomical desk clock, built for Pope Pius V, by Giovanni Maria Barocci, c. 1570 137

7.4 The aspects, the reciprocal angular positions of the Sun and Moon 138

7.5 The astronomical/astrological dial of the Mantua clock, following reconstruction in 1992 143

7.6 Pietro Adamo de’ Micheli, Della Dichiaratione dell’Horologio di Mantova, Mantova, Giacomo Ruffinelli, 1547 150

8.1 The astrologer in private space with his books and armillary sphere; from Kalender, Augsburg, 1539, title page (Courtesy Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich, Res/4 Eph.astr. 99 t) 154

8.2 The Solarium and Arachne on the Görlitz Ratsapotheke, photographed 2010 156

8.3 The Görlitz Arachne, photographed 2010 158

8.4 Planetary hours in tabular format; from Oronce Finé, De duodecim caeli domiciliis et horis inequalibus, Paris, 1553 160

8.5 A model for Vitruvius’s “arachne”? Greek spherical dial showing eleven hour lines and three day curves, found at Lanuvium in 1891 (British Museum 1893,0713.13) 162

8.6 Astrolabe tympanum with curves marking unequal hours, numbered 1 to 12; from Johann Stöffler, Elucidatio fabricae ususque astrolabii, Oppenheim, 1513 164

8.7 Tobias Klieber’s drawing, c. 1600, of the astrolabe dial and table for finding planetary hours on the Augsburg public clock (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich, Cgm 4189) 166

8.8 Mechanical dial for planetary hours on the Rostock astronomical clock, c. 1472 (Manfred Schukowski, Wunder Uhren, Schwerin, 2006) 167

8.9 The Oppenheim dials for planetary and civil hours, 1586, restored 1935, photographed 2008 168

8.10 The Oppenheim Horologium planetarum, photographed 2008 170

8.11 Ecliptic planetary hours for shortening and lengthening days on an astrolabe tympanum, anonymous drawing, c. 1520 (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich, Cod.icon. 182) 174

8.12 Ecliptic planetary hours represented on a portable quadrant-sundial; from Petrus Apianus, Instrument Buch, Ingolstadt, 1533 175

8.13 An astrolabe-like instrument marking ecliptic planetary hours for lengthening days. Oronce Finé, De duodecim caeli domiciliis et horis, Paris, 1553 176

8.14 Ecliptic unequal hour lines drawn for a horizontal sundial; from Juan de Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Solis et artis adulteria, Louvain, 1644 177

9.1 The structure of the armillary sphere; from Mauro da Firenze, Annotationi sopra la lettione della Spera del Sacro Bosco, Florence, Lorenzo Torrentino, 1550 184

9.2 The positions of the zodiacal signs and planets in the twelve houses for 28 June 1582 at 19:30; from Antonio Santucci, “Trattato sopra la nuova invenzione della sfera armillare”, c. 1582 189

9.3 Armillary sphere, by A. Santucci, Rome, 1582 192

9.4 Armillary sphere, by A. Santucci, Rome, 1582; a) detail of the zodiac band; b) detail of the ring for calculating the date of the new Moon 194

9.5 A. Santucci, “Ruota perpetua nuovamente ad utilità comune posta in luce”, Florence, after 1589 195

9.6 Cosmological model, by A. Santucci, Florence, 1588–1593, in the first room of the Museum of Antique Instruments, Florence, c. 1876 198

9.7 Cosmological model, by Santucci, Florence, 1588–1593; X-ray image revealing the wood layers of the meridian ring and nails 200

9.8 Cosmological model, by Santucci, Florence, 1588–1593; restorer Roberto Buda and the central part of the armillary on a temporary stand 201

9.9 Cosmological model, by Santucci, Florence, 1588–1593; detail of Sagittarius showing astrological information 206

9.10 Cosmological model, by Santucci, Florence, 1588–1593; detail of the coats of arms of the Medici and Lorraine families 208

10.1 The figure for the houses of heaven, numbered anticlockwise from the eastern horizon; from Joseph Moxon, A Tutor to Astronomie and Geographie, London, Joseph Moxon, 1670 214

10.2 The circle of position on a celestial globe; from Johann Schöner, Globi stelliferi, sive sphaerae stellarum fixarum usus, Nuremberg, Joannes Petreius, 1533 216

10.3 The figure with the addition of the ecliptic longitudes of the cusps of the houses, the planets, the nodes of the Moon and the Part of Fortune; from J. Moxon, A Tutor to Astronomie and Geographie, London, Joseph Moxon, 1670 217

10.4 Celestial globe, by Gerard Mercator, 1551, with a detached semicircle of position 223

10.5 The fitting for the semicircle of position; from Johann Schöner, Opera Mathematica, Nuremberg, Montanus & Neuber, 1551 224

10.6 Celestial globe, by Gerard Mercator, 1551; detail of the horizon ring with fragments of metal studs for fixing a semicircle of position 225

10.7 Celestial globe, by Gerard Mercator, 1551; detail of the horizon ring with holes in a position for studs to fix a semicircle of position 226

10.8 Applying a planetary mark in ink to the varnished surface of a celestial globe 227

10.9 Applying a planetary mark in pencil to the unvarnished surface of a celestial globe 228

11.1 “De Astrologist”; from Jan and Casper Luyken, Het Menselyk Bedryf, Amsterdam, Kornelis vander Sys, 1718 233

11.2 “Astrologischer oder Nativität-Narr”; from Christoph Weigel, Centi-folium stultorum in quarto, oder, Hundert ausbündige Narren in Folio, Vienna, Johann Carl Megerle and Nuremberg, Johann Christoph Weigel, 1709 235

11.3 Sebastián de Covarrubias Horozco, Emblemas morales, Madrid, Luis Sanchez, 1610 237

11.4 Robert Fludd, Utriusque cosmi maioris scilicet et minoris metaphysica, physica atque technica historia, Oppenheim, Johann Theodor de Bry, 1617–1621 238

11.5 William Lilly, engraving by William Marshall; from Christian Astrology, London, Thomas Budenell, 1647 240

11.6 Henry Coley, engraving by Thomas Cross; from Clavis Astrologiae; or, a Key to the whole Art of Astrologie, London, Printed for Joshua Coniers, 1669 242

11.7 Hudibras and his servant Rolpho with Sidrophel and his assistant Wachum, engraving by J. Mynde, after William Hogarth; from Samuel Butler, Hudibras, London, J. Bettenham, 1744, 2 vols.; vol. 2, plate XI 248

11.8 “Habit d’Astrologue”, engraving by Nicolas de Larmessin, about 1695 252

G1 Astrological chart for the birth of Andreas Vesalius on 30 December 1514; from Girolamo Cardano, Libelli quinque, Nuremberg, Joannes Petreius, 1547 265

G2 The houses of the traditional chart showing the areas of life they govern 263

G3 Zodiac Man; from Kalendar Deutsch, Augsburg, J. Blaubiren, c. 1483 275

Tables

1.1 The astrological houses and their indications 9

1.2 Selected chapters of al-Khwārizmī’s treatise on the astrolabe 11

1.3 Final-letter abbreviations of planets’ names 14

8.1 Public astronomical clocks marking unequal hours, before 1600 165

8.2 Durations of ecliptic unequal hours in terms of civil hours, as a function of solar longitude for a geographical latitude of 51° (Görlitz), obliquity of 23° 30′ and durations of “first type” unequal hours 172

G.1 Planetary aspects 264

G.2 The planetary hours of the day and night 271

G.3 The planetary rulers according to Ptolemaic astrology 272

G.4 The triplicities and their rulers 274

Heaven and Earth United

Instruments in Astrological Contexts

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