IndexAbagha (Ilkhanids)291, 327, 330, 331, 332, 333, 340, 344, 348n30, 385n33, 695n36Abajī (Ilkhanid envoy)295, 296Abbasids (califat abbasside, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad, of Cairo, Banū l-ʿAbbās; see also al-Ḥākim I, Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad; Hārūn al-Rashīd; Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Shams al-Dīn, Sharaf al-Dīn; al-Manṣūr; al-Mustakfī; al-Mustanjid; al-Mustanṣir; al-Mustaʿṣim; al-Muʿtaṭid; al-Mutawakkil I; Yaʿqūb b. al-Mutawakkil I)32, 35, 48n217, 71, 114, 119, 122, 187, 191, 204n135, 239n15, 252, 269, 308, 311n36, 312–3, 314n46, 340, 341, 343, 345, 346, 347, 350n38, 356, 357, 458, 497, 568, 574, 581, 582, 584n17, 604, 605, 610, 611, 613, 614, 617, 621–8, 630–5, 672, 678, 679, 696, 698, 793al-ʿAbbāsī, al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad111, 131, 226n40, 263, 264, 268, 272, 586ʿAbdallāh b. Masʿūd630ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUmar Khaṭṭāb630ʿAbd al-Muʾmīn b. Ibrāhīm (Hafsids)550, 551, 558, 560, 571, 572, 573, 574ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Kārimī (Abyssinian envoy)650, 651, 653Abdalwadids (Abdelwadides; see also Musā II, Abū Ḥammū)534n31, 553Abel, Armand828, 829, 831Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr (Emirate of Bādis)763Abū ʿAmr ʿUthmān b. Idrīs, see ʿUthmān b. Idrīs (Borno)Abū ʿAmr ʿUthmān al-Manṣūr, see al-Manṣūr ʿUthmān (Hafsids)Abū ʿAṣīda, see al-Mustanṣir (Hafsids)Abū Bakr (Abā Bakr) b. Mīrānshāh (Timurids)392, 393, 404, 444, 451n103, 454, 455, 456Abū Bakr, Sayf al-Dīn (Golden Horde envoy)283Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq630Abū l-Faḍl (Nasrid envoy)522Abū Fāris ʿAzzūz, see al-Mutawakkil (Hafsids)Abū l-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl, see al-Ṣāliḥ (Ayyubids of Hama)Abū Ghāda, Badr al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)288Abū l-Ghayth b. Abī Numayy (Sharifs of Mecca)532, 541, 542, 543, 545, 558Abū Ḥanīfa115Abū l-Qāsim (Nasrid envoy)522Abū Saʿīd (Ilkhanids)135, 267, 271, 272, 273, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 348, 350, 351, 353n61, 545Abū Shāma517Abū Yūsuf115Abulafia, David140Abyssinia (see also Amḥara; Amda Mikā’ēl; Amda Ṣeyon; Dāwit I/Dāwūd; Dāwit II; Eskender; Sayfa Arʿad; Yagbe’a Ṣeyon; Yekuno Amlāk; Yesḥāq; Zagwe; Zar’a Yā’eqob)147, 638–54Acre24, 136, 406n137, 593, 685Adana567‘Addi Na’amen650Addressees48n217, 49, 50, 51, 53, 185, 186, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207, 211, 216, 217, 218, 221, 222, 224, 225, 226, 227, 426, 427, 462, 493, 660, 670, 673, 688, 789Aden541, 542, 587, 589, 591, 593, 595, 599al-ʿĀdil I Muḥammad (Ayyubids)746al-ʿĀdil II Abū Bakr (Ayyubids)754Adıyaman, see Ḥiṣn ManṣūrAdministration20, 35, 36n169, 119, 214n3, 219, 220, 222, 223, 239, 277, 319, 342, 343, 346, 349, 350, 588, 589, 594, 690n19, 696, 801, 802Administrative literature108, 120–121, 133, 185, 186, 187, 188, 198, 500, 610al-Afḍal al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAlī (Rasulids)589, 595, 596Afghan mountains627Afghāna632Afghanistan446al-Afram, Āqqūsh350Africa240, 676, 722 East582, 648 Horn of641 North239, 240, 255, 514, 516, 659, 662, 676, 696, 716, 823 Sub-Saharan156, 241n34, 662, 678, 679 West148, 157, 658, 660, 662, 671n63, 673, 677Afonso IV (Portugal)518, 714Afonso V (Portugal)711, 714, 715, 716, 717, 718, 723Agents105, 108, 121, 128, 130, 133, 135, 141, 144, 145, 146, 154, 159, 160, 274, 318, 322, 323, 378n24, 595, 627, 668, 690n19, 752ʿAhd (covenant, contract)116, 117, 446–447, 624, 635, 646al-Aḥkām al-sulṭāniyya (al-Māwardī)622Ahl al-dhimma (Protected communities)113, 117n60Ahl al-kitāb (People of the Book)114Ahl al-riʾāsa (Men of power)589Ahl-i sunna va-jamāʿa628Aḥmad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAjlān (Sharifs of Mecca)547Aḥmad Ṣāmit, Shihāb al-Dīn (Abbasid envoy)632Aḥmad Tegüder, see Tegüder Aḥmad (Ilkhanids)Aḥmadābād155, 621Ahrī341al-Ahwānī, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz156, 521Aigle, Denise134, 329Aix-les-Bains731Ajlāb (Newly bought mamluks)540, 732ʿAjlān b. Rumaytha (Sharifs of Mecca)546Akbar (Mughals)604Akhī Faraj b. Bisṭām449Akhlāṭ278Akopyan, A.356Aksum641Ala Dağ (Ala-tag)306, 435, 441, 443, 459ʿAlāma (Signature)27, 31, 47, 51, 53, 60, 199, 201, 206–8, 216n7, 221n20, 223, 224, 225, 426n29, 512, 513, 514, 548, 549, 551, 554–557, 674, 675, 676, 690n20, 785, 786, 790, 791, 792, 793, 795, 801akhūhu201, 207, 208, 221, 675, 790al-ʿalāmāt al-murtajaʿa791al-ʿalāmāt al-maqrūṭa791ism (sultan’s name)53, 201, 207, 785, 790–791, 792wāliduhu201, 207, 208, 790Alamut328Alan280, 306, 322Alarcón y Santón, Maximiliano Agustín14Alberic of Monte Cassino185Albistān, see ElbistanAlbuñol521Aldughdī, Badr al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)288Aleppo22, 36, 151, 253, 272n44, 347, 365, 369, 371, 373, 382, 386, 389–97, 406, 439, 456n130, 457, 597, 766Alexandretta (gulf of)765Alexandria (Alexandrie)16, 20, 21, 22, 30, 46n213, 56n265, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 142, 147, 227, 242, 270, 277, 319n74, 321, 519, 520, 521, 529, 536, 541, 594, 595, 596, 639, 642, 688, 696, 733, 742, 743, 744, 746, 747, 751, 766, 782, 784, 787, 788, 789, 790, 791, 794, 823n1, 827Āl Faḍl350, 365, 545Algiers (Algérie)40, 59, 535, 763Alhambra511, 512, 513, 518, 519, 520, 523ʿAlī (Portuguese envoy)714ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib604, 606, 630ʿAlī, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn (Golden Horde envoy)285ʿAlī b. Amīrān, Sharaf al-Dīn344ʿAlī Bahādur342n8ʿAlī Bey b. Shāh Suwār (Dhulqadirids)254ʿAlī Efendī, Muṣṭafā383ʿAlī b. Ḥātim, Shams al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)588ʿAlī b. ʿInān b. Mughāmis b. Rumaytha (Sharifs of Mecca)546ʿAlī Khwāja, Nāṣir al-Dīn (Ilkhanid envoy)292ʿAlī Pādshāh352–3Ali Pacha Ibrahim812ʿAlī b. Ramaḍān612ʿAlī Shāh273ʿAlī Sulṭān403ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān II, Abū l-Ḥasan (Merinids)537Alicún523Aljamiado716Allāhdād b. Nukūz401, 402n115ʿAllān, see AlanAlliances122, 127, 136, 153, 154, 287, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 309n24, 312, 313, 318, 320, 322, 323, 346, 371, 373, 375, 445, 463, 568, 574, 583, 714, 722, 741, 755, 758, 762, 765, 766, 835, 837Allouche, Adel333, 334, 490Almería516Almohads (Almohades; see also al-Manṣūr, Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb)57n271, 512, 514, 529, 530, 531, 535, 548, 661Almoravides (see also Yūsuf b. Tāshufīn)530, 534, 553Aloe692Alphonso III (Aragon)11Alphonso IV (Aragon)12, 67, 68, 69, 692n27, 700Alphonso V (Aragon)14, 67, 758Alphonso X (Castile)517Alphonso XI (Castile)518Alqāb (Titles)51, 126, 127, 149, 199, 202 203–5, 206, 207, 222, 223, 269n30, 388, 426, 428, 436, 486, 489n14, 493, 497, 552, 587, 598, 605, 625, 626, 660n14, 665, 669, 670, 674, 676, 678, 695, 696, 697, 698, 699, 700, 701, 702, 704, 705, 706, 789, 790Alqāb makāniyya204, 790al-ḥaḍra204, 208, 210, 211, 426, 440, 458n139, 459n142, 701n55al-janāb204, 205, 208, 494, 496, 497, 675, 677, 790, 813al-jānib204, 675al-majlis204, 205, 208, 494, 496, 497, 505, 606al-maqām203, 204, 205, 208, 211n150, 458n141, 493, 494, 496, 497, 502, 505, 616, 805, 806al-maqarr8n35, 204, 205, 208, 211n150, 247, 486, 489, 490, 491, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 502, 675, 676, 789Alqāb mufarraʿa204al-ashraf8, 205, 208, 494, 497al-sharīf205, 206, 208, 426, 458n139, 459n142, 494, 497, 505, 805al-karīm205, 206, 208, 223n27, 458n139, 486, 489, 490, 491, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 502, 675, 789, 813al-ʿālī205, 208, 223n27, 395, 397n89, 405, 458n141, 493, 494, 496, 497, 502, 616, 675, 677, 790al-sāmī205, 206, 494, 497, 606Alqāb mufrada428, 552Alqāb murakkaba428, 552Āl Ṭayyiʾ350n38, 353Altūn Bakhshī404Alvares, Francesco648–50Amari, Michele2, 16, 17, 18, 25, 43n199, 58, 142, 750, 760, 783, 784, 785, 788, 791Ambassadors (ambassadeurs; īlchī, qāṣid, safīr; see also Couriers, Emissaries, Envoys, Messengers)13, 44, 54, 56n265, 108, 110, 127, 128, 130, 135, 156, 240, 242, 243, 244n63, 245, 247, 252, 255, 256, 263, 268, 303, 320, 330, 397, 540, 566, 583, 590, 591, 659, 687, 688, 689, 690, 691, 692, 694, 823, 831, 833, 835n55, 836 Aq Qoyunlu246, 247, 253 Armenian728 Bornoan663, 665, 666, 667, 668, 674, 678 Cypriot24, 729, 730, 737 Dhulqadirid254 Florentine688, 691, 693, 694, 787, 792 Golden Horde285, 289, 290, 305, 319, 320 Hafsid156, 567, 568, 569, 570, 571, 572, 573, 575 Ilkhanid271, 272, 279, 292, 294 Indian239n15, 246n78 Malian660n14 Mamluk141, 264, 265, 266, 267, 269, 270, 274, 280, 285, 286, 288n132, 289, 290, 291, 294, 295, 318, 321, 399, 401, 588, 596, 732, 736, 763 Mongol385, 386 Nasrid521, 523 North African255 Ottoman246, 247, 248, 249, 252, 253, 387n39 Pisan25 Rasulid587, 591, 592, 593, 595, 597, 598 Safavid248 Timurid250, 251, 385, 386, 398, 728 Venetian19, 245, 689, 691, 693, 694, 701n58, 707, 788, 789, 834Amber599‘Amda Mikā’ēl (Abyssinia)650‘Amda Ṣeyon (Abyssinia)644, 645Amḥara (see also Abyssinia)639, 648Amid393Amīr akhūr274, 285, 372, 394, 539n60, 559Amīr al-rakb530, 542, 668Amīr majlis274Amīr ulus209, 210, 353Amitai, Reuven134, 142, 313n42, 345Anān (?) (Mamluk envoy)289Anas Mursī, Ashraf Muḥammad33Anastasius I (Byzantium)698Anatolia (see also Rūm)146, 151, 153, 190, 194, 195, 196, 197, 209, 210, 240, 243, 267, 278, 290, 291, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 321n83, 322, 334, 336, 363, 370, 371, 384n24, 396, 444, 448, 450, 497n34, 538, 676, 765 eastern194n78, 197, 210, 375, 383 southeastern253 southern254, 457Andakān392Andalus190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 209, 210, 215, 512, 515, 516, 517, 520, 522, 523, 524, 525, 531, 570, 571Animals (see also Birds, Camels, Chickens, Cows, Donkeys, Elephants, Falcons, Geese, Giraffes, Gyrfalcons, Hawks, Horses, Lions, Mules, Pigeons, Rams)242, 246, 251n102, 254, 399, 401, 590, 694, 705, 729, 832Ankara371, 393al-ʿAnsī, Muḥammad b. Abī l-Ḥusayn al-Tūnisī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)554Answers (Jawāb)9, 52, 225, 303, 316, 331, 376, 422n20, 423, 426, 428n36, 436, 439, 440, 442, 448, 456, 457, 458, 585, 663, 667, 674, 678ʿAntāb (see also ʿAyntāb)388, 389, 406Ān Tākshīr632Antakya390n50, 406n136Apellaniz, Francisco Javier142Apostates117, 249Apprecatio199, 493Āqā Bīgī bt. Tīmūr391, 393Aq Qoyunlu (see also Ḥamza b. Qarā Yülük; Ibrāhīm b. Qarā ʿUthmān; Qarā ʿUthmān; Uzun Ḥasan; Yaʿqūb b. Uzun Ḥasan)2, 38, 39, 152, 153, 210, 211, 240, 248n90, 249, 253, 254, 255n134, 352, 393n66, 420, 438, 489n14Aqsaray370Arab Iraq (ʿIrāq-i ʿArab)441Arabia (see also Jazīrat al-ʿArab)251, 272, 581, 671 southern582, 696 western582Arabian tribes111Arafat543Aragon (see also Alphonso III; Alphonso IV; Alphonso V; Ferdinand II; Isabella; James I; James II; John I; Maria; Martin I; Peter IV)7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 46n213, 66–73, 143, 144, 194, 197, 513, 514, 516, 524, 686, 699, 701, 711, 719n36, 758, 759Aragonese (Aragonais)516, 535, 536Arbel, Benjamin19, 743, 744n12Arbūghā (Golden Horde envoy)281Archbishop of Nicosia730, 735Archbishop of Toledo721Archidona523Archives4–10, 41, 42, 45, 48, 55, 57, 58, 59, 107, 124, 132, 143, 218, 221, 316, 513, 549, 590, 652, 654, 687, 835n59Arié, Rachel512Arigh Böke (Mongols)310Arishbughā (Ilkhanid envoy)295Armenia (see also Lesser Armenia, Cilician Armenia)137, 138, 192n52, 194, 196, 197, 384, 585Armenians122, 331n15, 332, 384Armors253, 692Arpa (Ilkhanids)352n51ʿArrāda402Arran192n52, 196Arrows247, 248, 394, 402, 403, 653n59ʿArṣa706Artīmū (Golden Horde envoy)281Artisans405, 592Artuqids (see also al-Ṣāliḥ Maḥmūd)150 of Mardin209, 276ʿAṣabiyya317Asanbughā l-Dawādār395Asandamur, Sayf al-Dīn (Ilkhanid envoy)295Ascensus Barcoch (Beltramo Mignanelli)381al-Ashqar, Shaykh Ibrāhīm b. Khiḍr b. Sunqur (Ilkhanid envoy)297al-Ashraf Barsbāy (Mamluks)14, 39n178, 67, 73, 74, 75, 78, 151, 152, 211n148, 241n35, 249, 376, 422n20, 539, 547, 558, 559, 585, 600, 618, 644, 646, 647, 654, 691, 702n61, 725–9, 731, 758, 759, 760, 794al-Ashraf Īnāl (Mamluks)73, 84, 240n32, 241n35, 245, 246, 256, 376, 422n20, 493n26, 496n33, 538, 539n52, 540, 559n127, 711, 712, 715, 729, 730, 735, 794al-Ashraf Ismāʿīl I (Rasulids)586, 591, 594, 595, 596, 598al-Ashraf Khalīl b. Qalāwūn (Mamluks)11, 66, 67, 68, 269, 284, 543, 585, 699, 728al-Ashraf b. al-Muẓaffar Shihāb al-Dīn Ghāzī (Ayyubids of Diyarbakr)275al-Ashraf Qānṣawh al-Ghawrī (Mamluks)21, 22, 23, 52, 74, 75, 76, 81, 82, 83, 84, 240, 241n35, 244, 247, 248, 254, 256, 428, 550, 575, 653, 691, 695, 698, 720, 723, 763, 766, 795, 834al-Ashraf Qāytbāy (Mamluks)22, 25, 39, 73, 74, 75, 76, 80, 83, 84, 85, 153, 239n15, 240nn22 and 31, 241, 243, 246, 247, 249, 251n101, 252n105, 253, 254, 389, 428n38, 490, 502, 524, 550nn108–9, 558, 560, 568, 570, 572, 573, 604, 612, 613, 614, 615, 616, 617, 618, 638, 642, 645, 650, 654, 691, 692nn28–9, 712, 719, 737, 760, 784, 785, 787, 790, 792, 793, 794, 835al-Ashraf Shaʿbān II (Mamluks)25, 68, 70, 71, 78, 85, 355, 519, 692n27, 695, 704, 706al-Ashraf Ṭūmān Bāy (Mamluks)76, 742, 743, 744, 747, 766Ashtor, Eliyahu140ʿĀshūr, Saʿīd147Asia240, 722 Central61n276, 239, 240, 250, 308, 373n68, 443n65, 823, 830n34 Minor239, 252, 758 South610 Southeast824 Western240, 256, 312ʿĀşıḳ Pāşā-Zāde384n24, 484, 485, 487, 490, 496n33, 499, 501, 550Āsiya Bīgī, see Īsiya BīgīAssassins273Astarabad355Astarābādī, ʿAzīz383Astrakhan, see Ḥājjī TarkhānAswan (Assouan)49n224, 541, 823n1, 827Asylum149, 295, 353 61, 354, 355ʿAṭāʾ, Majd al-Dīn270n36, 283Atābak225, 271n38, 274, 291, 794, 795Aṭāris (?), Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)289Āthār al-uwal fī tartīb al-duwal (al-ʿAbbāsī)111, 131, 263Atiya, Aziz Suryal13–4, 136, 144Aṭlāmish385, 386, 395, 398–9, 444Ato Anbasā (Abyssinian envoy?)650Aturjī, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy) (see also Turjī)274, 286, 287, 289Audience396, 397, 536, 549, 597, 691, 692, 726, 727, 731, 733Auxerre, Departmental Archives of the Yonne23Avnīq385ʿAwān648, 649, 652Aʿyān364, 368, 385n34, 459n146, 598, 649Ayas573, 758, 765Aydamur806ʿAydhāb541, 582, 590, 591, 599, 643, 649, 652, 823n1, 827Aydughdī l-Khwārizmī, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)265, 274, 286al-ʿAynī27n128, 131, 252, 305, 315n54ʿAyn Jālūt307, 308, 329n10, 330, 340, 345, 350n38, 532, 585ʿAyntāb (see also ʿAntāb)388, 389Aytamish (Mamluk envoy)265, 267, 270, 294, 295, 296Aytamish (senior amir)368, 369Ayyāz al-Shamsī, Fakhr al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)268, 284, 285Ayyubids (Ayyoubides; see also al-ʿĀdil I Muḥammad; al-ʿĀdil II Abū Bakr; al-Kāmil I; al-Nāṣir I Yūsuf, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn; al-Ṣāliḥ II Ayyūb; Shajar al-Durr)25, 122, 136, 275, 276, 281, 308, 581, 582, 685, 707, 755 of Damascus, see al-Nāṣir II Yūsuf; of Diyarbakr, see al-Ashraf b. al-Muẓaffar Shihāb al-Dīn Ghāzī; of Hama (see also al-Manṣūr II Muḥammad; al-Ṣāliḥ, Abū l-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl)209 of Ḥisn Kayfā38, 39, 209, 459n143 of Yemen, see al-Masʿūd; al-Muʿaẓẓam Tūrānshāh IĀzād, Muḥammad400n103Azāq, see TanaAzemmour715Azerbaijan192, 196, 253, 306n10, 311, 352, 353, 363, 364, 372, 422n20, 443n65, 444, 449n96, 450, 458, 463, 464Azov, see Tanaal-Azraq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī (Nasrid envoy)523, 524, 570Baalbek390, 396Bāb al-Abwāb, see DerbentBābur (Moghals)634Bactria192n52, 196Badakhshan392Badghis446Bādis (see also Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr)756, 763Badlāy b. Saʿd al-Dīn (Eastern Ethiopia)651Badr-i Chāch626Bagharṭāy (Golden Horde envoy)286Baghdad (Bagdad)187, 189, 243n54, 311, 340–57, 363, 364, 365, 367, 368, 371–5, 383, 447, 533n23, 545, 816, 624, 626, 696, 816 al-Madrasa al-ʿIṣmatiyya345 al-Madrasa al-Marjāniyya354 al-Madrasa al-Mustanṣiriyya347 al-Madrasa al-Niẓāmiyya354 Musée National816al-Baghdādī (Mamluk envoy)282Baghrās (Golden Horde envoy)287Bahāʾ al-Dīn (Abbasid envoy)632Bahāʾ al-Dīn (Ilkhanid envoy)291Bahādur al-Ṣaqrī591Bahasnā (Besni)370, 388, 389Baḥr al-Rūm192Bahrain192, 193, 194, 196, 197Baidu (Ilkhanids)279n78, 335, 349, 352Baiju310, 312Baklamish b. Qanjūbughā (Golden Horde envoy)286Bāknūr627, 632Baktamur Jullaq373Baktimur (Golden Horde envoy)287Balbān (Delhi sultans)623Bālbān al-Ḥakīmī (Mamluk envoy)284Balbān al-Ḥalabī, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)283, 284Balbān al-Khāṣṣturkī, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)283Bālbān al-Ṣarkhadī (Mamluk envoy)284al-Balkhī186Balls247, 253Balsam692Bangāla, see BengalBanners (étendards, bannières, sanājiq)252, 312, 355, 535, 593, 626, 627Banquets247, 366, 597, 823, 833, 834, 837Banū Dabbāb (Tripoli)535Banū Faḍl Allāh220n17Banū Ḥasan (Sharifs of Mecca)604Banū Hawwāra538Banū Hilāl537Banū Judhām659Banū l-Kuwayk594Banū Qatāda b. Idrīs (Sharifs of Mecca)541Banū Saʿīd (rulers of al-Qalʿa, near Granada)554Banū Sayf b. Dhī Yazan (Borno)671Banū Sulaym535, 537Bar Hebraeus344Barakāt b. Ḥasan b. ʿAjlān (Sharifs of Mecca)547Bārānī621, 626Barbarigo, Agostino (Venice)80, 836Barcelona7, 11, 26, 43nn197 and 199, 46n213, 50n230, 59, 68, 144, 687, 701, 702, 759 Archives of the Crown of Aragon11, 513al-Barīdī, ʿAlam al-Dīn Sulaymān (Mamluk envoy)290Barkindo, B.157Barr al-ʿUdwa, see MoroccoBasins592Basmala201, 222n25, 224, 548, 665, 712, 791Basra345, 347n29, 350n38Batu (Golden Horde)307, 309, 311, 312Bauden, Frédéric124, 152, 153, 158, 538, 667Bāvūrjī, Tavakkul400n103Bayās723Bāyazīd I (Ottomans)246, 252, 370, 371, 375, 384n24, 387n39, 494n28, 496n33, 497, 498, 500Bāyazīd II (Ottomans)83, 247, 428, 549, 550, 551, 558, 560, 570, 571, 572, 573, 762Baybars al-Manṣūrī27, 305, 311n35, 531, 534n32, 591, 806Baydarā b. Qutlūjār, Abū Bakr (Golden Horde envoy)290Bāyinjā (?) (Golden Horde envoy)287Bāynār (Golden Horde envoy)287Bayram, Khawand372Bayram Khūjā/Khwāja (Mamluk envoy)287Baza719Beads653Bedouins (see also Āl Faḍl, Banū)191, 195, 248, 254, 344, 350n38, 365, 536, 538, 544, 545, 551, 552, 648, 689n10, 755Begŕā, see Maḥmūd ShāhBehrens-Abouseif, Dorisxiii, 158, 608, 833n45Beihammer, Alexander58Beirut72, 79, 725, 752, 766Belts653Bengal (Bangāla)608, 610, 617, 627, 632, 634Ben Miled, Lotfi156Berke Khān (Golden Horde)267, 268, 269, 270, 275, 276, 280, 281, 304, 305, 306, 307, 309–20, 322, 323, 343, 434, 451, 835n55Berke Khān b. Baybars (Mamluks)282Bernardini, Michelexiii, 151Besni, see BahasnāBianquis, Thierry529Bidʿa628, 629Bijankār, see VijayanagaraBijāya (Bougie; see also al-Mustanṣir Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā Abī Yaḥyā al-Muwaḥḥad; al-Muʿtaḍid ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ibrāhīm b. Yahyā)535, 556, 575, 758Bīk Bāzārī452n105Bilād Amḥara639Bilād al-Burtughāl712Bilād al-Firanj240n32Bilād al-Gharb552Bilād al-Jibāl192n52Bilād Lishbūna712Bilād al-Rūm192, 194, 486, 569, 572Bilād al-Sūdān677Bilāl-i Ḥabashī401Bilik (Bilīk) al-Sayfī, Badr al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)289al-Biqāʿī241n34, 538, 559n127al-Bīra (Birecik)406Birds244Bisṭām-i Chākir444–9, 454Bitikchī, Sayf al-Dīn342n8Bivar, A.D.H.663, 664Black Sea (see also Dasht-i Qipchaq)142, 239, 244, 303, 308, 313, 321, 495B-l-r-gh-s (?) (Golden Horde envoy)287Bloom, Jonathan661Boats (see also Ships)321, 356, 521, 591, 706, 728Bologne, Museo Civico d’Arte Medioevale815, 817Bofarull i Mascaré, Pròsper de13Boloix Gallardo, Bárbara156, 215n4Booty115, 116, 252, 405, 406n137Borno (see also Idrīs b. ʿAlī; ʿUthmān b. Idrīs, Abū ʿAmr)157, 192, 194, 196, 197, 209, 210, 658–79Bosphorus146, 303, 313, 320, 321Bottles692, 826, 830Bougie, see BijāyaBoustronios, George726, 732, 734, 735, 737Bow rings692Bowls248, 692, 824n6, 825, 826, 829, 830, 831, 832, 834, 836Bowmen398Bows (arcs)248, 391, 399, 402, 538, 653n59, 692, 727Bragadino, Niccolò743Brancacci, Felice (Florentine envoy)75, 130, 688, 689n15, 693, 694Bridles633B-r-j-ā (Ilkhanid envoy)295Broadbridge, Anne134, 135, 150, 219, 333, 334, 335, 336, 342, 353, 366, 381Brunschvig, Robert536, 551Brussels828n24 Royal Museums of Art and History824, 828, 832Budayd609Buja192, 196al-Bukhārī673Bukhārī, Iftikhār al-Dīn (Ilkhanid envoy)293al-Bukhārī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad616Būlāq521Bulgar/Bulgarians194, 319Bulgarian king315Bulghār452n105al-Bunduqdār, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn307al-Bunyūlī, Muḥammad (Nasrid envoy)520, 521al-Burd al-muwashshā fī ṣināʿat al-inshāʾ (al-Mawṣilī)35, 584Burhān al-Dīn, Qāḍī813Burhān al-Dīn, Shaykh (Golden Horde envoy)287Burhān al-Dīn of Sivas404n123Burj al-Qashtīl, see El CastelloBursa190n35, 239, 363Burundūq (Timurids)403, 406al-Buṣrawī795Busse, Heribert2Bustron, Florio730, 735Buwayhids621Byzantines (including Byzantine Empire, emperor)27n128, 115, 146, 192, 222n24, 242, 304, 313, 315, 318, 319n74, 321n80, 495n32Byzantium (see also Anastasius I; John VI Kantakouzenos; Michael VIII Paleologus)146, 566Caftans247Cahen, Claude2, 153, 310Cairo, Bāb al-Naṣr329 Bāb al-Ḥawsh247 Bāb al-Madraj247 Bāb al-Qaṣr245 Bāb Zuwayla329 Bayn al-Qaṣrayn250 Birkat al-Fīl366 Citadel129, 130, 203, 239, 240, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 254, 255, 256, 365, 368, 369, 485, 486, 487, 503, 638, 651, 688, 690, 691, 727, 794, 834 al-Ḥawsh250, 486, 649 Hippodrome (Maydān)599 house of Dāwūd al-Maghribī521 house of the interpreter250 house of al-Jamālī250 house of Jānibak Ḥabīb486 Khānqāh246 Khedivial Library20, 742 al-Madrasa al-Ḥijāziyya250 al-Madrasa al-Jamāliyya250 al-Madrasa al-Muʾayyadiyya600 Musée d’Art arabe808, 811 Qāʿat al-Baḥra248 Qanāṭir al-sibāʿ638 Raḥbat al-ʿīd250 al-Raṭlī pool247 al-Raydāniyya329, 365, 744 al-Rumayla247, 366 Ṣalība street638 shops246 streets246, 255 Sūq al-Khayl329 Ṭuquz Damur bridge486Čakrī/Çeğre Khān (Golden Horde)451, 452Calicut611, 741Caliph(ate) of Bagdad, of Cairo, see AbbasidsCalligraphic styles (see also Maghribī, Taʿlīq)50, 438Callixtus III (pope)718Cambay (see also Maḥmūd Shāh, Begŕā)610, 611Camels246, 253, 254, 367, 401, 406, 521, 592, 593, 827Camlets725, 726, 728, 735Canard, Marius138, 146, 156Capello, Lorenzo (Venetian envoy)56n265, 82, 707Capitulations3, 46, 734, 747, 748, 750Capmany de Montpalau i de Surís, Antoni de13Carolingian Empire569Casoli, Andrea737Castel de Ferro516Castile (see also Alphonso X; Alphonso XI; Isabella I)194, 197, 514, 515, 516, 517, 523, 524, 701, 711, 714, 716, 721Castilians516, 518, 714Castles253, 390, 391, 396, 406, 503Catalonia13n60, 144, 240Cateura Bennasser, Pau144Cazulli, Andrea737Çeğre Khān, see ČakrīÇelebi, see JalabīCem (Ottomans)149, 241, 248, 568Ceremonies129, 130, 139, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 152, 153, 160, 203, 219, 226, 240, 242, 243, 244, 245, 247, 248, 249, 250, 254, 255, 256, 269, 316, 317, 365, 366, 374, 491, 500, 503, 540, 597, 600, 613, 623, 624, 626, 667, 691, 694, 707, 728, 801Ceylon (Sarandīb)52n245, 627, 632Chaghāniyān, see ṢaghāniyānChaghatayids265, 346, 363, 367Chamberlains (ḥājib)265, 486, 597, 690Chancery (see also Dīwān al-inshāʾ) Almohad49, 47, 512, 547 Aq Qoyunlu2, 42n196, 422 Ayyubid2, 55n256, 202–3, 205n137, 206nn141–2, 696, 746 Fatimid5n21 Hafsid547–51 Nasrid512–4 Ottoman2, 41, 437n49 Qara Qoyunlu422–3, 426nn29 and 31, 427–8, 436, 437n49, 438, 462 Rasulid35, 584 Safavid2, 421n17 Timurid2, 40n187, 422, 426, 437n49Chancery manuals3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 26–35, 36, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 50, 51n237, 56, 59, 60, 61, 66, 107, 109, 120, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 145, 151, 160, 185, 189, 201, 202, 203, 205, 209, 211, 219, 220, 221, 222, 226, 263n1, 304, 323, 420, 422n20, 428n34, 438, 491, 499, 500, 511, 520, 610, 642, 674, 789, 791Chancery officials (clerks)8n35, 28, 34n159, 35, 54, 128, 141, 222, 245, 263, 264, 500, 690Chandeliers592Chapoutot-Remadi, Mounira156Chaqmāq401n109Charla (Cyprus)736Charles I (Savoy)25, 85Charles VII (France)22–3, 83, 84, 835Charlotte (Cyprus)25, 726, 730, 731, 732, 733, 734, 735, 736, 737, 738Cheese692, 693Chickens250, 689, 836Chief secretary8, 54, 274China157, 190n32, 192n53, 194n79, 195, 196, 197, 209, 210, 392, 823, 824, 825, 826, 829, 830, 832Chinese ceramics157, 823, 824, 826, 827, 828, 831, 833Chinggis Khān (Mongols312, 352n51, 390Chinggisids274, 277, 302, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 316, 317, 322, 352, 357, 449n96, 451Choban (Ilkhanids)273, 278, 279, 294, 295, 296, 353Chobanids (see also Dimashq Khwāja, Malik Ashraf)150, 210, 295, 352, 353, 354Christ, Georg141Christians, Coptic638, 640 Jacobite639 Orthodox146Cilicia331, 332, 568Cilician Armenia (Lesser Armenia; see also Hetʿum; Lewon)331, 728Cilician Armenians332Clifford, W.153Cloaks253Clocks253Cloth cubit (dhirāʿ)49, 200, 201, 675Clothes (see also Belts, Caftans, Cloaks, Coats, Fawqānī, Scarves, Shirts)246, 401, 522, 599, 692, 693Coats253Cobb, Paul M.136Coins252, 314n45, 318, 353, 355, 356, 364, 398, 450n97, 451n102, 452, 454, 582, 613, 624, 626, 634, 635Colin, George S.39, 156, 520, 712, 715n20Commanders225, 244, 245, 247, 263, 264, 265, 266, 268, 269, 270, 272, 274, 275, 277, 278, 279, 285, 286, 290, 291, 308, 312n37, 343, 402n117, 446, 696, 757Condominia137Conermann, Stephan155Consensus (ijmāʿ)116, 627, 628Constantine, see al-Muktafī ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Abī YaḥyāConstantine of Chios (Cypriot envoy)737Constantinople194, 196, 197, 210, 211, 246, 303, 311, 313, 314, 321, 485, 495, 566, 567, 570, 676, 702n60, 716, 718, 746Consuls702, 749, 752, 753 Catalan73 Florentine787 Marseilles22 Pisan757 Venetian319n74, 693n31, 741, 742, 743, 744, 747, 757, 766, 794Consulates140 Aragonese143 Ragusan21, 83 Venetian20, 141Coote, Lesley A.145Copper (cuivre)592, 662, 802, 803, 834Coral662Cordoba701Cornaro, Catherine (Cyprus)19, 84, 692n29, 737, 835Cornaro, Marco (Venice)78Corroboratio199, 494Corsairs (see also Pirates)242n49, 750, 751, 753, 754, 768Corsica702Corvinos, Mathias (Hungary)573Coulon, Damien143Council of Florence646 of the Mamluk sultan366, 400, 486 of Ten (Venice)720Coureas, Nicholas24n116, 138, 139Couriers (barīdī, sāʿin; see also Ambassadors, Emissaries, Envoys, Messengers)218, 219, 222, 224, 440, 441, 442, 458, 459, 703Courio, Nicholas de733Cows406Crimea39, 194, 303, 308, 315, 319, 321, 452, 499Croatia702Crowe, Yolande155Crusaders9n42, 27n128, 52n243, 122, 132, 134, 136, 137, 138, 145, 308, 313, 495, 517, 583, 695, 718, 755Cuirasses393, 486, 493Cuoq, Joseph663, 666Cutler, Anthony158Cyprus (see also Charla; Charlotte; Cornaro, Catherine; James II; Janus; John II; Louis; Peter I)19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 76, 80, 84, 137, 138, 139, 194, 240, 246n76, 519, 689n12, 725–38, 743, 746, 759, 761Cypriots39, 699, 726, 727, 731, 732, 738Cyrénaïque531Dābul611Daggers522Dajjāl (Antichrist)392Dalmatia702Damascus29, 36, 151, 211n149, 239, 242, 244n63, 250, 254, 272, 276, 290, 291, 292, 306, 331, 333, 335, 340, 351n47, 367, 372, 373, 375, 381, 389, 391, 394, 397–405, 439, 444, 453, 458n138, 517, 572, 573, 574, 595, 596, 659, 795, 826 al-Madrasa al-Ashrafiyya255 al-Qaṣr al-Ablaq401, 405n131 Qubbat al-Sayyār397Damietta82, 729, 743n9, 746Damurdāsh (Tīmūrtāsh) al-Muḥammadī369Dankiz (Qara Qoyunlu envoy)400n58, 460Daoulatli, Abd al-Aziz156Daphnusia (Dafnusyā)321Dār al-ʿadl (Grievance court)276, 366Dār al-ʿahd (Abode of covenant)112, 117Dār al-ḍiyāfa254, 277Dār al-ḥarb (Abode of war)35n166, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 118, 188, 193Dār al-Islām (Abode of Islam)112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 118, 122, 188, 193, 304, 311, 314, 495, 658, 660, 667, 676, 678, 714, 715, 717Dār al-ṣulḥ (Abode of truce)117Darj, see ScrollsDarrāj, Aḥmad39, 145, 149, 151, 152, 153, 605, 607, 612Darwīsh (Golden Horde)451Dasht-i Qipchaq (Qipchaq; see also Black Sea)148, 190n32, 192n53, 194n79, 196, 197, 238n7, 277, 308, 309, 313, 319, 321n82, 392, 452Dastjirdānī, Jamāl al-Dīn349, 350n42Dastūr al-kātib fī taʿyīn al-marātib (Nakhjawānī)342Datum199Ḍawʾ al-ṣubḥ al-musfir wa-janā l-dawḥ al-muthmir (al-Qalqashandī)28n131, 32Dawādār12n54, 19, 46n213, 55n259, 128, 274, 343, 395, 486, 547, 607, 690n20, 693, 732, 733, 791, 801, 802, 806al-Dawādārī, ʿAlam al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)284Dāwit I/Dāwūd (Abyssinia)643–7, 651Dāwit II (Abyssinia)645Dawlatābād, see DelhiDawlat Khān, Majd al-Dīn (Seljuq envoy)291Dawlat Tīmūr406Dāwūd, see Dāwit (Abyssinia)Dāwūd al-Maghribī521Dayr al-Ghaṭs (Dayr al-Maghṭis)647Decrees (décrets; Marsūm)14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 26, 45, 46, 56n265, 66, 123, 124, 134, 141, 222, 355, 391, 511, 548, 595, 612n35, 616, 617, 685, 686, 695n36, 741, 742, 743, 744, 745, 746, 747, 748, 749, 750, 751, 752, 753, 754, 756, 758, 759, 760, 761, 762, 763, 764, 766, 767, 768, 788, 795, 801Deeds6, 9, 36n169, 37, 218, 439Dekkiche, Malika11, 39, 49, 674, 676Delhi (Dawlatābād, Dēōgīr; see also Balbān; Fīrūz Shāh III b. Rajab, Abū l-Mużaffar; Īltutmish; Khiḍr Khān; Khusraw Khān, Nāṣir al-Dīn; Masʿūd Shāh, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn; Muḥammad Sām, Muʿizz al-Dīn; Muḥammad Shāh I, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Khaljī; Muḥammad Shāh II b. Tughluqshāh, Abū l-Mujāhid; Muḥammad Shāh III, Nāṣir al-Dīn; Muḥammad b. Tughluq)155, 308n18, 312, 585, 590n30, 610, 614, 617, 621, 623, 624, 625, 627, 634, 635Delta (Egypt)30, 541, 647, 743Demetrio (Abyssinian envoy)652Dēōgīr, see DelhiDerbent (Bāb al-Abwāb)194, 197, 306, 307De ruina Damasci (Beltramo Mignanelli)381, 393Dewière, Rémi39n183, 157al-Dhahabī305, 517al-Dhakwānī l-Kānimī, Ibrāhīm b. Yaʿqūb661Dhayl al-Rawḍatayn (Abū Shāma)517Dhimma (Liability)759, 762Dhubyān al-Shaykhī, Nāṣir al-Dīn276–7Dhulqadirids (see also ʿAlī Bey b. Shāh Suwār; Jahāngīr; Shāh Suwār)240, 254, 383, 384n27, 406n136, 457, 484D’hulster, Kristof149Diaries20, 130, 521, 743, 747Diedo, Pietro19, 82, 689, 691, 693Diem, Werner2Dilshād Khātūn (Jalayirids)353, 354Dimashq Khwāja (Chobanids)295, 353n61Diplomas of investiture122, 543, 610, 613Diplomatics (see also ʿAlāma, Alqāb, Answers, Apprecatio, Basmala, Calligraphic styles, Chancery, Corroboratio, Datum, Decrees, Diplomas of investiture, Dispositio, Dīwān al-inshāʾ, Duʿāʾ, Expositio, Features, Form, Formularies, Ikhwāniyyāt, Inceptive letters, Inks, Inscriptio, Inshāʾ, Instructions, Intitulatio, Iqtibās, Jaʿba, Kātib, Khawātim, Languages, Layout, Letters of credence, Lingua franca, Matn, Mithāl, Munshaʾāt, Munshiʾ, Murabbaʿ, Muṭālaʿa, Narratio, Nuʿūt, Oaths, Paper, Penbox, Petitions, Poetry, Prose, Protocol, Proverbs, Quranic verses, Ranks, Recognitio, Registers, Reports of ambassadors, Safe-conducts, Salutatio, Scrolls, Seals, Suyūrghāl, Taqlīd, Taʿrīf, Translators, Truces, Ṭughrā, Ṭurra, Validation, Waṣl, Yarligh)1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 15, 18, 26, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 40, 42, 43, 47, 50, 54, 58, 59, 61, 66, 125, 186, 198, 199, 211, 241, 420, 423, 437n49, 790Dispositio199, 426, 494Dīwān al-inshāʾ, see al-Thaghr al-bāsimDīwān al-inshāʾ (see also Chancery)8, 28, 33, 36, 47, 216n7, 317, 318, 512, 551, 588, 591, 791Dīwān al-khātam119Dīwān al-rasāʾīl119Diyār Bakr (Diyarbakir)350, 355, 443n65Djerba535, 536Dolfin, John (Hospitaller envoy)731, 732, 733Dölger, Franz146Don Alonzo (Naples)736Donato, Andrea (Venetian envoy)788Donkeys (Asses)689, 714Dourmec, Bernard145Dragomans (see also Interpreters, Translators)141Drums (tambours)243, 244, 535, 690Duʿāʾ (Invocatio, Invocations)29, 34, 42, 126, 127, 199, 202, 203, 207, 208, 494, 540, 630Dubrovnik (see also Ragusa)21, 142, 143Duqmāq369al-Durūbī, Samīr29, 57Dustūr28, 30Edbury, Peter W.138, 735Edessa (Rūhā, Urfa)406Edigü (Golden Horde)451, 452, 453Ehrenkreutz, Andrew142Elbistan (Ālbistān)384, 439El Castello (Burj al-Qashtīl)535Elephants244, 392, 393, 400n106, 599El-Leithy, Tamer7Emissaries (īlchī, qāṣid, safīr; see also Ambassadors, Couriers, Envoys, Messengers)44, 110, 120, 129, 130, 131, 239, 243, 823, 824, 831, 836, 837 Abyssinian638, 649, 650, 651, 652, 654 Bornoan667 Cypriot727, 734, 735 Dhulqadirid254 European130 French22, 23, 256, 717 Florentine784, 787, 789 German145 Ilkhanid349 Jalayirid352, 355 Malwa606, 607, 611, 612n35, 613, 614, 618 Mamluk127, 129, 130, 249n92, 341, 646, 648, 651, 784, 787, 792 Nasrid520, 521, 522, 523 Ottoman240n31, 252n105 Portuguese713, 714, 715, 716, 718 Rasulid590, 593, 595, 597, 626 Venetian836Emmanuel I (Portugal)716England (see also Henry VII)8n34, 145, 718Envoys (īlchī, qāṣid, safīr; see also Ambassadors, Couriers, Emissaries, Messengers)44, 48, 427, 440, 441, 442, 492, 621, 686, 687, 688, 702, 725, 726 Abbasid623, 632, 633, 634 Abyssinian640, 641, 642, 643, 646, 649, 650, 651, 652, 653, 654 Aq Qoyunlu450n98, 456n130 Byzantine318 Cypriot729, 730, 731, 732, 733, 734, 735, 736, 737, 738 Florentine15 Golden Horde282, 284, 291, 644, 645, 293, 296, 316, 434, 450, 451, 452 Hafsid570, 571, 572, 573, 574 Hospitaller731 Indian585, 621, 625, 626 Mamluk15, 16, 26, 54, 66, 139, 144, 145, 214, 216, 217, 252, 281, 303, 316, 320, 397, 398, 399, 453, 458, 459, 583, 626, 642, 646, 730, 731, 736, 737, 738, 784 Milanese692 Mongol329, 331, 332, 335 Nasrid520, 522, 523 Ottoman248, 249, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 493, 502, 503, 504 Qaramanid40 Qara Qoyunlu439, 443, 445, 446, 447, 449n96, 450, 457, 458 Rasulid586, 587, 588, 589, 590, 591, 598, 599 Safavid248 Seljuq307 Timurid370n45, 384, 395, 446n82, 459, 728 Venetian689Ermine486, 493, 692, 728Erzincan370, 441Erzurum448Eschatocol, see KhawātimEscouchy, Mathieu d’23Eskender (Abyssinia)645, 650Espionage (see also Intelligence, Spies)135, 345Ethiopia (al-Ḥabasha) (see also Abyssinia; Badlāy b. Saʿd al-Dīn; Walasmaʿ)147, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 209, 210, 240, 241, 638, 641, 646, 648, 651Ethiopians671Ethnicity135, 623, 719Etiquette226, 242, 245, 249, 255, 387, 584, 666, 676Euphrates311, 332, 343, 364n1, 406, 400, 443n65Ewers592, 653Expenses44, 274, 590, 600, 633, 726, 728, 729, 733, 738Expositio199, 494Fabri, Felix130al-Fākhirī341Fakhr al-Dīn al-Muqriʾ (Mamluk envoy)291Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī628K. al-Fakhrī (Ibn al-Ṭiqṭaqā)341al-Fakhrī, ʿIzz al-Dīn Aybak (Mamluk envoy)282Falcons692n27Famagusta733, 734, 735, 736, 737, 743Far East (Extrême-Orient)536, 541, 685, 823, 827, 828, 836al-Fāriqī, Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAlī (Rasulid envoy)588, 589n24, 595, 596al-Fāriqī, Sharaf al-Dīn Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī (Rasulid envoy)595Farkha200Farmān421n18, 423Faroqhi, Suraiya659Farrāj, ʿAbd al-Sattār32Fars (Fārs)192n52, 194n78, 196, 197, 389, 445, 448, 392al-Fāsī606Faṣl al-khiṭāb fī tarsīl Abī Bakr Ibn Khaṭṭāb (Ibn Khaṭṭāb al-Mursī)511Fatwā131, 132, 135, 458, 523, 716Favereau, Marie148, 219Fawātiḥ50, 202ḥamdala202, 661, 665tashahhud202taṣliya202baʿdiyya202, 665Fawqānī252, 504Features (of documents)external 17, 34, 47, 49, 51, 53, 120, 125, 127, 158, 199, 200–2, 206, 207, 410, 416, 437, 492 internal17, 34, 43, 47, 49, 50–4, 120, 125, 199, 202, 206, 207, 410, 416, 492Federighi, Carlo (Florentine envoy)75Fekete, Lajos2Ferdinand I (Naples)719Ferdinand II (Aragon)718, 719, 720Ferīdūn Beg27n127, 40, 422Festivities121, 129, 277, 730, 732Fez (Fès)209, 210, 514, 515, 519, 531, 546, 676Fezzan662Firearms244n63, 393n66, 398n98, 402, 692Fire’-Mikā’ēl (Abyssinian envoy)652Fireworks243, 248Fīrūz, Jamāl al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)587Fīrūz Shāh III b. Rajab, Abū l-Mużaffar (Delhi sultans)626, 627, 632, 633, 634Florence (see also Lorenzo de’ Medici)15, 16, 17, 43nn197 and 199, 50n230, 56n265, 58, 59, 73–6, 142, 143, 646, 686, 687, 693, 701, 750, 760, 761, 762, 767, 782, 783, 784, 787, 788, 790, 792, 827n20 Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana (Laurentian Library)15, 782, 783, 784, 789 State Archives15, 782, 783, 784, 788, 799, 790Florentines16, 18, 142, 751, 762, 784, 785, 792, 793Fortresses253, 306, 307, 384, 385, 388, 389, 390, 394, 395, 396, 441, 447, 450, 512, 519, 521, 522, 523, 574, 589, 633, 699Foscari, Francesco (Venice)79, 788, 799Food (see also Chickens, Meat, Rice, Sweets, Watermelons)129, 246, 251n102, 254, 348, 349, 685, 694, 830n31, 833n45, 834, 835Form (of documents)1, 43, 47–54, 198, 199Formularies3, 4, 5, 26, 28, 29, 42, 44, 59, 60, 107n12Formulary217, 218, 221, 222, 223, 584, 597, 751n46, 783Fould, Louis809France (see also Charles VII; Louis IX; Louis XI; Louis XII; Louis XIV)16, 22, 23, 83, 84, 145, 194, 197, 686, 701, 717Franks (Francs, Firanj)23, 45, 122, 136, 138, 192, 215, 222n24, 239, 240n33, 252, 273, 282, 332, 517, 541, 569, 593, 731, 745, 750, 751, 753, 755, 765, 768Frantz-Murphy, Gladys20, 141Frederick II (Holy Roman Empire)754Frenkel, Yehoshua148, 158Frontiers134, 238–9, 249, 254, 309, 331–2, 337, 371, 384–5, 535, 632, 699Fujian826n15Furḍa616Furs (see also Ermine, Lynx, Sable, Squirrel)244, 246, 251, 486, 493, 692, 836Fustat823, 824, 825, 826, 827, 828, 829, 831, 832Futūḥāt-i Fīrūz Shāhī (Fīrūz Shāh)627Futūḥāt-i Shām u Rūm382Fuzhou826n15Gabrieli, Francesco145Games244, 248, 317Gandulph of Sicily642, 650, 653n59García de Linares, Ramón14Geese689Gelasius I (pope)697Gems246, 253Generalife (Granada)523Genoa24, 25, 85, 139, 142, 192n76, 194, 196, 197, 240, 514, 686, 687, 725, 758 State Archives24Genoese142, 238n8, 273, 285, 313, 316, 318, 319n74, 322, 520, 702n61, 734, 737, 760George V (Georgia)278Georgia (Kurjistān; see also George V)197, 256n137, 277, 441Georgians384n26, 647Germany (al-Almān)145, 192n76, 196Germans145Gethsemane647al-Ghafāyirī, Abū Zayd546al-Ghāfiqī, Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd al-Malik (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)555al-Ghāfiqī, Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd al-Malik (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)555al-Ghammāz, Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Khazrajī l-Balansī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)555Ghana669, 675al-Gharb al-Aqṣā, see Moroccoal-Ghassānī, Abū l-Qāsim Muḥammad b. Yahyā b. Muḥammad al-Burjī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)556al-Ghassānī, Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq al-Tūnisī l-Andalusī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)554Ghaybī828n24, 832Ghāzān (Ilkhanids)134, 270, 271, 292, 293, 328, 335, 336, 348, 349, 351n47Ghazna392Ghazza390n50Ghiyāth al-Dīn Shāh (Malwa)239n15, 604Ghrībī575Ghūr192n52, 392Ghūṭa399n99, 406n133Gibraltar523Gift lists12, 14, 26, 44, 66, 127, 303Gifts (Presents, cadeaux; see also Animals, Arms, Balls, Banners, Clocks, Clothes, Furs, Gems, Heads, Injibār, Jewellery, Manuscripts, Metals, Rugs, Porcelain, Prisoners, Slaves, Spices, Tents, Textiles)40, 121, 129, 149, 150, 158, 214, 224, 239n15, 244, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251–4, 255, 273, 282, 302, 313, 315, 351, 367, 371, 385, 388, 389, 402, 406, 427, 440, 447, 456n130, 486, 492, 493, 504, 522, 523, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 539, 540, 546, 558, 559, 571, 575, 590, 591, 592, 593, 598, 599, 600, 610, 611, 613, 617, 631, 632, 633, 649, 653, 654, 660n14, 668, 669, 690, 691, 692, 693, 707, 720, 726, 729, 730, 731, 732, 734, 735, 736, 831, 835, 836, 837Gilan (al-Jīl; Kīlān)190, 192n52, 193, 194n78, 195, 196, 197, 444Gilli-Elewy, Hend150Ginger599, 692Giraffes575Giray khans303Góis, Damião de722Gold53, 247, 274, 277, 394, 653, 662, 668, 728, 729, 737, 759Golden Horde (see also Batu; Berke Khān; Čakrī/Çeğre Khān; Darwīsh; Edigü; Jānibeg; Kebek; Möngke Temür; Özbek; Sartaq; Tīmūr Qutlugh b. Tīmūr Malik; Töde Möngke; Toqta; Toqtamish; Ṭulunbāy; Ulaghči b. Sartaq)38, 39, 55nn260 and 262, 148, 264, 265, 266, 269, 270, 273, 274, 275, 277, 278, 280–90, 302, 303, 304, 305, 307, 309, 312n41, 313, 315nn51 and 54, 316, 317n60, 318, 319, 322, 354, 385n29, 450–3, 835n55Golubovich, Girolamo25Goneme, Brother William (Augustinian friar)730, 732, 735, 736Governors (Chobanids)352 (Golden Horde)321 (Ilkhanids)209, 267, 273, 675 (Jalayirids)352 (Mamluks)30, 45n207, 49, 128, 227, 615, 647, 695n36, 730 (Mongols)210 of Akhlāṭ278 of Aleppo22, 80, 82, 83, 365, 367, 369, 389, 439, 597 of Alexandria16, 20, 46n213, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 784, 787, 788, 789, 790 of Amman79 of Avnīq385, 444 of Bagdad343, 346, 347, 352nn51 and 53, 354, 355, 356, 457n132 of Bahasnā370, 388 of Beirut79 of Damascus16, 18, 46n213, 72, 73, 80, 82, 252n102, 277, 368, 370, 372, 375, 439, 440, 462, 505, 597, 784, 787, 789, 790 of Damietta56n265, 78, 729 of Egypt382, 728, 790 of Erzincan441, 457n132 of Florence701n55 of Gujarat621 of Hama37, 369 of Hamadan350n41 of Khuzistan368n24 of Kirman454 of Malatya384 of Maragha350n41 of Mardin422, 423n26 of Mosul341 of Persian Iraq445 of Qumis395n76 of Ṣafad77, 373 of Shiraz368 of Sivas384 of Syria275, 450n98, 790 of Tripoli79, 82, 239n20Gozo539Granada156, 215, 511–25, 570, 571, 714, 716, 717, 719, 720, 722Grand Master (Hospitallers)24, 84, 85, 731, 733, 737Grob, Eva219Grohmann, Adolf2Guadix516Gujarat (see also Ẓafar Khān)610, 611, 621, 624, 632, 634, 741Gulbarga608, 610Gülek572Gunpowder243, 244, 570Gyrfalcons692Haarmann, Ulrich793al-Ḥabasha, see EthiopiaḤāfiẓ-i Abrū341, 381, 382n10, 385n32, 395n74, 396n83, 455Hafsids (Hafsides; see also ʿAbd al-Muʾmīn b. Ibrāhīm; Ibn Abī ʿUmāra, Aḥmad b. Marzūq, al-Faḍl; Ibrāhīm I, Abū Isḥāq; Ibrāhīm II, Abū Isḥāq; al-Manṣūr ʿUthmān, Abū ʿAmr; Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr al-Mutawakkil al-Bijāʾī; al-Muntakhab, Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā III b. Ibrāhīm I; al-Muntaṣir Muḥammad II; al-Muntaṣir Muḥammad IV; al-Mustanṣir, Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad II; al-Mustanṣir, Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad I b. Yaḥyā I; al-Mustanṣir, Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad II Abū ʿAṣīda; al-Mustanṣir, Abū Darba Muḥammad III; al-Mustanṣir, Abū Ḥafs ʿUmar II; al-Mustanṣir, Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm II; al-Mutawakkil, Abū Fāris ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz; al-Mutawakkil, Abū Yaḥyā Abū Bakr; al-Mutawakkil Muḥammad V; al-Nāṣir, Abū l-Baqāʾ Khālid I; al-Shahīd, Abū Yaḥyā Abū Bakr I b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān; ʿUmar I, Abū Ḥafṣ; ʿUmar II, Abū Ḥafṣ; al-Wāthiq, Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā II b. Muḥammad I; Yaḥyā I, Abū Zakariyyāʾ b. Abī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wāḥid; Yaḥyā IV b. Muḥammad al-Masʿūd, Abū Zakariyyāʾ; Zakariyyāʾ I b. Aḥmad al-Liḥyānī, Abū Yaḥyā; Zakariyyāʾ II b. Yaḥyā IV, Abū Yaḥyā)38, 39, 156, 514, 516, 529–35, 538, 540, 541, 542, 546, 551–60al-Ḥajjī, Ḥayāt Nāṣir157Ḥājjī-Taghay352nn51 and 55Hājjī Tarkhān (Astrakhan)452n105al-Ḥākim I, Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad (Abbasids)269, 270, 281, 621, 626, 632al-Ḥalabī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Ḥanafī34al-Ḥalfāwī, Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad (Hafsid envoy)555n114, 572, 573, 574Ḥalqa250, 266, 270, 274, 285, 286, 287, 288, 290, 293Hama36, 37, 209, 369, 390, 396, 406, 545, 808Hamadan265, 350n41, 392Ḥamīd al-Dīn, Bābā (Qara Qoyunlu envoy)457, 458, 461al-Ḥawādith al-jāmiʿa wa-l-tajārib al-nāfiʿa fī l-miʾa al-sābiʿa (ps.-Ibn al-Fuwaṭī)341Hawks692Ḥamza (Ilkhanid ambassador)294, 297Ḥamza b. Qarā Yülük (Aq Qoyunlu)211n151Harar641Harari813Har-El, Shai148Harput Castle253Hartmann, M.742, 743Hārūn al-Rashīd (Abbasids)614Ḥasan b. Abī l-Munajjā, Badr al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)587Ḥasan b. ʿAjlān b. Rumaytha (Sharifs of Mecca)545, 547, 586Ḥasan AmīnḤasan b. al-Asad, Badr al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)590al-Ḥasan al-Sāʿī (Timurid envoy)458n141, 461al-Ḥasan b. Shādī b. Sunjāq (Ilkhanid envoy)294Ḥasan-i Buzurg (Jalayirids)352, 353, 354Ḥasankā (Timurid envoy)446, 460al-Hāshimī l-ʿAbbāsī, ʿImād al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (Mamluk envoy)269Hattox, Ralph149, 496n32al-Hawwārī, al-Ḥasan b. Mūsā b. Muʿammar al-Ṭarābulusī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)555Ḥaydar (Ottoman envoy)247Heads254, 329, 517Heidemann, Stefan381Helmets252, 653n59Henry VII (England)718Herat310n26, 311, 445, 446, 448, 450n98, 454, 458Hersek, Aḥmad567Hetʿum (Lesser Armenia)330–1Hijaz123, 151, 152, 154, 155, 189, 190, 191, 193, 195, 314, 351, 394, 582, 606, 609, 613, 614, 617, 618, 648, 652Hill, George735Ḥilla293, 341, 347, 348, 350Hillenbrand, Carole136Ḥimyar671Hinawr627Hind, see IndiaHirschler, Konrad7Ḥiṣn Kayfā38, 39, 209, 459n143Ḥiṣn Manṣūr (Adıyaman)457Hispanus, Maurus (Portuguese envoy)720Holt, Peter M.136, 144, 333, 745Holy cities/sites Baghdad348 Christian123, 130 Jerusalem714 Muslim135, 151, 154, 155, 238, 247, 272, 351, 583, 678, 698 Najaf342 Shiite350Holy Land25, 130, 140, 145, 146, 642, 685Holy Roman Empire, see Frederick IIHoms333, 390, 396, 406, 534, 585Honey689Honfleur717Honoraria254Hopkins, Antony673Horns243, 599Horses (chevaux; see also Donkeys, Mules)247, 251, 254, 310, 321, 365, 366, 367, 369, 373, 394, 396, 400n104, 401, 406, 454, 539, 559, 590, 592, 614, 632, 653n59, 692n29, 714, 728Hospitallers of Rhodes (see also Milly, James de; Orsini, Gianbattista)24, 84, 85, 138, 536, 731, 733, 737, 759Hourani, Albert346Housley, Norman136Huércal516Hülegü (Ilkhanids)256n135, 306–16, 322, 327, 328, 329, 342, 343, 344, 352n51, 532, 541Ḥumayḍa b. Abī Numayy (Sharifs of Mecca)544, 545, 546n83Humbert, Geneviève48, 49Humphreys, Stephen136Hungary (see also Corvinos, Mathias)686Hungarians570Hunūr632Ḥusayn b. Shaykh Uways (Jalayirids)357, 364, 366Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Shams al-Dīn, Sharaf al-Dīn (Abbasids)812Ḥusayn b. Ṣārū, Ḥusām al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)268n25, 286Ibn al-Abbār, Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh b. Abī Bakr al-Quḍāʿī l-Balansī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)548, 554Ibn ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir11n54, 27n128, 281n84, 305, 311, 312, 317, 320, 533, 593, 639, 642, 648, 652, 654Ibn Abī ʿAmr al-Tamīmī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)556Ibn Abī ʿAmr al-Tamīmī, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)556Ibn Abī Dīnār575Ibn Abī l-Faḍāʾil305, 306, 621, 626Ibn Abī Ghudda, Najm al-Dīn Muḥammad b. al-Qalqashandī34Ibn Abī l-Qāsim, Majd al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)587Ibn Abī l-Shawārib, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad (Mamluk envoy)283Ibn Abī ʿUmāra, Aḥmad b. Marzūq, al-Faḍl (Hafsids, usurper)535, 555, 557Ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrāwānī673Ibn al-Aḥmar, Abū Walīd Ismāʿīl513, 547Ibn Akhī Abkār (Golden Horde envoy)285Ibn al-Anṣārī, Abū l-Qāsim Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Asad (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)555Ibn ʿArabshāh131, 250n95, 371n45, 390n49, 392, 393, 395n75Ibn al-Athīr, Majd al-Dīn347Ibn Aybak al-Dawādārī282n94, 305, 306Ibn ʿAzīz al-Kurdī, Badr al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)282Ibn al-Bārizī, Kamāl al-Dīn215Ibn al-Bārizī, Nāṣir al-Dīn8, 9, 438, 439Ibn Baṭṭūṭa130, 321, 347n29, 351, 621, 826Ibn al-Baylaqānī, Muḥyī l-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)587, 589n24Ibn al-Baylaqānī, Tāj al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)587Ibn Burhān al-Muḥtasib, Sharaf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)458n139, 461Ibn Būz, Asad al-Dīn Muḥammad (Rasulid envoy)587, 590Ibn al-Dabbāgh al-Ishbīlī, Abū l-Ḥasan Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm556Ibn al-Dāya, Shujāʿ al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)281Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī, Aḥmad28n132, 29, 30, 36n171, 126, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193, 198, 219, 220n17, 518, 549, 552, 553, 592, 621, 639, 658, 660n14, 661, 674, 675, 676, 677, 678Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī, ʿAlī28n132, 674, 675, 676Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī, Yaḥyā28n132, 29Ibn Fahd, ʿIzz al-Dīn616Ibn Fahd, Najm al-Dīn607, 609, 612, 617Ibn al-Faqīh, Muḥammad (Nasrid envoy)523Ibn al-Farrāʾ111Ibn al-Furāt27n128, 305, 329Ibn Furṭū, Aḥmad660n13, 671Ibn al-Fuwaṭī341Ibn al-Fuwaṭī (Pseudo-)343, 344Ibn al-Ghāzī l-Qusantīnī, Abū Zayd ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)556Ibn Ḥababar, Abū l-Ḥusayn Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd al-Malik al-Ghāfiqī l-Tūnisī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)555Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī8n34, 10, 251n97, 500, 591, 618Ibn al-Ḥajar, Muḥammad b. Qāsim557Ibn al-Ḥājj al-Numayrī, Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbdallāh b. Ibrāhīm (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)556Ibn al-Ḥanbalī35Ibn Ḥijja9, 37, 38, 39, 55nn260 and 262, 126, 423, 426n30, 438, 439, 440, 442, 443n65, 452, 456, 457, 459, 462, 552, 621, 635Ibn al-Ḥimṣī247Ibn ʿIdhārī513Ibn Iyās241, 244, 485, 487, 502, 503, 524, 550, 567, 573, 638, 649, 654, 719, 794, 834Ibn al-Jalāʾ al-Bijāʾī, Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)554Ibn al-Jazzār, Masʿūd b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Salawī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)557Ibn Kammūna347Ibn Kathīr305Ibn al-Kāzarūnī341Ibn al-Khabbāz al-Lawātī l-Mahdawī, Abū l-Faḍl b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī555Ibn Khaldūn, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān151, 513, 537, 538, 540, 543, 545, 548, 551, 556, 558Ibn Khaldūn, Yaḥyā534Ibn Khamīs al-Tilimsānī511Ibn al-Khaṭīb, Lisān al-Dīn512, 514, 518, 519Ibn Khaṭṭāb al-Mursī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad511Ibn al-Khuṭabāʾ, Fatḥ al-Dīn ʿUmar b. Muḥammad (Rasulid envoy)588, 589n24, 595, 596Ibn Maḥfūẓ, Muḥammad (Mamluk envoy)787, 792Ibn al-Mākisānī (Rasulid envoy)587Ibn Manẓūr, Muḥammad b. al-Mukarram9n42, 36n171, 37n172Ibn Muʾmin, Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad (Rasulid envoy)587, 589n24Ibn Munqidh558Ibn Nāẓir al-Jaysh28n132, 30, 126, 189, 219, 500, 552, 701Ibn Nubāta131Ibn Qabīb, Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī (Rasulid envoy)588, 589n24Ibn al-Qābūnī241n38Ibn Qāḍī Shuhba383Ibn al-Qāʾid al-Kalāʿī, Abū l-Qāsim b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)555Ibn Qalīl al-Hamm, ʿUmar b. Aḥmad (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)557Ibn al-Qalqashandī, Najm al-Dīn Muḥammad (see also Ibn Abī Ghudda)34, 126Ibn Qaramān (Mamluk envoy)252Ibn Qazvīnī l-Shāfiʿī, Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad (Ilkhanid envoy)294Ibn Qunfudh531n11Ibn Sabʿīn533, 542, 558Ibn al-Ṣayrafī254, 523, 650Ibn Sayyidihim al-Lakhmī l-Ishbīlī, Abū ʿAmr Aḥmad b. Malik (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)554Ibn Shaddād305, 306, 531n15Ibn al-Sukkarī, Kamāl al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)293Ibn Taghrī Birdī245, 250, 364, 370, 373, 485, 500n43, 503, 523, 608, 609, 610, 612, 726, 731, 732, 734, 735Ibn Taymiyya131, 132, 135, 392Ibn al-Taytī l-Āmidī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad271n38, 276, 267, 291, 292Ibn al-Ṭiqṭaqā341Ibn al-Yamanī, Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad (Mamluk envoy)285Ibn Ẓāhir, Yūsuf b. Muḥammad628Ibn Ẓahīra, Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm607, 612Ibn al-Zaman, Shams al-Dīn612Ibn Zunbūr, ʿAlam al-Dīn599Ibrāhīm I, Abū Isḥāq (Hafsids)555Ibrāhīm II, Abū Isḥāq (Hafsids)548, 552, 556Ibrāhīm al-Dimyāṭī (Mamluk envoy)646Ibrāhīm, Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raḥmān31Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Rushayd (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)555Ibrāhīm b. Qarā ʿUthmān (Aq Qoyunlu)393ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā249, 705ʿĪd al-Fiṭr503Idrīs b. ʿAlī (Borno)671, 672Idrīs b. Muḥammad (Borno envoy)668Idrīs b. Qatāda (Sharifs of Mecca)543Īfāt641, 645Ifrīqiya (Tunisia)190, 194, 195, 209, 210, 529, 530, 533, 535, 536, 537, 539, 541, 552, 553, 574, 575, 676, 678Ikhwāniyyāt30n138, 34, 35, 36n169, 48n217al-Ilāqī, Alāʾ al-Dīn Kundughdī (Mamluk envoy)285Īlchī, see Ambassadors, Emissaries, EnvoysIlke Noyan342n8Ilkhanids (Ilkhanides; see also Abagha; Abū Saʿīd; Arpa; Baidu; Choban; Ghāzān; Hülegü; Muḥammad b. Yolqutluq; Mūsā Khān b. ʿAlī b. Baydu; Öljeitü, Muḥammad Khudābanda; Tegüder Aḥmad)134, 135, 136, 148, 150, 151, 209, 211, 264, 265, 267, 269, 270, 271, 273, 275, 276, 278, 279, 287, 291–7, 312, 318, 321n83, 327, 331, 337, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 346, 347n28, 350, 351, 354, 356, 357, 363, 364, 426n28, 499, 542, 544, 545, 675, 758Īltutmish (Delhi sultans)623, 624, 631Imbros733Īnālbāy b. Qajmās372İnalcık, Halil484, 492n24, 499ʿInān b. Mughāmis b. Rumaytha (Sharifs of Mecca)546Incense692Inceptive letters (Ibtidāʾāt)51, 423India (Hind)123, 154, 155, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 209, 210, 239, 241, 246, 253, 392, 394n72, 396n83, 406n135, 582, 604, 605, 610, 614, 615, 616, 617, 621, 624, 626, 627, 631–5, 718, 741Indian Ocean144, 240, 582, 600, 688, 720Infidels (Kuffār)113, 194, 222n24, 238, 334, 335, 346, 351, 384n26, 459n142, 517, 519, 570, 583, 629, 630, 699, 702, 721, 728Injibār522Inks27, 37, 38, 53, 60, 126, 199, 223, 410, 417, 493, 521, 694, 791Innocent VIII (pope)719Inscriptio (ʿUnwān)199, 426, 428, 487, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 502Inshāʾ28, 51Inshāʾ literature44, 108, 119–21, 185, 186, 187, 188, 198, 219n14, 304, 323Instructions (Taḏkira)13, 23, 26, 44, 48, 66, 687Intelligence (see also Espionage, Spies)332, 741Intermediaries111, 128, 309, 320, 322, 582, 719Interpreters (see also Dragomans, Translators)57, 125, 318, 651, 661, 690, 702, 727, 728, 729, 732Intitulatio42, 199, 489n14, 492n24, 494Invocatio, see DuʿāʾIqtibās51Iran61n276, 190n32, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 209, 210, 246n77, 308, 340n1, 346, 363, 443n65, 830Iranians248, 392Iraq151, 196, 209, 210, 310, 340, 341, 342, 343, 347nn27 and 29, 349, 350, 352, 363, 368, 371, 373, 437n49, 621 Arab (ʿIrāq-i ʿArab)363, 372, 441, 444, 450, 457n131, 505 northern246n77 Persian (ʿIrāq-i ʿAjam)441, 444, 445, 447n85, 457n131, 463, 505 southern340, 351ʿIrāq-i ʿAjam, see IraqʿIrāq-i ʿArab, see IraqIrwin, Robert136ʿĪsā (Abyssinian envoy)650, 651, 653Isabella (Aragon)722Isabella I (Castile)720, 721n45Isfahan392, 434, 440, 441, 442, 445Īsiya Bīgī449Iskandar b. Qarā Yūsuf (Qara Qoyunlu)152, 421n20, 422n21, 425, 426, 427, 428n36, 436n43, 441n60, 443n65, 449n96Iskandar, Tawfīq19Iskandar b. ʿUmar Shaykh (Timurids)445Ismāʿīl II (Nasrids)519Ismāʿīl al-Sallāmī, Majd al-Dīn273, 293Ismāʿīlīs (Ismailites) (see also Nizārī-Ismāʿīlīs)328, 621al-Iṣṭakhrī187Istanbul22, 244n62, 253, 505, 568, 569, 573, 746 Başbakanlık Arşivi22Ītalghī (Golden Horde envoy)287Italy16, 124, 662, 787, 792Iyasu, see ʿĪsā (Abyssinian envoy)Jaʿba (Tube, Case for documents; see also Quivers)55n263, 215, 216, 227, 522Jābir b. ʿAbdallāh al-Anṣārī630Jacob the Frank (Cypriot envoy)734Jacobite patriarch223n26, 638, 639, 646, 652al-Jādda al-kubrā529Jaén701, 720Jahāngīr (Dhulqadirids)240n30Jahāngīr b. Tīmūr (Timurids)448Jahānshāh b. Chākū Barlās (Timurids)393, 406n137Jahānshāh b. Qarā Yūsuf (Qara Qoyunlu)153, 421n18, 422n21, 423n24, 437n49, 456n127Jahānshāh b. Tīmūr (Timurids)448Jakam373, 375Jakībān, Saʿd al-Dīn350Jalabī (Çelebi), ʿAlī550Jalayirids (Jalayirides; see also Dilshād Khātūn; Ḥasan-i Buzurg; Ḥusayn b. Shaykh Uways; Shaykh Uways; Sulṭān Aḥmad b. Shaykh Uways; Sulṭān Dilshād; Sulṭān Ṭāhir b. Sulṭān Aḥmad)150, 210, 352, 355, 356, 357, 358, 364, 365, 366, 367, 371, 373, 374, 375, 444, 447, 448n88, 545, 675, 678Jalāl al-Dīn343Jalāl al-Dīn b. Qāḍī Tūqāt (Golden Horde envoy)280, 281n84, 317, 319Jalāl al-Islām396n83, 402n115al-Jamdānī, Ibrāhīm (Mamluk envoy)290Jamdār264n7, 319James I (Aragon)517James II (Aragon)11, 12, 66–9, 699James II (Cyprus)25, 730–8al-Janadī593Jānibak al-Ẓāhirī605, 607–13, 618, 734, 735, 736Jānibak Ḥabīb486Jānibeg (Golden Horde)354Janus (Cyprus)725–7, 735Jarkas al-Sayfī (Mamluk envoy)290al-Jatā, see JetesJava, see JawātJawāb, see AnswersJawād, Musṭafā341Jāwāt (Java)627Jawnpur610, 634al-Jāzānī, Aḥmad618Jazira343, 823al-Jazīra al-Furātiyya192n52Jazīrat al-ʿArab (see also Arabia)192, 193, 194, 196, 197Jedda582, 605, 606, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 616, 617, 618Jerusalem (Jérusalem, al-Quds)66n277, 277, 311n36, 390n50, 405n128, 495n32, 522, 524, 608, 640, 642–50, 652, 694, 698, 711, 712, 714, 717, 718, 719, 720, 723, 809, 815 Archives of the Custody of the Holy Land25 Cave of David647 Church of the Resurrection524, 719, 720 Holy Sepulchre56n265, 640, 647n29, 719, 720, 721, 723 Mary’s tomb647 Musée national809, 815Jetes (al-Jatā)392Jewellery, see beads, gems, gold, ringsJews347, 719, 721, 722, 723, 765, (converted) 727, (Sicilian) 729Jibāl al-Barbar190, 192Jihād (see also War)106, 112, 113–21, 122, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 146, 188n12, 306, 308, 335, 458, 515, 516, 519, 523, 533, 534, 540, 593, 627, 630, 633Jihat Ṣalāḥ589al-Jīl, see GilanJingdezhen825, 830al-Jītīn369Jizya114, 706Joanna I (Naples)25, 85Jöchids (see also Golden Horde)302–23, 450, 451, 452John I (Aragon)72John I (Portugal)714John II (Cyprus)84, 496n33, 726–30John II (Portugal)715John III (Portugal)722John VI Kantakouzenos (Byzantium)27n128Judges31, 71, 72, 77, 123, 269, 270, 271, 277, 280n84, 281, 287, 291, 292, 293, 294, 388, 457, 458, 459n142, 503, 511, 522, 523, 568, 572, 574, 607, 611, 612, 625, 696, 687, 699, 701n58Julbān573Julbān Qarāsaqal365Julius II (pope)721Junayd, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)539, 559Jundīshāpūr392Jurjan355Jus ad bellum115Jus in bello115Juvaynī, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn343, 344, 345, 346, 348, 349Juvaynī, Shams al-Dīn344Jūzjānī, Minhāj al-Dīn623Kaʿba151, 250, 533, 545, 546, 618Kāfūr Khalīfatī, Khwāja (Abbasid envoy)632, 634Kahta384, 387n39al-Kakhtawī, Abū Bakr238Kalus, Ludvikxiii, 55n259, 159al-Kāmil I (Ayyubids)754al-Kāmil Shaʿbān I (Mamluks)69, 70, 810, 811Kanʿān390n49, 406n137Kanem190n39, 192, 196, 197, 209, 210, 659n11, 660, 661, 677Kanuri poet677Karak390n50Karateke, Hakan498, 499, 500, 501Karay (Golden Horde envoy)287Karbala365, 367Kārim591Karīm al-Dīn al-Kabīr273al-Kārimī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (Abyssian envoy)651, 653Kārimīs594, 650al-Karkhī, Shaykh Maʿrūf345al-Kāshgharī131Kashmir (see also Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn Shāhī Khān)611, 627Kātib Çelebī33Kātib al-darj30Kātib al-dast559Kātib al-sirr216n7, 486, 549, 624, 690n20Kawlam627, 632Kaykāʾūs I, ʿIzz al-Dīn (Seljuqs)307Kchir, Khaled156Kebek (Golden Horde)451Kefken321Kemal Reis571, 575Kerslake, Celia J.41Kerynia726, 733, 734, 735, 736Kessler, Christel608Keys (Fortresses)252n106, 253, 395, 405, 574al-Khabīr, Abū l-Ḥasan Yaḥyā b. Abī Marwān al-Andalusī l-Ḥimyarī555Khāʾir Bāy83al-Khālidī33Kh.l.f, Ḥājjī (Abbasid envoy)632Khalīl Sulṭān b. Mīrānshāh (Timurids)403, 404, 406Khaljis623Kharāj119K. al-Kharāj wa-ṣināʿat al-kitāba (Qudāma b. Jaʿfar)186al-Kharrūbī, Zakī l-Dīn595, 596Khartabirt253Khātam, see SealsKhawātim (Eschatocol)50, 199, 423, 426, 438, 494Khiḍr Khān (Delhi sultans)634Khilʿa, see Robes of honorKhirokitia725, 727Khitay192n53, 196Khojand392Khuḍayr, Niẓām al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)588al-Khūlī, Amīn148Khurasan190n32, 192n52, 194n78, 196, 197, 248, 311n36, 392, 434, 442Khusraw Khān, Nāṣir al-Dīn (Delhi sultans, usurper)623Khuṭba202, 208, 252, 355, 364, 373, 390, 398, 402n115, 533, 535, 542, 543, 544, 545, 626Khuzistan192, 368n24, 392Khwāndamīr341Khwarizm52n244, 190n32, 192n53, 194n78, 196, 197, 265, 268, 309, 392, 754Khwarizmshahs (see also Mangūbirtī, Jalāl al-Dīn)41n193, 52n244, 264, 265, 268, 308, 309, 312, 319, 322, 385Kīlān, see GilanKirman192n52, 194n78, 196, 197, 251, 392, 454n120Kissing221, 249, 365, 486, 487, 488, 489, 491, 493, 503, 690, 691, 727, 731Kiswa151, 250, 251, 533, 543, 545, 618Kitāb-i Diyārbakriyye (Ṭihrānī)393Kitbughā Noyan308, 332Koechlin818Koestler, Arthur218Köhler, Michael136Kollatz, Anna155Konya42, 310n30Korkud (Ottomans)244Korkut, Besim21Korobeinikov, Dimitri A.146Köse Dagh310Kufa350Kūhmā Qarājil632Kūkūdiyya (Ilkhanid envoy)297Kūkūya (Ilkhanid envoy)297Kurjistān, see GeorgiaKusharbak, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)265, 268, 281, 319Kütahya370Labīda (Lubayda) b. Abī Numayy (Sharifs of Mecca)544, 545, 546Lājīn al-Ḥamawī l-Barīdī (Mamluk envoy)290Lājīn, Ḥusām al-Dīn277n66Lake Chad659, 660, 661, 666, 669, 677, 678Lake Van306Lakhnawtī632Lambton, A.345Lances246, 247, 653n59Languages7, 9, 47, 51, 52, 56, 57, 60, 119, 264, 265, 266, 305, 318, 319, 323, 489, 498, 715, 718 Arabic52n243–4, 188n14, 315, 317, 347n29, 490, 652, 662, 703, 718 Berber188n14 European188n14, 702 Ge’ez651 Greek56, 188n14, 281 Italian703, 704, 707 Latin52, 57, 702, 704, 707 Mongol52, 315 Persian52, 188n14, 315, 423 Portuguese718 Qipchaq316 Sudanese188n14 Turkish52, 188n14, 315, 317, 490, 728Languedoc22Latham, J.513Latin(s)647, 723 archbishop of Nicosia730, 735 bishop of Imbros733 Empire313 states685 West123Law6, 113, 116, 118, 188, 193, 218, 249, 263, 270, 319, 346, 357, 487, 488, 617, 630, 631, 635, 639, 698, 713 Islamic International106, 109, 112, 117, 697 of war112 Roman748, 749, 763 schools of116, 123siyar115, 117Layout15, 26, 47, 50, 61, 199, 201, 207, 221, 223, 224, 437Lead662Legitimacy105, 121, 122, 128, 131, 132, 134, 147, 150, 159, 304, 307, 313, 316, 322, 340, 341, 347, 356, 495, 574, 582, 596, 597, 626, 670, 671, 678, 737Le Maire de Belges, Jean23Lemon227, 834Lengherand, Georges642, 651, 652Leo Africanus763, 764Lesser Armenia (see Cilician Armenia)Letters of credence44Levant136, 140, 141, 264n5, 685, 686, 703, 720, 743n9Levtzion, Nehemia673Lewicka, Paulina834Lewon (Lesser Armenia)272n44Liability, see DhimmaLibya662Lingua franca52n246, 54, 60, 125, 199, 207, 226, 491Lions253Lisbon (Lishbūna)39, 145, 711–20Lithuania303, 385n29Livorno782Lōdīs634Loiseau, Julien147Lomellini, Napoleone737Londres, British Museum811, 816 Victoria and Albert Museum808, 815, 817, 818Longquan825, 829Lopes de Barros, Maria Filomena145Lopez de Baldaia737López de Carvajal, Bernardino720Loredan, Bernardo (Venetian envoy)56n265, 82Lorenzo de’ Medici (Florence)73–5, 784, 835Lornes, John de731Louis (Cyprus)25, 726, 731Louis IX (France)531, 532n19, 533, 541Louis XI (France)84, 717Louis XII (France)23, 84Louis XIV (France)643Lubayda, see LabīdaLūr392Lusignan (see also Cyprus)23, 138, 139, 725, 733, 738Lydon, Ghislaine661Lynx247, 486, 493Maʾāthir al-ināfa fī maʿālim al-khilāfa (al-Qalqashandī)32Maʿbar627Madrasas (schools) (see also Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, Mecca) (Aden)589 (Baghdad)346 (Cairo)123 (India)633 (Taiz)589Madrid, National Library521Mādūk-n610Mafamede (Muḥammad) de Avis (Portuguese envoy)714Maghrib (Maghreb)156, 512, 514, 515, 517, 529, 530, 531, 537, 539, 540, 542, 545, 551, 552, 658, 663, 669, 670, 675, 678, 764Maghribī664al-Maḥallī, Burhān al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)586, 588, 591, 596Maḥmūd (Maydūma)611Maḥmūd Shāh (Malwa)604–18Maḥmūd Shāh, Begŕā (Cambay)610Mājār b. Ighān (Mamluk envoy)289Makhzumids641Makram (Makran)392Malaga516, 522, 523, 570, 763al-Malaṭī, Rukn al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)626Malatya383, 384, 385n30, 386, 387n39Mali (see also Takrūr; Mansā Mūsā)157, 194, 195, 196, 197, 209, 210, 658, 660n14, 669, 674–8Malik Ashraf (Chobanids)353, 354Malik Hizārgarī, ʿIzz al-Dīn395Malik Sunbul al-Sulṭānī (Malwa envoy)606, 607Malipiero, Pasquale (Venice)836Malta24Malwa (Malāwah; see also Ghiyāth al-Dīn Shāh; Maḥmūd Shāh)39, 604, 605, 606, 607, 608, 610, 611, 612, 613, 614, 616, 617, 618, 632al-Maʾman345Māmāy al-Khāṣṣakī574Mamlakat al-Almān, see GermanyMamluks, see al-Ashraf Barsbāy; al-Ashraf Īnāl; al-Ashraf Khalīl b. Qalāwūn; al-Ashraf Qānṣawh al-Ghawrī; al-Ashraf Qāytbāy; al-Ashraf Shaʿbān II; al-Ashraf Ṭūmān Bāy; Berke Khān b. Baybars; al-Kāmil Shaʿbān I; al-Manṣūr Abū Bakr; al-Manṣūr ʿAlī II; al-Manṣūr Muḥammad II; al-Manṣūr Qalāwūn; al-Manṣūr ʿUthmān b. Jaqmaq; al-Muʾayyad Aḥmad III; al-Muʾayyad Shaykh; al-Muʿizz Aybak; al-Muẓaffar Aḥmad II; al-Muẓaffar Baybars II al-Jāshnakīr; al-Muẓaffar Quṭuz; al-Nāṣir Faraj; al-Nāṣir Ḥasan; al-Nāṣir Muḥammad I; al-Nāṣir Muḥammad IV; al-Ṣāliḥ Ḥājjī II; al-Ṣāliḥ Ismāʿīl; al-Ṣāliḥ Ṣāliḥ; al-Ẓāhir Barqūq; al-Ẓāhir Jaqmaq; al-Ẓāhir Khushqadam; al-Ẓāhir Ṭaṭar; al-Ẓāhir Timurbughā; al-Ẓāhir YalbāyMandu (Mandāwa, Maydūma)604, 610, 611, 618Manghūsh (Golden Horde envoy)284, 285, 286, 287Manglī Khwāja (Timurids)404Mangūbirtī, Jalāl al-Dīn (Khwarizmshahs)265Manjanīq388, 402, 403Manklī Bughā (Mamluk envoy)290Mansā Mūsā (Mali)658, 660n14, 667, 677, 678Mansouri, Mohammad146al-Manṣūr (Abbasids)614al-Manṣūr Abū Bakr (Mamluks)353n57al-Manṣūr, Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb (Almohads)531, 557, 558, 661al-Manṣūr ʿAlī II (Mamluks)71, 76al-Manṣūr Muḥammad II (Mamluks)70, 77, 519, 811al-Manṣūr Qalāwūn (Mamluks)11, 12n54, 24, 77, 557, 585, 643, 706al-Manṣūr ʿUmar b. ʿAlī b. Rasūl (Rasulids)543, 582, 585al-Manṣūr ʿUthmān, Abū ʿAmr (Hafsids)538, 540, 550, 551, 552, 553, 557, 558, 559, 560, 566, 568, 569, 570, 571, 572al-Manṣūr ʿUthmān b. Jaqmaq (Mamluks)79al-Manṣūr II Muḥammad (Ayyubids of Hama)532n19al-Manṣūra308Manuel I (Portugal)718, 719n36, 721, 722, 723al-Manūfī, Badr al-Dīn Abū l-Fatḥ617Manuscripts248, 613, 618, 643, 662Manz, Beatrice448al-Maqqarī27n128, 515, 519al-Maqrīzī8n34, 9, 10, 27n128, 31n140, 126n82, 241n34, 305, 341, 357, 364, 365, 383, 410, 411, 416, 417, 418, 420, 436, 437, 443, 453, 462, 500n43, 523, 545n79, 547, 600, 618, 621, 625, 646, 647, 658, 806, 834al-Maqṣid al-rafīʿ al-munshaʾ al-hādī ilā ṣināʿat al-inshāʾ, see al-Thaghr al-bāsimMaʿr632Maragha350n41Marble slab720Marco Polo312n40, 593Marcos IV (patriarch)642Mardānshāh (Qara Qoyunlu envoy)447, 460Mardin271n38, 276, 291n152, 335Maria (Aragon)721, 722Marin, Carlo Antonio21Marino, Rizzo di736Marj Dābiq766Marjān, Khwāja353, 357Marrakesh514Marriages/Weddings127, 147, 150, 243n58, 277, 279, 282, 287, 296, 366, 374, 455, 463, 704n62, 721, 722, 823Marseilles22, 145Martin I (Aragon)72, 73Marwa612Masālik al-abṣār fī mamālik al-amṣār (Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī)189Masfarma ʿUmar b. ʿUthmān661Mashrūḥ al-khulafāʾ wa-manẓūr al-umarāʾ (Yūsuf b. Muḥammad b. Ẓāhir)628Masīla (M’sila)535Mas Latrie, Louis de19, 23, 24Mas Latrie, René de730Masʿā608, 612al-Masʿūd (Ayyubids of Yemen)582Masʿūd II, Ghiyāth al-Dīn (Seljuqs)271, 291Masʿūd Shāh, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn (Delhi sultans)624al-Masʿūdī, Fāris al-Dīn Āqqūsh al-Asadī (Mamluk envoy)266, 281Matariyya694Maṭlaʿ-i saʿdayn va-majmaʿ-i baḥrayn (ʿAbd al-Razzāq Samarqandī)382Matn (Text)50, 199, 423, 426, 436, 490Mauritania658n3, 661Mauro, Fr.720, 721Mā Warāʾ al-Nahr, see Transoxianaal-Māwardī621al-Mawṣilī, ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad592al-Mawṣilī, Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad b. Ḥusayn592al-Mawṣilī, Mūsā b. al-Ḥasan35, 584, 597Mawṣilī, Quṭb al-Dīn (Ilkhanid envoy)292Mayyāfāriqīn275Mazandaran192n52, 392Mecca (La Mecque; see also Abū l-Ghayth b. Abī Numayy; Aḥmad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAjlān; ʿAjlān b. Rumaytha; ʿAlī b. ʿInān b. Mughāmis b. Rumaytha; Barakāt b. Ḥasan b. ʿAjlān; Ḥasan b. ʿAjlān b. Rumaytha; Ḥumayḍa b. Abī Numayy; Idrīs b. Qatāda; ʿInān b. Mughāmis b. Rumaytha; Labīda (Lubayda) b. Abī Numayy; Muḥammad b. Barakāt; Muqbil b. Nakhbār; Rumaytha b. Abī Numayy; Thaqaba b. Rumaytha; ʿUṭayfa b. Abī Numayy)241n34, 244, 252n105, 277, 311n36, 351, 522, 524, 533, 534, 536, 539, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 553, 582, 586, 589, 604–18, 649, 658, 660, 667, 668, 678, 698, 721 Bāb al-Malāʿiba606 Bāb al-Ṣafā608 Bāb al-Salām616 Bāb Umm Hāniʾ606, 607, 608, 616 Bāb al-ʿUmra608 Bayt Umm Hāniʾ606, 607, 616 Ḥaram Mosque606, 607, 608, 611 al-Madrasa al-Banjaliyya608 Madrasa of Cambay611 Madrasa of Maḥmūd Shāh/al-Khaljiyya/al-Mandawiyya606, 607, 608, 610, 613, 616Meccans297Medici15Medina (Médine)311n36, 608, 611, 641, 698Mediterranean15, 19, 22, 23, 226, 238, 240, 242, 256, 406n137, 484, 495, 571, 574, 685, 686, 696, 702, 703, 707, 711, 715, 716, 719, 722, 723, 741, 763, 765, 768, 782, 823, 824, 827Mediterranean states581Meḥmed I (Ottomans)438, 450, 459Meḥmed II (Ottomans)22, 83, 246, 253, 421, 422n21, 428n33, 434n42, 437n49, 484–9, 493n26, 495, 496, 497, 498, 502, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505, 730, 760Meloy, John L.39n181, 154, 155Melville, Charles342Melvin-Koushki, Matthew153, 490, 491Ménage, Victor Louis2Menorca514Mercantile activities595–596 cities145 communities118, 159 elite600 networks593–6, 598, 600 powers124, 134, 139, 140, 143–5, 788 system of galleys782Merchants (marchands; see also Traders)45, 46n211, 118, 122, 124, 137, 144, 239, 264, 272, 273, 274, 275, 278, 318, 320, 344, 346, 440, 452, 453, 543, 600, 615, 618, 650, 749, 751, 752, 762, 765, 787, 788 Abyssinian652, 653 Alan280, 306 Andalusi521 Baghdadi349 Cairene595, 596 Catalan14, 67, 83, 733, 759 Dalmatian21 European692n27, 725, 729 Florentine16, 75, 761, 782, 784, 787, 789 French22, 83 Genoan24, 123 Indian536 Italian123 Muslim319n74 Ottoman241n38 Persian830 Pisan757 Rasulid583, 586, 588, 591, 593, 594, 595, 596 Seljuk308 Turkmen308 Venetian18, 19, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 319n74, 662, 725, 750, 753n55, 754, 755, 760, 761, 764, 766, 788, 793Mercury (Quicksilver)662, 668, 669Merinids (Mérinides; see also ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān II, Abū l-Ḥasan; al-Mutawakkil Abū ʿInān Fāris; al-Nāṣir, Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsuf)27n128, 515, 516n28, 517n29, 518, 714Mesopotamia350n38Messengers (see also Ambassadors, Couriers, Emissaries, Envoys)108, 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 117, 131, 134, 218, 219, 239n19, 276n60, 290, 303, 304, 307, 313, 315n52, 318, 320, 520, 572, 615, 617, 628, 651, 662, 688, 690, 693n31, 757Metals (see also Copper, Gold, Lead, Mercury, Silver, Tin)793Metropolitan of Abyssinia639, 646, 649, 653Michael VIII Paleologus (Byzantium)266, 281, 313, 314, 315, 320, 322Miglias, Nicolin di (Cypriot envoy)737Mignanelli, Beltramo381, 383, 393Mihmandār243, 250n96, 254, 255, 282, 486, 521, 522, 638, 639, 693Milan142, 143, 686, 689, 704n62Milly, James de (Hospitallers)731Ming829Minṭāsh383Miquel, André529Mīrānshāh b. Tīmūr (Timurids)384, 392, 393, 398n95, 400n104, 402, 444, 448, 449, 454, 455, 464Mīrkhwānd341, 382Mirrors for Princes110–2, 131, 226, 263, 341Mithāl44n203, 436n47, 457, 595Mīthāq447Mithqāl al-Ḥabashī (Mamluk envoy)651Mocenigo, Tommaso (Venice)78, 82Moclín516Moghulestan392Mojácar516Möngke (Mongols)306n9, 307, 309, 310, 312Möngke Temür (Golden Horde)281, 282, 283, 317Mongols (see also Arigh Böke; Chinggis Khān; Möngke; Qubilai)122, 131, 134, 135, 137, 138, 145, 148, 149, 150, 153, 160, 191, 192, 195, 196, 210, 211n149, 265, 266, 268, 270, 272, 280, 302, 307, 308, 310, 316, 319, 327, 330–7, 341, 345, 346n24, 350, 391, 392, 495, 533, 534, 541, 585Montpellier145Moritz, Bernhard20, 742, 743, 745, 746, 747Morocco (Barr al-ʿUdwa, al-Gharb al-Aqṣā)190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 668, 678, 714, 718, 763Mortel, Richard154, 608Mosanef, F.356Mosul341, 368Mottahedeh, Roy346Motto, see ʿAlāmaMoukarzel, Pierre139Mounat, Sir731Mount Sinai66n277, 242, 694, 727, 728, 746, 823n1, 827Mount Sion647, 717, 720Muʿāwiya I (Umayyads)403al-Muʾayyad Aḥmad III (Mamluks)79, 609al-Muʾayyad Dāwūd (Rasulids)543, 544, 584n17, 585, 589, 599, 808al-Muʾayyad Shaykh (Mamluks)8, 37, 68, 78, 372, 376, 420, 421n20, 434, 438n51, 439, 442, 443n69, 444, 450n98, 452, 453, 456–64, 539, 559, 585, 586, 599, 600, 693, 695, 759Muʿāẕ b. Jabal630al-Muʿaẓẓam Tūrānshāh I (Ayyubids of Yemen)599Mubāshir Khilāfatī (Abbasid envoy)632Mufliḥ, Amīn al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)588, 589n24Mughals, see Akbar; BāburMuḥammad (Prophet)114, 115, 250, 401, 403, 605, 615, 627, 628, 629, 630, 632, 633, 698, 712, 732Muḥammad I (Nasrids)511, 512, 513, 515, 517Muḥammad II (Nasrids)512, 513Muḥammad V (Nasrids)515, 516, 518, 519, 520Muḥammad IX (Nasrids)516, 520Muḥammad XII (Nasrids)516, 523Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr al-Mutawakkil al-Bijāʾī (Hafsids)556Muḥammad al-Bahāʾ, Nāṣir al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)588Muḥammad b. Barakāt (Sharifs of Mecca)609, 613, 614, 617Muḥammad Bey b. Jamaq (Ilkhanid envoy)279Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā b. Muhannā (Āl Faḍl)545Muḥammad, Jalāl al-Dīn405n129Muḥammad Jūkī b. Shāh Rukh (Timurids)456n127Muḥammad Khudābanda, see ÖljeitüMuḥammad Khwāja b. Uruktamur (Golden Horde envoy)290Muḥammad, Mubāriz al-Dīn (Muzaffarids)354Muḥammad b. al-Mukarram, see Ibn ManẓūrMuḥammad Sām, Muʿizz al-Dīn (Delhi sultans)631Muḥammad-Shāh b. Qarā Yūsuf (Qara Qoyunlu)457n132Muḥammad Shāh I, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Khaljī (Delhi sultans)624Muḥammad Shāh II b. Tughluqshāh, Abū l-Mujāhid (Delhi sultans)632Muḥammad Shāh III, Nāṣir al-Dīn (Delhi sultans)634Muḥammad Shaybānī (Shaybanids)248Muḥammad Ṣūfī (Abbasid envoy)632Muḥammad-Sulṭān b. Tīmūr (Timurids)448Muḥammad b. Tughluq (Delhi sultans)621, 625Muḥammad b. Yolqutluq (Ilkhanids)352n51Muhanna, Elias149, 188al-Muʿizz Aybak (Mamluks)76, 582, 705, 755al-Mujāhid ʿAlī (Rasulids)546, 585, 589, 592, 594, 595, 596, 598, 626al-Mujāhidī l-Riḍwānī, Abū l-Durr Jawhar (Rasulid envoy)588, 589al-Muktafī ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Abī Yaḥyā (Constantine)557Mukūs552, 616Mules394, 406, 714Multan392Münşeʾāt-i selāṭīn (Ferīdūn Beg)41Munshaʾāt4, 36, 40, 107n12, 125, 126, 129, 209, 446n82Munshiʾ9, 37, 39, 51, 439al-Muntakhab, Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā III b. Ibrāhīm I (Hafsids)556Muntakhab al-tavārīkh (Muʿīn al-Dīn Naṭanzī)382al-Muntaṣir Muḥammad II (Hafsids)756al-Muntaṣir Muḥammad IV (Hafsids)558, 559al-Muqaddasī187al-Muqaffā, see al-Taʾrīkh al-kabīr al-muqaffāMuqbil388, 389Muqbil b. Nakhbār (Sharifs of Mecca)547Murabbaʿ45n207, 595, 663Murād I (Ottomans)498n34Murād II (Ottomans)27n127, 39n178, 41n188, 252, 253Murcie542, 555Murgham b. Ṣābir535al-Murūj al-zakiyya fī tawshiyat al-durūj al-khiṭābiyya (Ibn al-Ḥanbalī)35Musā II, Abū Ḥammū (Abdelwadids)534n31Mūsā b. Kaʿb49n224Mūsā Khān b. ʿAlī b. Baydu (Ilkhanids)352–3Mūsā, Muẓaffar al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)283Mūsā b. T-m-r-s-lās, Muẓaffar al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)283Mūsā Tūybughā, Shaykh (Rīgmāl)395Mushāfaha (Oral message)218, 219, 225–6, 303, 315, 318, 330, 337, 457n133, 662, 726Music (see also Drums)243, 253, 354, 690Musk246, 251, 599, 670Muslim b. al-Ḥajjāj673Mustafayev, Shahin383al-Mustaʿīn, al-Dāʿī Aḥmad b. Marzūq b. Abī ʿUmāra al-Khayyāṭ, see Ibn Abī ʿUmāraal-Mustaʿīn Saʿd b. ʿAlī (Nasrids)516, 523al-Mustakfī (Abbasids)625, 626, 631, 632al-Mustanjid (Abbasids)613, 614al-Mustanṣir (Abbasids)531, 623al-Mustanṣir, Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad I b. Yaḥyā I (Hafsids)531, 532, 533, 539n60, 542, 546, 548, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558al-Mustanṣir, Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad II Abū ʿAṣīda (Hafsids)556, 756al-Mustanṣir, Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad II (Hafsids)557al-Mustanṣir, Abū Darba Muḥammad III (Hafsids)556al-Mustanṣir, Abū Ḥafs ʿUmar II (Hafsids)556al-Mustanṣir, Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm II (Hafsids)556al-Mustanṣir Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā Abī Yaḥyā al-Muwaḥḥad (Bijāya)556al-Mustaʿṣim (Abbasids)340, 582, 624, 634K. Mustawdiʿ al-ʿalāma wa-mustabdiʿ al-ʿallāma (Ibn al-Aḥmar)513al-Muʿtaṭid (Abbasids)626, 627, 632al-Muʿtaḍid ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ibrāhīm b. Yahyā (Bijāya)556Muṭahhartan370, 441n59Muṭālaʿa (Written memorandum)245al-Mutawakkil I (Abbasids)626, 627, 631, 632, 633al-Mutawakkil, Abū Fāris ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (Hafsids)539, 540, 546, 547, 549, 552, 553, 558, 559, 566, 567n5al-Mutawakkil Abū ʿInān Fāris (Merinids)556al-Mutawakkil, Abū Yaḥyā Abū Bakr (Hafsids)549, 552al-Mutawakkil Muḥammad V (Hafsids)556al-Muẓaffar Aḥmad II (Mamluks)421n20, 459, 461al-Muẓaffar Baybars II al-Jāshnakīr (Mamluks)263, 273, 277, 544, 591Muẓaffar Khān, see Ẓafar Khān (Gujarat)al-Muẓaffar Quṭuz (Mamluks)307, 308, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 532, 584, 585Muẓaffar Shāhids (Malwa)39, 621al-Muẓaffar Yūsuf I (Rasulids)534, 543, 582, 584, 585, 590, 593, 643, 649Muzaffarids (Gujarat)621Muzaffarids (Shiraz; see also Muḥammad, Mubāriz al-Dīn)357, 363Muzīl al-ḥaṣr fī mukātabāt ahl al-ʿaṣr35Nablus390n49Nafḥ al-ṭīb min ghusn al-Andalus al-raṭīb (al-Maqqarī)27n128, 515, 519Najaf342n8, 348, 354Najāshī641Najd350n38Najīb, Ṣārim al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)588Nakhjawānī342Namūn (Golden Horde envoy)284, 285Naples (see also Don Alonzo; Ferdinand I; Joanna I)24, 25, 85, 524, 686, 687, 688, 689, 690, 692n28, 719, 736, 793Narratio426, 436, 437, 438, 494al-Nāṣir, Abū l-Baqāʾ Khālid I (Hafsids)556al-Nāṣir, Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsuf (Merinids)537, 545al-Nāṣir Aḥmad (Rasulids)585, 586, 598, 589Nāṣir al-Din (Abbasid envoy)633Nāṣir al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)588al-Nāṣir Faraj (Mamluks)24, 84, 151, 211nn148–9, 274, 363, 364, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 375, 376, 381, 382, 384n28, 385n34, 386, 387, 395, 397, 398, 401, 440, 444, 452n107, 453, 457, 462, 539, 558, 644, 645al-Nāṣir Ḥasan (Mamluks)27n128, 70, 77, 595, 598al-Nāṣir b. al-Mujāhid (Rasulids)598al-Nāṣir Muḥammad I (Mamluks)12, 13n64, 14, 53n249, 67, 68, 69, 77, 135, 252, 267, 271, 273, 274, 277, 279, 304, 328, 335, 350, 351, 352, 366, 402n113, 428n38, 539n56, 557, 585, 598, 599, 626, 644, 645, 654, 660n14, 692n27, 756, 761, 804, 806, 809, 813, 815al-Nāṣir Muḥammad IV (Mamluks)73, 74, 792, 793, 794, 795al-Nāṣir I Yūsuf, Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin) (Ayyubids)529, 530, 531, 557, 558, 599, 698, 754al-Nāṣir II Yūsuf (Ayyubids of Damascus)328, 329Naṣr Hous732Nasrids (see also Ismāʿīl II; Muḥammad I; Muḥammad II; Muḥammad V; Muḥammad IX; Muḥammad XII; al-Mustaʿīn Saʿd b. ʿAlī; Yūsuf I)39, 56n263, 156, 215, 511, 513–20, 522, 523, 524, 525, 540, 553Naṭanzī, Muʿīn al-Dīn382Naves, Sor de736Nawrūz (Ilkhanid amir)349Nawrūz al-Ḥāfiẓī401n108, 442Nicolson, Harold617, 618Niger658Nigeria659, 662, 663n30Nihāvand265Nile242, 641, 649, 725, 824n4, 827Nile-to-Oxus region363, 374Nisyros731Niẓām al-Mulk111, 263, 264, 266, 272, 279Nizārī-Ismāʿīlīs308Noah (Prophet)396Noghai266, 282, 283, 284Notaries6, 31, 218Nuʿayr (Āl Faḍl)365Nubia49n224, 156, 157, 190n38, 192, 194, 196, 197, 827Nubians218Nūr al-Dīn (Golden Horde envoy)283Nūr al-Dīn (Timurid amir)403, 404Nūr al-Dīn b. Sār Būghā Jalāyir401Nūr al-maʿārif fī nuẓum wa-qawānīn wa-aʿrāf al-Yaman fī l-ʿahd al-muẓaffarī l-wārif590Nuʿūt (Epithets)34, 60, 199, 203–5, 223, 486, 493, 494, 676al-Nuwayrī27n128, 305, 306, 500, 515, 532Oaths (Yamīn)44, 45, 137, 320n76Ohta, Keiko155Öljeitü, Muḥammad Khudābanda (Ilkhanids)271, 293, 349n33, 350n41, 354, 356, 544Oran716Orsa, Andrea alias Anthony de l’737Orsini, Gianbattista (Hospitallers)737Ottomans (see also Bāyazīd I; Bāyazīd II; Cem; Korkud; Meḥmed I; Meḥmed II; Murād I; Murād II; Selīm I; Sulaymān II)11, 20, 21, 22, 24, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 61n276, 66, 83, 106, 121, 122, 132n98, 148, 149, 153, 156, 158n224, 210, 211, 216, 239, 240, 241, 242n49, 244, 246, 248, 252, 253, 303, 363, 370, 371, 374, 384, 385, 421, 423, 484–505, 514, 522, 538, 550, 554, 557, 566–75, 647, 659, 676, 699, 718, 741, 742, 743, 744, 745, 746, 747, 760, 761, 762, 765, 766, 793Ouerfelli, Mohamed25Özbek (Golden Horde)274, 277, 284n112, 285n118, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 304Pahlitzsch, Johannes146, 719Palestine122, 242, 647Palmyra, see TadmurPaoli, Sebastiano24Paper2, 6, 33, 42, 43, 48, 49, 57, 199, 206, 218, 224, 316, 416, 417, 437n49, 512, 513, 514, 519, 661, 662, 663, 742, 783, 791 formats27, 34, 37, 38, 40, 45n207, 47, 59, 126, 199, 200–1, 207, 208, 210, 211, 224, 422n20, 438n49, 489n14, 663, 664, 674, 675, 676, 678 recycled10 reused9, 10, 410, 411, 418, 420, 462Paper money217, 226, 348Papyrus2, 49n224, 742Parades240, 245, 366Parasol247, 551Parchment2, 25n121Paredes, Lucena156Parete, Bartholomew de (Hospitaller envoy)733Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France23, 411, 810 Musée du Louvre804, 813Parvanah (Seljuqs)291Patriarch of Alexandria147, 223n26, 638, 639, 640n5, 642, 643, 646, 652Patriarch of Jerusalem495n32Paul II (pope)736Pāyandah (Timurid envoy)461Peace (see also Truces)3, 106, 113, 116 117, 118, 127, 136, 137, 139, 144, 148, 149, 150, 154, 160, 273, 331, 334, 350, 351, 398, 401, 441, 453, 567, 569, 570, 571, 572, 573, 574, 575, 605, 745, 757, 758, 835n59Pedani, Maria Pia19, 46n212Pegolotti321Penbox (écritoire; dawāt)801–18Pepper599, 692, 693Perelman, Les185Perfumes (parfums; see also Balsam, Incense, Musk)558, 826Perruchon, J.147Persia190n32, 192n92, 194n78, 196, 197, 341, 355, 356Persian Gulf741Persian Iraq, see IraqPeter I (Cyprus)84, 696Peter IV (Aragon)68–72Petitions (Qiṣṣa)34n159, 45n206, 66, 123, 124, 216n7, 222n23, 224, 225, 511, 519, 685, 713, 748, 753, 766Pfeiffer, Judith333, 499n36Philips, Jonathan136Pigeons254Pilgrimage (Pèlerinage), Jerusalem56n265, 146, 650, 712 Muslim122, 155, 156, 157, 244, 351, 394, 453, 524, 529, 532, 533, 536, 537, 540, 541, 544, 546, 605, 629, 642, 658, 659, 660n14, 678Pilgrimage caravan (caravane de pèlerins)156, 539, 541, 542, 543, 545, 546, 553, 648, 649, 650, 659, 660, 667, 668Pilgrims (pèlerins)122, 123, 127, 130, 140, 145, 146, 147, 152, 240, 345, 521, 522, 530, 536, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 615, 629, 642, 648, 649, 650, 652, 658, 659, 663, 667, 668, 687, 689, 729Piracy140, 686, 693, 725, 750, 754Pirates (see also Corsairs)23, 569, 730, 737, 750, 751, 753, 758, 759, 760, 763, 764, 768Pīr Būdāq (Qara Qoyunlu)422n20, 424, 426Pīr Muḥammad b. Jahāngīr (Timurids)403, 448n90Pīr ʿUmar457Pisa16, 25, 85, 142, 143, 686, 757 State Archives25Pisans24, 282n94, 757Plante, Julian G.147Plates653, 692Podocataro, Peter (Cypriot envoy)730, 731, 732, 733, 735Poetry37, 51, 60, 188n14, 354, 492n23Poles570Poliak, A.N.148Polish king573Polo317Porcelain157, 599, 692, 826, 829, 832, 833n45, 834, 835, 836, 837Porto Pisano782, 792Portugal (see also Afonso IV; Afonso V; Emmanuel I; John I; John II; John III; Manuel I)144, 145, 518, 648, 699, 711–23, 741, 763, 765Portuguese648, 699, 720, 741, 765Portuguese king712, 714, 716, 717, 718, 721, 722Postal service (Barīd)119, 290, 320, 321Pozza, M.750Predelli, Riccardo18, 750Prisoners (prisonnier)115, 118, 137, 240n33, 243, 244, 252, 314, 370, 373, 386, 394, 395, 401, 444, 449n96, 454, 455, 458n138, 546, 593, 750Procurations44Prose37, 51, 60, 222, 439Protocol30, 50, 111, 127, 149, 152, 199, 205, 207, 214, 248, 249, 250, 332, 392, 423, 426, 436, 446, 462, 488, 489, 491, 492, 494, 499, 500, 501, 502, 552, 597, 606, 651, 665, 688, 691, 694, 699, 707Provence22Proverbs51, 188n14, 672n69, 673Provisions25, 122, 124, 139, 141, 640, 689 695, 697, 707, 763, 784, 787, 788, 789Pryor, John145al-Qāḍī l-Fāḍil534, 558Qāḍī l-Milal250Qahwat al-inshāʾ (Ibn Ḥijja)9, 37–8, 126, 423, 438, 439, 440, 462, 635al-Qalʿa (Andalus)554Qalāʾid al-jumān fī muṣṭalaḥ mukātabāt ahl al-zamān (Ibn al-Qalqashandī)34, 126Qalʿat al-Jabal; see Cairo, citadelQalʿat al-Rūm390al-Qalījī, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Balbān (Mamluk envoy)293al-Qalqashandī8, 9, 11, 12, 17, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36n171, 37, 43, 44n202, 48, 49, 50, 52n243, 56, 126, 128n89, 131, 132, 145, 188n14, 189, 191, 193, 198, 200, 201, 202, 219, 220, 221n19, 222nn22 and 24, 224, 226, 320, 341, 417, 420, 422n20, 438, 513, 514, 515, 519, 552, 610, 635, 659, 660, 662, 663, 664, 666, 667, 669, 671, 674, 676, 677, 678, 698, 701, 745, 766, 789, 790, 801, 802al-Qalshānī, Ḥasan b. ʿUmar567al-Qalshānī, Ḥusayn b. ʿUmar (Hafsid envoy)567al-Qalshānī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar567Qandūla609Qānṣawh Khamsumiʾa795Qāra405, 406n133Qarabagh459Qarābughā342, 343, 344Qarāchīl mountain627Qarajā, Zayn al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)285, 286Qarakhanids319n73Qaramanids40, 42, 153, 154, 210, 211, 241, 252, 457, 676Qarā Muḥammad (Qara Qoyunlu)152Qara Qoyunlu (see also Iskandar b. Qarā Yūsuf; Jahānshāh b. Qarā Yūsuf; Muḥammad-Shāh b. Qarā Yūsuf; Pīr Būdāq; Qarā Muḥammad; Qarā Yūsuf)8, 38, 39, 126n82, 152, 153, 210, 211, 240, 241, 245n68, 252n106, 352, 368, 374, 375, 385, 420, 423, 438, 441n59, 443n65, 450, 458, 462, 463, 495Qārāqūsh (Mamluk envoy)288Qarāsunqur350Qarā ʿUthmān (Aq Qoyunlu)383, 385n30, 393, 440, 441n60, 442, 450, 456, 457, 458, 463Qarā Yūsuf (Qara Qoyunlu)152, 368–75, 385, 420, 421n20, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 428, 436–64Qarqarā, Tavakkul406Qartuqa (Qa-r-ṭ-qā) (Golden Horde envoy)286, 287Qāṣid, see Ambassadors, Emissaries, EnvoysQāsim, Q.ʿA.147al-Qaṣr al-Ṣaghīr (Morocco)717Qawṣūn278, 280Qayṣar, ʿAlam al-Dīn349Qazwīn444, 445, 450, 454, 463al-Qazwīnī341al-Qazwīnī, Sharaf al-Dīn317Qilij Arslān IV (Seljuqs)307, 310, 348n30Qipchaq, see Dasht-i QipchaqQipchaks453al-Qirimī, ʿAbd al-Ghaffār452al-Qirimī, ʿUmar (Golden Horde envoy)286Qonqrutai334Qrim321Quanzhou826n15Quatremère, Étienne155Qubilai (Mongols)306n9, 310, 312Qubilāy599Qudāma b. Jaʿfar186al-Quds, see Jerusalemal-Qudsī131Quivers (Jaʿba)216, 653n59Qum445, 447, 448, 449Qumis395n76Qūmis333, 834Quran48, 60, 113, 114, 115, 248, 311, 328, 356, 570, 613, 614, 662, 666, 670, 673, 713Quranic verses51, 239n19, 426Quraysh628, 671, 672Qurayshī, Qāẓī Najm al-Dīn (Abbasid envoy)634Qurqumās al-Dawādār547Qūṣ649, 823n1, 827Quṣayr al-Qadīm823n1, 827al-Quṣayrī, al-Sharīf ʿAlī (Mamluk messenger)539Quṭlūbughā l-Maghribī, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)539Qutlūjār (Golden Horde envoy)290al-Rabaʿī, Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. al-Raʾīs al-Tūnisī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)554Rabīʿ, Ḥ.M.153Rāghib, Yūsuf2Ragusa (see also Dubrovnik)21, 82, 83, 142, 143, 686, 687, 698, 701Ragusans695al-Raḥba365, 385n33Rajab Burquʿī, Ḥājjī (envoy of the Delhi sultan)626Rajab-Sulṭān bt Mīrānshāh, Āqā Bīgī (Timurids)449Ramadanids457Ramla390n50Rams406Ranks/Status (rang)32, 48n217, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 115, 116, 120, 127, 128, 129, 130, 132, 139, 140, 145, 159, 160, 185, 186, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 207, 211, 212, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 265, 269, 272, 279, 308, 312, 357, 366, 374, 423n26, 437n49, 446n79, 452, 489, 490, 493, 495, 497, 499, 503, 504, 515, 551, 581, 586, 587, 590, 597, 598, 604, 606, 616, 618, 621, 626, 635, 671, 674, 676, 677, 678, 688, 690, 691, 692n27, 696, 715, 725, 726, 728, 730, 737, 749, 790, 794, 806Ransoms122, 137, 397, 402, 404Rashīd al-Dīn329, 341, 342n8, 343Rasūl, see MessengersRasulids (Rasoulides, Banū Rasūl; see aslo al-Afḍal al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAlī; al-Ashraf Ismāʿīl I; al-Manṣūr ʿUmar b. ʿAlī b. Rasūl; al-Muʾayyad Dāwūd; al-Mujāhid ʿAlī; al-Muẓaffar Yūsuf I; al-Nāṣir Aḥmad; al-Nāṣir b. al-Mujāhid)8, 35, 38, 39, 52, 53n249, 126n82, 154, 209, 210, 532, 542, 543, 544, 581–600, 626, 649, 678, 808, 815, 827n20, 836al-Rawḍ al-zāhir fī sīrat al-Malik al-Ẓāhir (Ibn ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir)305, 306Rawżat al-mulūk629Rāya823n1, 827Rayḥān (Ilkhanid envoy)294Rayḥānat al-kuttāb wa-najʿat al-muntāb (Ibn al-Khaṭīb)514, 519Rayy392, 458Realpolitik136, 139Rebels116, 117, 128, 312, 364n1, 429, 627, 630Receptions108, 111, 121, 127, 129, 130, 135, 139, 144, 147, 150, 157, 158, 159, 160, 227, 240, 242, 244, 247, 248, 250, 252, 253, 255, 256, 293, 315, 364, 366, 367, 371, 374, 375, 489n13, 492, 540, 585, 598, 606, 617, 643, 654, 674, 690, 691, 694, 717, 728, 729, 789, 834Recognitio199Red Sea581, 582, 583, 591, 594, 595, 600, 648, 651, 652, 741, 765, 823, 827Registers4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 28, 36, 56, 57, 59, 214n2, 498n35, 500, 654Reinfandt, Lucian53, 56n263, 158Reports of ambassadors44, 215Rhodes (Rūdus)24, 137, 138, 240, 521, 568, 686, 726, 733, 735, 736, 737, 738, 759, 765Rhys Davids, T.W.155Ribera, Julián13, 14Rice689Richards, Donald137Rifāʿī, Sharaf al-Dīn (Abbasid envoy)633Rings613, 627, 632Rivesaltes, Bernard de (Cypriot envoy)737Riyāḥ537Rizzo, Alessandro17, 18n84, 53, 142Robes of honor (Khilʿa)249, 253, 254, 364, 365, 395n75, 400, 486, 487, 503, 504, 613, 614, 617, 618, 621, 623, 624, 626, 632, 633, 728, 733Roemer, Hans Robert2Rome (see also Callixtus III; Gelasius I; Innocent VIII; Julius II; Paul II)192n76, 196 Vatican Archives652Roman Curia720Roman Empire749Roman law748, 749, 756, 763Romania702Rombulo of Messina, Pietro (Abyssinian envoy)652Roosen, W.491, 502Rose227Rose water (eau de rose)803, 834Rosenthal, Erwin622Rossi, Franco19al-Ruʿaynī, Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad (Portuguese Muslim envoy)711, 713al-Ruʿaynī, Muḥammad b. Qāsim (Portuguese Muslim interpreter)715, 716, 718Rūdhrāwar265al-Rūdhrāwarī, Majd al-Dīn265, 268, 280, 319Rugs248, 523n56Rūhā, see EdessaRuiz Orsatti, Reginaldo14, 15n72Rūm (see also Anatolia)190, 192, 486, 550n112, 569, 572Rumaytha b. Abī Numayy (Sharifs of Mecca)544, 545, 546Rustam b. Ṭughāy Bughā Barlās389, 396, 401Rustamdār392K. Rusul al-mulūk (Ibn al-Farrāʾ)111Rusulān, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)288Sable247, 253, 486, 493Saddles247, 633Saʿd-i Vaqqāṣ (Saʿd Waqqās) (Timurids)420, 433, 441, 442, 445, 447, 448, 449, 456, 462, 463, 464al-Ṣafā612Ṣafad373, 390al-Ṣafadī36n171, 341, 354Safavids (see also Shāh Ismāʿīl)153, 248, 254, 489n14, 699, 741, 762, 765, 766Safe-conducts (sauf-conduits; Amān)20, 26, 44, 45, 118, 122, 146, 345, 534, 585, 652, 665n44, 666, 695, 737, 748, 749, 753, 754, 755, 758Safīr, see Ambassadors, Emissaries, EnvoysṢaghāniyān (Chaghāniyān)392al-Ṣaghīr b. Yūsuf549, 568, 569, 571, 573Sahara658, 661, 662, 676, 678Saḥart643, 645Sahel659–66, 676al-Saḥmāwī, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad33, 34, 48, 49, 53, 126, 128n89, 189, 193, 198, 200, 201n117, 202, 209, 422n20, 534, 552, 610, 790, 791Saiben, Johannes (also Sunqur)702n61Ṣaʿīd, see Upper EgyptSaʿīd, Muḥammad154Saʿīd, Saʿd al-Dīn (Ilkhanid envoy)291Saʿīd b. Samīt630Saʿīd Ṣarṣarī, Hājjī (Abbasid envoy)626, 632Ṣāʾin Tīmūr400Saint Louis, see Louis IXal-Sakhāwī30n139, 250, 252, 453n110, 523, 545, 551, 567, 568, 569, 612, 616, 653n59Sakrān al-Firinjī273, 274, 278Saktāy b. Qarajin b. Junghay278n77Saladin, see al-Nāṣir I YūsufSalado, River515, 518al-Ṣāliḥ, Abū l-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl (Ayyubids of Hama)808al-Ṣāliḥ ʿAlī b. Qalāwūn (Mamluks)534, 585al-Ṣāliḥ II Ayyūb (Ayyubids)307, 308, 531al-Ṣāliḥ Ḥājjī II (Mamluks)71, 595, 646al-Ṣāliḥ Ismāʿīl (Mamluks)77, 537, 758al-Ṣāliḥ Maḥmūd (Artuqids)354n70al-Ṣāliḥ Ṣāliḥ (Mamluks)70, 518, 644Sālimī, Abū Shukūr628Sallār536, 594, 599Salmān Fārsī630Salmān Sāwajī354Salutatio51, 207, 208, 426, 494, 666Salviati, James730Samaghar291Samarqand254Samarqandī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq382Ṣanbūb610Sand (sable)803Sangriza, Tāj al-Dīn624Sanudo, Benedetto (Venetian envoy)689, 836Sanuto, Marino20, 743, 744, 747, 766, 794Sappers394, 404Saqsīn321Sarakhs454al-Sarakhsī115n47, 116, 117Sarandīb, see CeylonSarāy284, 287, 320, 321, 452Sarāy al-Jadīda452n105Sardinia702Sartaq (Golden Horde)309Sarṭaqṭāy (Mamluk envoy)290Sassanids115Sātī Beg352Sāva385Savinjīk396, 400n103Savoy (see also Charles I)25, 54n253, 85al-Ṣawābī, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)282Sawāḥil632al-Ṣāwī Bāz, Karam157Sawliyān632Sayf b. Dhī Yazan671, 672Sayfa Arʿad (Abyssinia)642, 644Saylān632Sayyid ʿImād395n76Sayyid Khwāja Shaykh ʿAlī400n103Sayyid Ziyād632al-Sayyida Nafīsa366Sayyids (Delhi)634Scanlon, G.826Scarves599Schimmel, Annemarie624Schmid, Margarete Pia146Schreiner, Peter146Scrolls (rouleaux; darj)10, 316, 410, 437, 742, 783, 785, 786, 787, 789, 790, 791, 792, 802Seals (Khātam, Nişān, Ṭamgha)37, 38, 41, 47, 53, 216n6, 227, 513, 624, 694, 695n36Seco de Lucena, Luis156, 515Sefuwa659, 660, 662, 663n30, 668, 671, 677, 679Seguezzi, Santo662Segurano-Sakrān Salvaygo, see SakrānSelīm I (Ottomans)41, 83, 256, 489n14, 496, 742, 743, 744, 745, 766Seljuqs263, 347Seljuqs of Rūm (see also Kaykāʾūs I, ʿIzz al-Dīn; Masʿūd II, Ghiyāth al-Dīn; Parvanah; Qilij Arslān IV)153, 206, 271n38, 291, 307, 308, 310–6, 319, 322, 348n30Senegambia662Serbia145, 146, 495Serbs145, 194Seville701, 727Seyssel, Philip de731Shādmān Castle392Shadūntāz401n108Shāfiʿ b. ʿAlī27n128, 305, 307n16Shāh Ismāʿīl (Safavids)693n31, 766Shahrazūr392Shāh Rukh (Timurids)40n187, 151, 152, 153, 245, 249, 250, 388, 393, 400, 402, 420, 422, 426n31, 441, 443nn65 and 69, 444–50, 453, 454, 455, 456, 458, 459, 460, 461, 463, 464, 545, 554, 618, 634, 728Shāh Suwār (Dhulqadirids)243, 254Shāhānshāh (Chobanid envoy)296al-Shahīd, Abū Yaḥyā Abū Bakr I b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (Hafsids)556Shāhmalik400n103, 401, 403, 404Shāhshāhān Abū l-Fatḥ395Shajar al-Durr (Ayyubids)582Shakrān al-Firinjī, see SakrānShām, see also Syria350n42, 453n110, 594Shāmī, Niẓām al-Dīn151, 364, 381, 382, 383, 385, 386, 388–403, 405, 406al-Sharīf, Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿUmar (Rasulid envoy)588al-Sharīfī, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (Abyssinian envoy)652Sh-r-n-k (Ilkhanid envoy)286Sharqī sultans (Jawnpur)634Sharṭ (Clauses, Stipulations)46n209, 748Shāwa638, 641al-Shaybānī115, 116, 117n61Shaybanids, see Muḥammad ShaybānīShaykh al-Maḥmūdī (see also al-Muʾayyad Shaykh)37, 372Shaykh Nuʿmān (Golden Horde envoy)277Shaykh Uways (Jalayirids)354, 355, 356, 357, 364, 447Shaykhī Khāṣṣakī401n108Shaykhū599Sheeps250, 252n102, 384, 689Shehu663Shields391, 653n59, 690Shiḥna343, 344Ships (sea also Boats)321, 520, 521, 692n28, 729, 737, 751Shiites328, 341, 344, 348, 349, 350Shiraz363, 368al-Shīrāzī, Quṭb al-Dīn Maḥmūd271, 291Shirīk (Ilkhanid envoy)286Shirts653Shirvan306, 307, 355Shirvān b. Shaykh Barāq Manṣūrī367n24, 368Shirvanshahs459al-Shubrāywīqī, Ṣadr al-Dīn Sulaymān (Mamluk envoy)293Sibṭ Ibn al-ʿAjamī, Sharaf al-Dīn Abū Bakr559Sicile536Ṣiddīq (Timurid envoy)461Signature, see ʿAlāma, Tawqīʿal-Sikurjī, Muḥammad (Ilkhanid envoy)292Silver247, 366, 373, 759Silvestre de Sacy, Antoine-Isaac2, 24, 750Sinai, see Mount Sinai and St. Catherine’s monasterySind190, 195, 392, 632Sīrat-i Fīrūz Shāhī621, 626, 627Siryāqūs244, 246Sīs758Sistan192n52, 196, 395Sivas271, 308, 310n30, 321n83, 331, 371n45, 384, 387n39, 404n123Siyar al-mulūk (Niẓām al-Mulk)111Slave traders123, 274, 319, 320, 653Slaves106n5, 244, 246, 247, 252, 253, 254, 273, 278, 290, 302, 307, 309, 313, 320, 322, 354, 356, 366, 386, 387, 400, 405, 441n61, 452, 522, 589, 590, 591, 592n39, 599, 653, 662, 673, 690, 692n29, 712, 715, 794Slavs570S-m-dā-gh-w, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (Ilkhanid envoy)292Smith, Clive144Soldaia, see SūdāqSpain13, 14, 124, 144, 197, 239, 240, 669, 720Spices (see also Aloe, Ginger, Pepper, Salt, Sugar)596, 599, 685, 688, 692, 793, 823, 834Spies (see also Espionage, Intelligence)333, 334, 391, 453, 762Spurs653, 692n29Squirrel486, 493, 522St. Catherine’s monastery694, 728Stalin, Josef217, 218Status (statut), see RanksStern, Samuel Miklos2, 745, 746Stewart, Angus Donald138Stockholm, Collection F.R. Martin809Stojanow, Valery2Strozzi, Filippo836Stufa, Luigi della (Florentine envoy)75, 76, 689, 691, 693, 694, 784, 792Suarez, Carceran727, 728Ṣubḥ al-aʿshā fī kitābat al-inshāʾ (al-Qalqashandī)17, 28, 31, 32, 33, 43, 126, 219, 220, 236, 420, 514, 552, 635, 665, 801al-Subkī132Subscriptio, see ʿAlāmaSudan156, 190, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 241n34, 676, 677, 678Sūdāq (Soldaia)321Sūdūn390, 391, 394, 395Sūdūn al-Manṣūrī (Mamluk envoy)734, 738Sūdūn al-Qaṣrawī (Mamluk envoy)504Sufis246, 318, 346, 485, 605Sugar227, 248, 273, 689, 692, 834Sulaymān (physician in Damascus) 405n129Sulaymān II (Ottomans)22, 83Sulaymān b. Ḥusām al-Dīn Muhannā (Āl Faḍl)350Sulaymānshāh b. Dāwūd Dughlat393, 396, 406n137Ṣulḥ, see TrucesSulṭān-Abū Saʿīd (Timurids)152Sulṭān Aḥmad b. Shaykh Uways (Jalayirids)357, 363–76, 385, 422n20, 440, 444, 463, 499Sultan of Babylon721Sulṭān Dilshād (Jalayirids)370Sulṭān Ḥusayn b. Aka Bigī bt Tīmūr (Timurids)391, 393, 398, 400, 403, 404, 406Sulṭān Ḥusayn b. Shaykh Uways (Jalayirids)364, 366Sulṭān Maḥmūd Khān b. Soyurghatmısh (Timurids)393Sulṭān Ṭāhir b. Sulṭān Aḥmad (Jalayirids)371Sulṭāniyya350, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 450, 454, 456, 463Sung826n15, 829, 830n31Sunqur, see Saiben, JohannesSunqur al-Aqraʿ275, 276Sunqur al-Ashqar (Mamluk envoy)272n44, 285, 291Sunqur, Shams al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)283Sūsūn278Suwākin648, 649Ṣuwar al-aqālīm (al-Balkhī)186Suyūrghāl400, 421n18, 423al-Suyūṭī625Sweets689Swords (épées)367, 391, 394, 559, 613, 627, 632, 633, 653, 692n29Ṭabaqāt-i Nāṣirī (Jūzjānī)623Tabaristan192n52, 194n78, 196, 197Tableware, see Basins, Bowls, Bottles, Chandeliers, Ewers, Plates, Porcelain, Trays, VasesTabriz294, 311, 321n83, 340, 341, 347, 348, 354, 355, 356, 363, 364, 372n55, 374, 422n20, 449, 457, 464Tabrīzī, Naṣīr al-Dīn (Ilkhanid envoy)292Tadhkira, see InstructionsTadmur (Tadmīr, Palmyra)406n136Tafel, Gottlieb Lukas Friedrich18, 750Tafur, Pero726–9, 731Taghrī Birdī (Mamluk envoy)81, 729, 763Taghrī Birdī l-Maḥmūdī547Taghrī Birdī l-Ṭayyār (Mamluk envoy)730, 731, 732, 738Ṭāhir, Zayn al-Dīn674Ṭāʾifa384n24, 749, 750, 751, 752, 753, 761, 762Taiz589, 590n29Takrūr (see also Mali)39, 157, 209, 210, 658Ṭalas392Taʿlīq417, 438Ṭāliqān392Tamerlan (see also Tīmūr)538, 545, 554Ṭamgha, see Sealsal-Tamīmī l-Tūnisī, ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbdallāh (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)556al-Tamīmī l-Tūnisī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbdāllāh b. Abī ʿAmr (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)556Tana (Azāq, Azov)321, 452n105Tanam al-Ḥasanī368, 369, 375Tang824, 831n34Tank (Tonk)632Tanqīḥ al-abḥāth lil-milal al-thalāth (Ibn Kammūna)347al-Ṭanṭāwī l-Qarmūṭ, ʿAbd al-Rāziq149Taqlīd367, 374, 543Taʿrīf (designation)674, 675, 676al-Taʿrīf bi-l-muṣṭalaḥ al-sharīf (Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī)29, 30, 126, 189, 219, 552, 553, 639al-Tārīkh al-Ghiyāthī (Ghiyāth al-Dīn ʿAbdallāh b. Fatḥ Allāh)341Taʾrīkh al-Islām (al-Dhahabī)517al-Taʾrīkh al-kabīr al-muqaffā (al-Maqrīzī)411, 412, 416, 462Tārīkh-i Shaykh Uvays (Ahrī)342Tarjama, see IntitulatioTarjumān, see Interpreters, TranslatorsTarsus567, 572, 573Tatars218, 318, 453Tathqīf al-taʿrīf bi-l-muṣṭalaḥ al-sharīf (Ibn Nāẓir al-Jaysh)30, 126, 219, 500Ṭawāshī587, 589al-Tawāsī, Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)557Ṭaybughā l-Karmūnī, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)285Ṭāyirbughā (Ilkhanid envoy)278, 279, 295Ṭāyūq321al-Ṭayyibī417, 438Ṭāz599Tegüder Aḥmad (Ilkhanids)134, 270, 271, 276, 291, 292, 327, 333, 334, 335, 344, 348, 490, 499n36Teh Gallop, Annabel225Temürtash267, 273, 293, 294, 295, 296Tents242n50, 253, 254, 388, 443n65, 727Terek, River306, 307Tevārīh Āl-i ʿOs̱mān (ʿĀşıḳ Pāşā-Zāde)550Textiles (see also Camlets, Silk, Velvet, Wool)246, 252, 253, 394, 486, 558, 725, 730, 836al-Thaghr al-bāsim fī ṣināʿat al-kātib wa-l-kātim (al-Saḥmāwī)33, 48, 126, 791al-Thakafi, Y.A.149Thaqaba b. Rumaytha (Sharifs of Mecca)544, 546Theunissen, H.743Thomas, Georg Martin18al-Tibyān fī iṣṭilāḥ ahl al-zamān (al-Ḥalabī)34Tigray641al-Tijānīal-Tijānī, ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)530, 535, 556al-Tijānī, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Tūnisī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)556Tikrit343al-Tikrītī, Ḥamza344Tilang627Tīluq (Mamluk envoy)289Timrāz al-Shamsī794, 795Tīmūr (Timurids) (see also Tamerlan)150, 151, 152, 211, 239, 250, 275, 329, 357, 358, 363, 364, 365, 367, 368, 370, 371, 373, 374, 375, 376, 381–406, 420, 433, 440, 444, 445, 448, 451, 455, 463, 489n14, 545n79, 604, 621, 634Tīmūr Qutlugh b. Tīmūr Malik (Golden Horde)451Timurbughā, see al-Ẓāhir Timurbughā (Mamluks)Timurbughā l-Marghinānī (Ilkhanid envoy)Timurids (see also Abū Bakr (Abā Bakr) b. Mīrānshāh; Burundūq; Iskandar b. ʿUmar Shaykh; Jahāngīr b. Tīmūr; Jahānshāh b. Chākū Barlās; Jahānshāh b. Tīmūr; Khalīl Sulṭān b. Mīrānshāh; Manglī Khwāja; Mīrānshāh b. Tīmūr; Muḥammad Jūkī b. Shāh Rukh; Muḥammad-Sulṭān b. Tīmūr; Pīr Muḥammad b. Jahāngīr; Rajab-Sulṭān bt Mīrānshāh, Āqā Bīgī; Saʿd-i Vaqqāṣ; Shāh Rukh; Sulṭān-Abū Saʿīd; Sulṭān Ḥusayn b. Aka Bigī bt Tīmūr; Sulṭān Maḥmūd Khān b. Soyurghatmısh; Tīmūr)37, 38, 39, 52n246, 150, 151, 152, 210, 211, 250, 254, 352, 365, 371, 372, 381–406, 420, 423, 442, 443n75, 444–50, 454, 455, 458, 462, 463, 495, 618Tīmūrtāsh al-Muḥammadī, see DamurdāshTin662al-Tīzīnī, Zayn al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)Tlemcen511, 514, 515, 537, 539, 540, 553, 676, 678Töde Möngke (Golden Horde)269, 270, 314Togha-Timurids451Toghan (Ilkhanid envoy)294Toledo701, 721Toqta (Golden Horde)284, 285Toqtamish (Golden Horde)304, 451, 452Touat660n16Traders (see also Merchants)123, 274, 302, 308, 316, 319, 320, 321n83, 593, 594, 650, 652, 653, 662n26, 685, 686, 688, 689, 693, 695, 697, 704, 706, 720, 793Transcaucasian region312Translators (see also Dragomans, Interpreters)52, 57, 125, 264, 291, 315, 316, 702, 704, 705, 706, 729Transoxiana (Mā warāʾ al-Nahr)190n32, 192, 194n79, 196, 197, 311n36, 627, 632Travelers (voyageurs)127, 130, 137, 147, 530, 544, 665n44, 687, 825n12Trays592Trevisan, Domenico (Venetian envoy)689, 691, 693, 694, 834Tributes19, 20, 23, 139, 534, 536, 725, 726, 728, 729, 730, 731, 735, 737, 738, 746, 758, 761, 827n20Tripoli (Libya)535, 536n41, 660n16, 662, 668, 696Tripoli (Lebanon)390, 396, 585Troadec, Anne137Truces (paix; Hudna, Ṣulḥ)9n42, 11, 12, 15, 24, 26, 32n149, 44, 45, 52n243, 66, 110n18, 122, 127, 134, 138, 156, 307, 441, 447n83, 450, 453, 454, 456, 457, 550, 463, 693, 714, 745, 749Tūblāq Qawchīn400n104Tughluqids634Ṭughrā206, 207, 208, 211n149, 493Tūgh Tughā321Ṭulunbāy (Golden Horde)277, 287, 289Tundī Khātūn366Tunisia, see IfrīqiyaṬuqbughā (Golden Horde envoy)287Tuqṣuba al-Ẓāhirī, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)268n25, 287, 288al-Ṭūr823n1, 827Turan190n32, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 209, 210Turanians392al-Ṭūrī, Mubāriz al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)291Turin25Turkmens152, 153, 154, 192, 194n81, 196, 197, 209, 210, 211, 254, 310, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 374, 375, 383, 384, 392, 406, 438, 449, 457, 459, 568, 581Turjī (Mamluk envoy) (see also Aturjī)287Turkestan192n53, 196, 392, 451n103al-Turkī, Mufliḥ al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)599, 600al-Turkumānī, ʿAlī l-Dimashqī (Golden Horde envoy)270, 280al-Turkumānī, Fāris729, 738al-Turkumānī, Muḥammad (Mamluk envoy)460al-Turkumānī, Quṭlūbughā l-Khalīlī (Mamluk envoy)539Ṭurra50, 201Ṭūs387Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al-Dīn328Ubayy b. Kaʿb630al-Udāgh, see Ala-DağUlaghči b. Sartaq (Golden Horde)309Ulmāz al-Khāṣṣturkī, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)285, 286al-Ulughkhānī613ʿUmar I, Abū Ḥafṣ (Hafsids)536ʿUmar II, Abū Ḥafṣ (Hafsids), see al-MustanṣirʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb242n51, 534Umayyads (see also Muʿāwiya I; Yazīd I)403Umm Ḥabība401Umm Hāniʾ606, 607, 608, 616Umm Salama401ʿUnwān, see InscriptioUpper Egypt (Haute Égypte, Ṣaʿīd)538, 642, 646, 649, 650, 755Urdū452n105ʿUrf115, 118al-ʿUrf al-nāsim min al-Thagh al-bāsim (al-Saḥmāwī)33Urfa, see EdessaU(r)namas/sh (Golden Horde envoy)281Uruj, Sayf al-Dīn (Mamluk envoy)296Uruktamur (Golden Horde envoy)290al-Ushmūnayn224ʿUṭayfa b. Abī Numayy (Sharifs of Mecca)544, 545, 546n83ʿUthmān b. ʿAffān630ʿUthmān b. Idrīs, Abū ʿAmr (Borno)659, 661, 670, 677ʿUthmān Khūjā (Golden Horde envoy)287ʿUthmān b. Musāfir, Khwāja274Uygur script315, 317Uzdamur al-Mujīrī (Mamluk envoy)293Uzun Ḥasan (Aq Qoyunlu)41n187, 153, 246, 249, 253, 254, 489n14, 490, 505, 618Vaiou, Maria111Valencia701Validation (see also ʿAlāma)10n51, 16n76, 26, 53, 127, 218, 224, 512, 551, 674, 675Vallet, Éric52, 154, 155, 160Van Berchem, Max51n237, 592van Ghistele, Joos689, 690, 692n29Vansleb643, 644Varatojo717Vases592, 832, 835n55Vaṣṣāf328Vélez-Blanco516Vélez-Málaga516Velvet251, 486, 493, 692Venetian Bailo762Venetian doge19, 56n265, 689n12, 701–3, 836Venetians16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 45n207, 140, 313, 318, 569, 702n60, 703, 705, 707n76, 725, 741, 743, 750, 757, 762, 764, 765, 787, 788, 789Venice (Serenissima; see also Barbarigo, Agostino; Cornaro, Marco; Foscari, Francesco; Malipiero, Pasquale; Mocenigo, Tommaso)17–20, 22, 25, 43n197, 50n230, 76–82, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 192n76, 194, 196, 197, 240, 514, 569, 574, 649, 686, 687, 693, 694n34, 701, 702, 705, 725, 729, 736, 737, 741, 742, 743n9, 744, 745, 747, 750, 760, 761, 763, 764, 767, 788, 789, 793, 827n20, 835, 836 Museo Correr (Venice)788, 789 State Archives18Venier, Tomaso743, 744, 747, 766Vera516Vermeulen, Urbain137Verni, John de731Veselý, Rudolf2, 29, 30, 37, 41, 42, 154, 438Vezzoli, Valentina157Vigouroux, Élodie381Viguera, María Jesús512Vijayanagara (Bijankār)610, 611Viladrich, Mercè15, 144, 745, 750, 759Vílchez, Carlos523Volga307, 308, 321, 452n105von Karabacek, Josef145Wādī l-Khaznadār328, 335, 336Wāfidiyya266n16, 306, 317, 319, 322, 343al-Waḥḥād, Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā b. Ibrāhīm al-Kūmī l-Qusantīnī (Hafsid ṣāḥib al-ʿalāma)557Walasmaʿ (Ethiopia)641al-Wandājī, Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad (Portuguese Muslim envoy)711, 713Wansbrough, John2, 17, 19, 43nn198–9, 54, 57, 58, 60, 141, 142, 199, 207, 208, 225, 226, 492, 499, 750, 756, 760, 761, 763, 764, 783, 784, 787, 788Wasit345Waqf61n276, 268, 540, 608, 633War (see also Jihād)106, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 127, 134, 135, 137, 147, 149, 160, 240, 248, 306, 307, 310, 314, 316, 330, 342, 345, 346, 348, 363, 369, 375, 391, 489n14, 504, 567, 570, 591, 593, 615, 623, 629, 630, 695, 699, 714, 717, 719, 731, 733, 754, 759, 762, 766Waṣl47, 200, 201, 437n49Watermelons836al-Wāthiq, Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yaḥyā II b. Muḥammad I (Hafsids)555, 558Weapons (see also Armors, Arrows, Bows, Bridles, Cuirasses, Daggers, Firearms, Helmets, Lances, Quivers, Saddles, Shields, Spurs, Swords)367, 692Weber, Max214n3, 622Wenzhou826n15Wiet, Gaston147, 149, 534, 813, 828n24Wijntjes, Marita Th.143Wing, Patrick150Woods, John153, 381, 450n98Wool247, 522Ximénez de Cisneros, Francisco721Yagbe’a Ṣeyon (Abyssinia)643Yaḥyā (astronomer)277Yaḥyā I, Abū Zakariyyāʾ b. Abī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wāḥid (Hafsids)531, 532n16, 548, 554, 557Yaḥyā II, Abū Zakariyyāʾ, see al-Wāthiq (Hafsids)Yaḥyā III, Abū Zakariyyāʾ, see al-Muntakhab (Hafsids)Yaḥyā b. Abī Marwān al-Andalusī l-Ḥimyarī, see al-KhabīrYaḥyā b. Aḥmad b. Shādī Bak (Mamluk envoy)651Yaḥyā IV b. Muḥammad al-Masʿūd, Abū Zakariyyāʾ (Hafsids)551Yaḥyā b. Ṭāyirbughā278, 279, 295Yamāma192, 193, 196Yamīn, see OathsYanbuʿ547al-Yaʿqūbī187, 347n26, 348, 529Yāqūt al-Qudsī, Iftikhār al-Dīn (Rasulid envoy)588Yarligh44Yāsa311, 397, 400Yashbak al-Muḥammadī223Yashbak al-Shaʿbānī369, 370n36, 372, 373, 375, 401Yazīd I (Umayyads)403Yazdī, Sharaf al-Dīn ʿAlī381, 382, 383, 385–90, 392, 393, 395, 398Yaʿqūb b. al-Mutawakkil I (Abbasids)35Yaʿqūb b. Uzun Ḥasan (Aq Qoyunlu)568Yekuno Amlāk (Abyssinia)638, 643, 648, 654Yemen (Yémen)35, 154, 155, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 204n135, 210, 239, 240, 530, 533, 534, 536, 542, 543, 546, 547, 581–600, 626, 648, 649, 651, 652, 659, 696, 823, 827Yesḥāq (Abyssinia)645Yüksel Muslu, Cihan41, 149, 502al-Yūnīnī305, 306Yūsuf I (Nasrids)516, 518Yūsuf, Kamāl al-Dīn (Ilkhanid envoy)292Yūsuf b. Tāshufīn (Almoravids)553al-Yūsufī500Ẓafar Khān (Gujarat)621, 634Ẓafarnāma (Niẓām al-Dīn Shāmī)381, 382, 384Zagwe (Abyssinia)638al-Ẓāhir Barqūq (Mamluks)68, 71, 72, 73, 143, 211n149, 252, 274, 304, 329, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 372n56, 374, 375, 376, 381, 382, 383, 385, 386, 387, 440, 444, 452, 489n14, 497, 498n34, 538, 539, 540, 553, 558, 559, 591, 594, 595, 596, 598, 643, 644, 646, 648, 651, 659, 667, 696, 706, 834al-Ẓāhir Baybars (Mamluks)225n34, 240, 266, 267, 268, 269, 272n44, 275, 279n77, 280, 281, 282, 291, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 311–20, 322, 323, 327, 330, 331, 332, 333, 336, 343n11, 517, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 536, 543, 557, 558, 581, 582, 585 n. b, 593, 638, 639, 643, 646n24, 654, 695n36, 698, 751n46, 835n55al-Ẓāhir Jaqmaq (Mamluks)23, 24, 68, 75, 78, 79, 83, 84, 85, 215, 245, 246, 250, 251, 255n134, 376, 491, 496n33, 520, 521, 522, 558, 559, 640n5, 644, 646, 647, 648, 650, 651, 705, 715n20, 726, 729, 730, 760, 788, 789, 794, 835al-Ẓāhir Khushqadam (Mamluks)75, 249, 253, 485, 486, 487, 489, 491, 498, 503, 504, 523, 604, 606, 607, 609, 610, 614, 616, 734, 735, 736, 794al-Ẓāhir Ṭaṭar (Mamluks)459, 494n28, 585, 693n32al-Ẓāhir Timurbughā (Mamluks)486, 604, 614al-Ẓāhir Yalbāy (Mamluks)604, 614al-Ẓāhirī, Badr al-Dīn Bakmish (Mamluk envoy)285, 288, 289Zakariyyāʾ I b. Aḥmad al-Liḥyānī, Abū Yaḥyā (Hafsids)535, 555, 556, 557, 757Zakariyyāʾ II b. Yaḥyā IV, Abū Yaḥyā (Hafsids)551, 558al-Zandī, Abū ʿUmar (Abyssinian envoy)652Zar’a Yā’eqob (Abyssinia)642, 644, 645, 646, 647, 650, 652Zaraʿ Hamnānūn (Abyssinian envoy)651Zawistān632Zāwulistān627Zayd b. S̱ābit/Thābit630Zaydān, Yusrā Aḥmad ʿAbdallāh155Zaydis204n135, 541, 542, 544, 545al-Zaylaʿī, ʿAbdallāh (Abyssinian envoy)644Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn Shāhī Khān (Kashmir)611Zemzem543Zhejiang824, 823, 824, 825, 826n15, 829Zīrak (Ilkhanid envoy)293Zorzi, Alessandro649Zuhrat al-nāẓirīn wa-nuzhat al-nādhirīn41

Mamluk Cairo, a Crossroads for Embassies

Studies on Diplomacy and Diplomatics

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