IndexÀ quoi tient la supériorité des Anglo-Saxons (Demolins)161ʿAbbāsids69, 70, 339ʿAbd al-Aḥad290ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, Shāh281, 284, 286, 294ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Saʿūd69ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm Pāshā, Muḥammad (Prince)29ʿAbd al-Qādir, Shāh281, 283284, 285, 291authority of287288, 292, 293ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī7475ʿAbd al-Rāziq, Muṣṭafā164, 166, 173ʿAbdallāh, Sayyid287ʿAbdī, ʿAbbās306ʿAbduh, Muḥammad37, 61, 159, 160, 173, 176ethical thinking of162163Riḍā’s association with62, 73Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Sultan/Caliph)58, 61, 6364criticism on66Riḍā’s support for76Abdillah, Ummi187Abessinia, war with Egypt (1869)36Abū Bakr (1st Caliph)303Abū l-Dardāʾ283Abū l-Suʿūd, ʿAbdallāh31, 37Abu-Lughod, Lila315Abubakar (Amin)267, 269, 270Abushouk, Ahmed Ibrahimxvii, xxxviiacademic institutions, ethnographies ofxxvixxviiacademic journals, on Oriental/Islamic studies16n28Acholiland (Northern Uganda)380acknowledgement, politics of439actor-centred research approaches399400AFD (Alternative für Deutschland) party462463, 464Affective Societies413al-Afghānī, Jamāl ad-Dīn3637, 60, 62, 64Afghanistan 24, 271, 312, 333Afghanistan, Mujahideen in337Aflaq, Michel364Africa, Muslim minorities inxxÂge de Sable (Karashan)361The Age of Sport Awareness (Necmeddin Bilal Erdoğan)348349agency, discursive267, 269on Kenyan Muslim radio273274research on277ÄgyptenArmee3536Ausbildungsreformen3940Eliten27, 28, 4445Geschichte27Moderne, in der27, 29, 44, 45, 46und mondialisation/globalisation27Öffentlichkeit in der38im Osmanischen Reich32, 3536, 40, 4546politische Freiheit in3738Sprachen in2829Traditionsliteratur in28n2Universitäten31Wirtschaft33, 43, 4546Zivilisation29Egyptägyptisch-abessinischer Krieg (1869)36Ägyptisches Museum (Kairo)31AHDR (Arab Human Development Reports), on women’s rights and modern families314316, 319320ahl al-ḥall wa-l-ʿaqd71, 7273ahl al-kitāb (people of the book)359Aḥmad, Mirzā Ghulām286Aḥmad ibn Hanbal71Aḥmad of Rae Bareli, Sayyid287Aḥmadiyya movement286al-Aḥmaq al-basīṭ (Der einfältige Narr oder einfach der Simplicius, Theaterstück, Mālṭī)29Ahmed, Shahabxix, 327, 333334, 345346akhlāq 157, 158, 161, 163, 164, 167, 168, 171, 172, 174, 175ʿAlawīs, in Syria371Aleppo361Alevisin Germany435in Turkey369ʿAlī (Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law), graphic expressions of257258ʿAlī Bāshā, Meḥmed Emīn (Grand Vizier)40Allāh, graphic expressions of248249, 254Ally, Mawlana189Alter, Joseph334American Anthropological AssociationxviiiAmīn, Aḥmad165Amin, Idi380, 383, 385Amīn, Qāsim317Amīn, Uthmān166ʿAnaza tribal confederation99104Andrič, Ivo361ʿAnhūrī, Salīm36animality451, 452animalsand bestiality451distinction from humans448human relationships with446outlaw status of446447refugees reduced to status of447anthropologists, discursive agency of275anthropologyof Germans and their dogs444n7of Islam193, 276of traditional wrestling329, 334ethnographyanti-colonialismin India290of Riḍā55, 57anti-Muslim violence, in Uganda376, 382385anti-Muslim/anti-Islam polemics, in Islamic studies, in Russia9apartheid184apostasy, in Islam204n17, 367Appadurai, Arjun336337ʿāqila86n3Arab Easy237Arab nationalismand religion364Riḍā’s attitude towards55, 56, 68Arab revolts (2010–2012)xx, 397398elites in and after400, 401402, 403404, 406, 407mobilised publics in402, 406408regime changes/political transformations resulting from397398, 403408, 411412, 414, 421research on398400, 401, 413social media in223, 233236Egypt, revolts in (2011/2012)Arab WorldChristianity in365colonisation of58, 104n27elites in400401and Arab revolts401402, 403404, 406, 407gender relations in310religious minorities in364365social contract in415Arabia, origins of Islam in89Arabic Chrestomathy (Girgas)14Arabic languageclassical, formality of148149modern literature in, Russian study of13, 2022study of, in Russia6, 14, 1718translations frominto Russian9into Ukrainian19into Urdu289translations into160161, 169170vernacular148149Arabic scriptxviii, 247, 248, 252and Latin script encounters254255legibility of248249ligatures in248, 249252lines in252, 254, 256257and materiality246prolongation in252256Arabic-Russian Dictionary for the Arabic Chrestomathy and the Qurʾan (Girgas)14Arabs, and Turks, re-unification of68Arḍ al-nifāq, (al-Sebaï)147Ardalān, Nīlūfar (Lady Goal)307308Aristippus170Aristotle448, 450study in Egypt of169170Arkoun, Mohammed154Armbrust, Walter223, 224, 239Armenian genocide (1915)363Armeniansleft-wing politics of372in Ottoman Empire, photography of113127armies, Egyptian3436‘art of the line’ (fann al-khaṭṭ, calligraphy)248al-ʿArūsī, Muṣṭafā3940Asad, Talal183, 193ʿAshūrāʾ practices333Asseburg, Murielxx, xxxviiassertiveness, of Muslims in Uganda386Assmann, Aleida261asylum seekers443n5refugeesAtatürk, Mustafa Kemal69, 74, 458n17Riḍā’s criticism of6970Attaya, Mikhail19audiocassettes, impact of introduction of223224Ausbildungsreformen, in Ägypten3940Ausländerbehörde, in Berlin442443authoritarianismchallenged from below412in Egypt405, 411, 415, 421authorityrecognition by428religiousclaims of285286, 293in Shīʿa Islam304autonomy87individual428n2internal, of minorities358359in Ottoman Empireof Egypt36, 40, 46of village communities91, 9597, 98of secondary elites401Ayalon, David338aʿyān9091Ayni, Mehmed Ali137al-Azhar university (Cairo)160printing house of230scholars of3940, 75Badawī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān171172Badawī, al-Sayyid Muḥammad171Badran, Margot310Baer, Gabriel87, 88al-Baghdadi, Abu Bakr217al-Bahī, Muḥammad228n14Baker, Samuel White32, 36Balkans, state formation in, and minorities360Balkans-to-Bengal complex (Ahmed)333334, 345346Bani Sadr, Abolhasan301al-Bannā, Ḥasan7677, 226n9, 318baraka (divine blessing)249n5, 262baraza 268Bareilly (India)288Barthes, Roland246Bartol’d, Vasilii16, 19, 24Batunskii, Mark16bayʿa (oath of allegiance)71Bayart, Jean-François413Bayat, Asefxx, 416The Beast and the Sovereign (Derrida)446447Becker, Carl HeinrichxiiBedouins, representatives of, in Ottoman Empire102103Beersheba104n27Beirut, Arabic - Latin script encounters in254255Berlin, refugees in441, 442443Berlin Congress (1878)60Bernstein, Leonardxxxiibestiality, animality and451BGSMCS (Berlin Graduate School Muslim Cultures and Societies, Freie Universität Berlin)xvxvi, xxxiiixxxiv, xxxvBīk, Amīn Wāṣif165Bin ʿAlī, Zaīn al-ʿĀbidīn404Birdwood, George58Blunt, Wilfrid Scawen5859, 60Boguslvaskii, Dmitrii7n7Boldyrev, Aleksei1718booksIslamic, publishing of225, 228, 287292paperbacks225, 231, 232bookstores, Islamic, in Cairo226Bourdieu, Pierrexxvii, 415n5Bowen, John R.193Bozarslan, Hamitxix, xxxviiBrant, Sebastian456459, 465Brecht, Bertolt461n20The Bridge on the Drina (Andrič)361Brugsch, Heinrich Ferdinand Karl31, 43Būlāq press (Egypt)230Büssow, Johannxvii, xxxvii, 91Butler, Judith390Buzkashi (game, Afghanistan)337Buznipar, Ş Tufan59buzrug culture, Moosagie’s criticism of183, 187, 201, 209210Cairo2728book publishing and selling in224231culture in32, 38, 4243Europeans in32, 4142Ezbekīya quarter in2830, 33informal settlements in415416modernity in46political freedom in3738urban development in30, 3233, 39Cairo University165CairoBookStop (website)229n19caliphate56Moosagie on191, 216218al-Rāziq on75revival attempts77Riḍā on57, 7074, 76Ottoman caliphatecaliphs58Riḍā on6566, 7174calligraphyxviii, 247248Islamic246247graphic design247256and/on material objects256258, 259260readability of246247, 258262canon notion182Catherine the Great (Tsarina of Russia)4Caucasus, Arabic texts related to9Çemberlitaş University (Istanbul)134Censoring an Iranian Love Story (Mandanipour)307censorshipin Egyptxviii, 227, 229, 231232social media237, 238and print/electronic culture239in Russia18in United States232Central Asia, origins of Turks/Turkish nation in340Cevdet, Ahmed102, 103Chaadaev, Pyotr18Charmoy, François-Bernard10China, status of dogs in450n13chivalry, military tradition of (furūsiyya)327328, 339cholera epidemics, in Egypt33Chomsky, Noam273chrestomathies, Russian14, 17Christianityin Arab world365conversion to, by Muslims367muscular330331in Ottoman Empire100and rationality459in Russia, missionary activities by67turning away from453cities, imperial, inter-communitarian coexistence in361citizenshipminoritisation caused by361362in Ottoman Empire32, 360361civil society, in Egypt, restrictions on411civil wars, in Uganda380civilisationsEgyptian29history ofxiiand Islam160modern162civilising project, of Islam in Europe434civility, intercommunitarian361classical Arabic, formality of148149clothingfemale, Iranian men wearing301as means of communication126dress stylescodes, digital, in Arabic256257coins, Arabic inscriptions on252254Colet, Louise44n38collective identities, Muslim, and religion150collective mobilisation, in Muslim societies155156collective mourning389, 390colonialismin Arab World58, 104n27in Egypt46commemorationremembrance/commemorationcommunicationclothing as a means of126face-to-face9293communitiesexpatriate, in Iran302religious435village, in Ottoman Empire9499Companions of the Prophet (sahaba), perfection of209n29comportement moral147156computer programming, in Arabic254257The Concept of the Political (Schmitt)459confessional identitiesreligious identitiesconfessional wars, in Middle East357confinementof insane452, 460of refugees456, 460, 461462conflictsafter Arab revolts, in Libya and Yemen406in Muslim communitiesin Germany435in Kenya265, 276in Uganda385, 386, 391in post-colonial Uganda380381sectarian, in Middle East357358warsConsidérations sur les causes de la grandeur des Romains et de leur décadence (Montesquieu)161Constantin, François386conversionof Muslims, to Christianity367narrative of Moosagie184185, 202205to Salafism199Cook, Michael274n14corporations87Ottoman8890corporatism87in Middle East8687Ottoman83, 85, 8794, 104105tribal groups99104village communities9499counter-public (Gegenöffentlichkeit)302courts of law, dog appearances in447n11cultural alienation, of youth185cultural studies342culturesxvi, xxxxxxiin Cairo32, 38, 4243electronic224, 239, 240Ottoman, in Egypt28physical335print223224, 239, 240curricula, of Islamic studies in Russia1112cursive scripts248cycling, in Cairo236237Cynics450, 451, 452Czada, Roland87Dabashi, Hamid306307The Daily Voice (newspaper, South Africa)181Damiens, Robert-François455Dār al-Kitāb al-ʿArabī (publishing house, Cairo)225n6Darülfünun (university)135136, 137, 138139dead persons, photographs of115, 118Demange, Jean-François10democracyearly399n4in Iran, and women’s rights302, 306Muslim acceptance of186187Demolins, Edmond161162Dennerlein, Bettinaxix, xxxviiDeobandism198199Moosagie’s criticism of205, 212Walī Allāh’s place in291292deportations, and nation-state formation363Der Matossian family123, 124Derrida, Jacques445, 446447, 458, 459dervish staffs257258desacralisation453dhimma regime358dialoguesinterfaithxxixrespectful, in Swahili270diasporas, formation of371372dictionaries, Arabic-Russian14digital codes, Arabic256257Diogenes450Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Foucault)455456discursive agency267, 269through ethnography275on Kenyan Muslim radio273274research on277discursive analysis182183discursive spaces268, 269, 273274discursive traditionsxv, 183, 193dissidents fleeing Iran disguised as a woman trope301Dockrat, Mawlana Ashraf190, 191dogsbeing compared withCynics450, 452degradation of445refugees443445, 450, 451court appearances of447n11domestication of445n9human relationships with444n7, 445, 447448philosophical449450Doha International Conference on the Family (UN, 2004)313314Drāz, Muḥammad ʿAbdullāh166, 168, 174, 176dress styles, Armenian-Ottoman120126Duff-Gordon, Lucy38École d’Égyptologie (Cairo)31economy, Egyptian33, 43, 4546Edirne (Turkey), oil wrestling festival in328329, 340, 342343, 349350educationin Egypt160161, 164165, 175176in France162, 164165Muslim religious149in India183, 185186, 200201and recognition policies434Muslim thought on/conceptions of163164al-nahḍa’s focus on161as power building strategy of religious minorities370371reform ofin Egypt3940in Ottoman Empire132136, 137140effendiyya (middle class, Egypt)231, 332egalitarian character, of radio discussion programmes274Egyptarmy of3536authoritarian rule in405, 411, 415, 421British rule/occupation of60censorship inxviii, 227, 229, 231232social media237, 238economy in33, 43, 4546education inhigher160161, 164165, 175176reforms of3940electronic culture in224elites of407n9European influences on27, 28, 4445ethics/ethical thinking in157, 161, 162176history of27, 29informal networks in415420, 421Islamic personal status law in311312language use in2829literature28n2modernity in27, 29, 44, 45, 46nationalism in5960Ottoman rule of32, 3536, 40, 4546political freedom in3738, 411politics in411, 419print culture in223224public sphere in38reform movement in167religious minorities in269, 372revolts (2011/2012) in233, 417mobilised publics in407, 412413popular committees in and after412, 413, 417419and regime change397398, 403404, 405, 406, 411412, 421social media use inxviii, 223, 233238taxation in91universities in31, 165women’s rights inxix, 312313Egypt-Abessinia war (1869)36Egyptian Museum (Cairo)31electronic cultureand censorship239in Egypt224and globalisation240Elimika na Stambuli! (‘Get educated with Stambuli!’, radio programme)266267, 269270and discursive agency273274terrorism, discussions of270276elite bargains405n8‘Elite Change and New Social Mobilization in the Arab World’ (research project, SWP, Germany)398400elitesin Arab World400401and Arab revolts (2010–2012)401402, 403404, 406, 407Egyptian407n9focus on Europe/France of27, 28, 4445language use of29formation of, through education371Iranian306modern, gentling of manners of151Muslim religious, and popular Islam149Ottoman90intellectualsemancipation, of Jews432Empire libéral30, 37empires360Egyptian ambitions for35, 36, 40empowerment, after Arab revolts420421Emrullah Efendi138Enayat, Hamid5657Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE (EI3)xvEncyclopedia of Brockhaus and Efron19engineering schools, in Ottoman Empire132133Enlightenment, failure of455Ennahḍah party (Tunisia)405enseignement religieux, Musulman149Erdmann, Franz (Fedor)5Erdoğan, Necmeddin Bilal348349eschatology, in ISIS propaganda192, 215esotericism, in Islam off-shoot religions368ethics267, 276in Egypt/Egyptian thought on157, 161, 162176Islamicxviixviii, 161in classical era157158modern158159, 173175European influences on159160, 161162ethnic groups357ethnographyof academic institutionsxxvixxviidiscursive agency through275of Kenyan Muslim radio discussions on terrorism275276anthropologyEtnospor Kültür Festivali I and III (Istanbul)347349, 350eulogies, Arabic250252Eurocentrism, in Islamic studiesxiiiEuropeclosing of459, 462Egyptian ties with3436influences ofon Egyptian elites27, 28, 4445on Islamic ethics159160, 161162, 175on Ottoman dress styles and furnishings121123on Ottoman higher education133, 136Islam/Muslims in434acceptance ofxxxxirecognition ofxx, 427428, 429, 432435, 436437visibility of427Islamic studies in22Jews in, recognition/emancipation of432, 435436public sphere in36renaissance in169WestEuropeansin Cairo/Egypt32, 4142, 43Middle Eastern studies by83, 8485in and on Ottoman Empire81, 126127women, Iranian images of303exclusionof minorities360of refugees447, 448449exile370, 371372existentialism, Arab world171172expatriate communities, Iranian302extended families, photographs of115Ezbekīya Square/neighbourhood (Azbakiyya, Cairo)2830, 33, 43, 46Ezzat, Heba RaoufʿIzzat, Hiba Raʿūfface-to-face communication9293, 95Facebook224n4Egyptian revolts postings on233235, 236Go Bike site on236237Iranian Men in Hijabs campaign on301, 305shutdown of Egyptian political pages by237238Fadʿān (Fedʿān) tribal group (Syria)101102Fāḍil, Muṣṭafā33, 37Fāḍila, Jamīla34Fahmī, Manṣūr165, 167, 171familiesin early modern societies92Islam on protection of314, 319and women316321Islamic law on311312modern normative, Arab Human Development Reports on315316photography ofas historical source112113Ottoman113127family, politicisation of, by Islamism312famines, in Egypt33Farooq, Samaya331332Faroqhi, Suraiya338n14Fāṭemeh is Fāṭemeh, (lecture, Sharīʿatī)302303Fāṭima (daughter of the Prophet)303fearsof Muslims458459of refugees446, 454feminism, Islamic308festivals, oil wrestling at328fezzes, in Ottoman dress121fief-holders, Ottoman96, 98Filali-Ansary, Abdouxvii, xxxviifiqh, Iranian reform movement’s views on306Fleischer, Heinrich Leberechtxvi, 15Flüchtlingsgespräche (Refugee Dialogues, Brecht)461n20‘The Forgotten Muslims’ (documentary, Uganda)376, 377, 378n2, 387Fossati, Gaspare134Foucault, Michel451, 452456, 460461, 465Frähn, Christian-Martin5Franceeducation in162, 164165influences ofon Egyptian elites27on Egyptian ethical thinking160161, 164165, 170171on Islamic ethics159160, 161162on Ottoman education133134Tunisia ruled60Franz, Julius29Französische Sprache, in Ägypten29freedomabsolute452, 453political, in Egypt3738, 411reason dominating over455of speech464465of thought453Freie Universität Berlin, Islamic Studies atxivxvi, xxxii, xxxiiixxxivFreitag, UlrikexxxiiFrench languagein Egypt29translations of texts in, into Arabic160161Frolov, Dmitrii7n7Fromentin, Eugène42Fukuyama, Francis399n4funerals, photographs of115n10furūsiyya tradition (military chivalry)327328, 339The Future of Islam (Blunt)59n4Fuyūḍ al-ḥaramayn (Walī Allāh)293294Gadamer, Hans-Georg304, 439Galarza, Comte de165Gauck, Joachim434Gauland, Alexander464Gautier, Théophile4142Gegenöffentlichkeit302gender, Islamic opposition to use of term313gender relationsin Arab World/MENA region310311in Iranxix, 301305, 307308General Labour Union (Union générale tunisienne du travail)407gentling of manners151, 155Germanyincitement prohibition in443444Islam/Muslims inxiii, 427, 435religious education in434Islamic studies inxiixvi, 22, 23Ottoman philosophy education influenced by135refugees in441442, 461Gérôme, Jean-Léon43al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid289al-Ghazālī, Muḥammad227, 311, 318Ghonim, Wael234, 235Ghubayn (Shaykh)102n25Girgas, Vladimir1214, 15Github (online platform)249Gladstone, William E.59Global Mufti (Gräf and Skovgaard-Peterson eds.)xxxiiiglobalisation27, 240Go Bike ... Go Life (biking group, Cairo)236237goat hair, textiles made from123Gökalp, Ziya137, 364Gökmen, Mehmed Fatin137Goldziher, Ignaz15Gottwald, Joseph (Iosif)6government administration, Ottoman99, 102104graphic expressionsof Allāh and Muḥammad248249, 251, 254of intellectual structure of texts250of shahāda253, 254Great BritainEgypt ruled by60India ruled by288, 289Ottoman caliphate opposed by5859Greek philosophy, Egyptian ethical thought influenced by169170, 174, 175Grunebaum, Gustav vonxviiiguilds, in Ottoman Empire81, 82, 87Guirguis, Laure369Guizot, François162Gülizar case123Haarmann, UlrichxxxiiHabermas, Jürgen302Haddad, Mahmoud56, 57Ḥadīqat al-akhbār (‘The garden of news’, newspaper, Lebanon)13ḥadīth, study of, in South Asia280Hagia Sophia (Istanbul)249hagiographies, of religious scholars286Hakkı, İzmirli Ismail137Ḥalabī, Muṣṭafā226Ḥalīm (Prince, Egypt)3334al-Ḥāmūlī, ʿAbduh38Hamzah, Dyala57Ḥamzanameh345346Ḥanafī school of law40Hanioğlu, Şükrü340Haraway, Donna446n10Harders, Ciljaxx, xxxviii, 413, 414Hartmann, Elkexvii, xxxviiiḤasan, Maḥmūd281, 290291, 292Ḥasana tribal group (Syria)101hate, prohibition on incitement to443444, 463464hate speech, on social media, removal of462463al-Ḥayy, ʿAbd287Ḥazrama (village)96Hebrew University (Jerusalem), Islamic studies atxxxiiiHegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich428, 432Henri V (Comte de Chambord)44heritage sports328, 335, 342in Turkey328, 347349heroes346Herrera, Linda238Hetze464hidden transcripts, of religious minority groups370Higgins, Godfrey289higher educationin Egypt160161, 164165, 175176Ottoman133136, 137, 138140Ḥijāz69, 73Hijra notion (migration)199n5al-Hilāl (journal)168Hirschmann, Peter445n8Histoire générale de la civilisation en Europe (Guizot)162‘The Historical Novel in Contemporary Arabic Literature’ (article, Krachkovskii)21historiographyof Middle East85Ottoman8384historyof civilisationsxiiof Egypt27of Muslim world, breaking points in336of philosophyxviireligion in16sources of, family portraits112113of Uganda, post-colonial380381History of Madness (Foucault)452History Museum of Armenia (Yerevan)119Hodgson, Marshall151152, 154, 155Ḥosayniyyeh Ershād (Qom)303households, Ottoman, size of118119Houshamadyan collection (photography)113127‘How do we ensure global cooperation regarding ethics?’ (article, al-Sayyid)168Hügel, Carl Alexander von41Hughes, T.P.287288Ḥujjat Allāh al-bāligha (Walī Allāh)281, 288289, 292293human bodies, disciplining of (Foucault)456human rightsIslam on311neoliberalism associated with313protection of family values as part of314violations, in Egypt411women’s rightshumanities3humansand animals/animality448, 451status of refugees as448449Hunger, in Ägypten33Huot, Claire450451, 452Ḥusayn, Ṭāhā165, 169Huxley, Aldous448Hyder, Mohamed272273Ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, Ḥamza345346Ibn Khaldūn, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān153154Ibn Miskawayh164iconisation/iconic mode of representation93, 103idealism, modified172identitiesMuslim collective, and religion150nationaland print culture223Turkish340341, 364recognition of430religiousof Muslim minority groups in Middle East368369of states362, 369identity politics368369, 439Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn (al-Ghazālī)289IIAS (International Institute for Asian Studies)xxviiijtihād (renewed interpretation of the sources of Islamic law)ʿIzzat’s views on311, 318319Walī Allāh’s views on281Il’minskii, Nikolai7imaginationmodes of84role of, in reading Islamic calligraphy261imāms, training of, in Germany434imperial ambitions, of Egypt35, 36, 40imperial ruleof Egypt60Ottoman3536, 40, 4546of minorities358360, 361of Tunisia60Imperial School of Naval Engineering (Muhendishane-i Bahr-i Hümayun)132133imperialismBritish/French60Derrida on hypocrisy of459incitement to hate prohibition443444, 463464Indiaanti-colonialism in290book publishing in287292Mutiny in (1857)288, 289ʿulamāʾ in190Indian community in South Africa183, 186Indigénat égyptien (al-raʿāwīya al-jinsīya al-maḥallīya)31indirect rule, Ottoman100individualism152, 170individuals, autonomy of428n2inequalities in power distribution, and recognition policies430431informal institutions416n5informal networksin Egypt415420, 421mobilisation in412, 418informalisationin Arab World415in Egypt416417injustice, experienced by refugees455insanity451, 452454confinement of452, 460Foucault on460461Western associations of Muslims with458459Institute for Islamic Studies (Freie Universität Berlin)xxxii‘Integrating Media and Transcultural Communication Research within Islamic and Area Studies’ (conference, Berlin)xxxivintellectual structure of texts, graphic expressions of250intellectualsArab, formal classical Arab spoken by148149Egyptian166167Iranian306307Muslim, in Uganda386387interfaith dialoguesxxixInternet, penetration in Iran of302An Introduction to Islamic Law (Schacht)87Iranelites/intellectuals in306307gender relations/women’s rights inxix, 301305, 307308martial arts in337Men in Hijabs social media campaign in301, 305, 307reform movement in302, 305306religious minorities in359360, 365, 366traditional wrestling in333Iraq, confessional identity of369irrationality, of Muslims458459ISIM (International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World)xxviixxviii, xxxiISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria)jihād notion of204n18Moosagie’s support for181182, 183, 185, 191192, 193, 194199, 214220Iṣlāḥī, Amīn Aḥsan294Islam327, 334anthropology of193, 276apostasy prohibition in204n17, 367in Arab nationalism364Arabian origins of89in Europe, civilising project of434in Germanyxiii, 427, 435on human rights311in Kenyaxviiixix‘logos’ of249and modernity152153, 154155, 159, 193194muscular327, 330, 331336, 339, 340, 350off-shoot religions of367369and political authority191, 202popular versus intellectual149on protection of family values314, 319and women316321rationality of281, 305and religious pluralism/tolerance366, 377378religious practices in public sphere of436437in Russian Empire4and secularisation364in South Africa182, 184185, 186192and support for ISIS181182, 183185, 190192, 193, 194220in Turkey330, 343on unbelievers/heresy188190, 203204and violence271272and women’s rights302, 313314, 316321reform movementIslam and the Foundations of Government (al-Rāziq)75‘Islam and Pluralism’ (essay, Krämer)377378Islamic books, publishing of225, 228, 287292Islamic calligraphy246247graphic design247256and/on material objects256258, 259260readability of246247, 258262Islamic ethicsxviixviii, 161in classical era157158modern158159, 173175European influences on159160, 161162Islamic feminism308Islamic lawlegal personality concept in86women and family in311312Islamic martial arts327, 333, 336338, 350Islamic philosophy159, 163, 173Islamic state, political philosophy of56Islamic studiesxixii, xvixvii, xxi, xxviiixxxin Europe22in Germanyxiixvi, 22, 23Krämer’s reshaping ofxxvixxviii, xxxxxxvin Russia34, 2224at Kazan University49, 1011at Moscow1720at St. Petersburg University6, 1017, 23in Ukraine21Islamic texts, ligatures in249252Islamism372after Arab revolts403, 404Hiba Raʾūf ʿIzzat’s criticism of235, 320politicisation of family by312IslamOnline website/platform311, 319Islamophobia427Ismāʿīl Pasha (Khedive of Egypt)3132, 3336, 37, 38, 40, 46, 160Ismāʿīl, Shāh281Ismāʿīlīya (Cairo neighbourhood)30, 46IstanbulHagia Sophia in249heritage sports in328, 347349, 350Military Museum in338Ottoman photography in111universities in134135Istanbul University135Istituzioni di diritto musulmano (Santillana)86ItsMensTurn hashtag (Iran)307IUIS (International Union of Islamic Scholars), opposition to women’s rights activism by314Ivanov, Mikhail9n14Izālat al-khafāʾ ʿan khilāfat al-khulafāʾ (Walī Allāh)289ʿIzzat, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz168ʿIzzat, Hiba Raʾūfxix, 235236, 310on women’s rights and family values311, 316, 318321İzzet, Mehmed139Jacob, Wilson Chacko332Jacoby, Günther135jamāʿa/ cemaʿat concept8990Jamʿīyat al-Maʿārif (Gesellschaft der Schönen Künste, Kairo)37Jankowski, James231jeweller’s guild (Ottoman)81, 82Jewsin Egypt372in Europe, recognition/emancipation of432, 435436jihād notion183of ISIS204n18of Moosagie183, 185186, 190191, 201, 204205, 213214semiotic analysis of191, 194in South Africaxvii, 181, 191, 193Johansen, Baberxvi, 8687Jones, Anton442, 457, 463Journal Officiel (Gautier)41journalism, of Riḍā57Judaism, muscular331, 336‘Juden und Hunde Verboten’ signs in Nuremberg445n8justicein Shīʿa Islam304305social, Walī Allāh’s views on281injusticeKaboulian, Boghos116Kadivar, Mohsen306Kairo2728Europäer in32, 4142Ezbekīya-Viertel in2830, 33Kultur in32, 38, 4243Moderne in46Orientreisender in32, 4142politische Freiheit in3738Stadtentwicklung in30, 3233, 39Cairoal-Kanākir (Syria)9495Kananov, Georgii18Kant, Immanuel165, 360Kara, Recep329Karahasan, Dževad361Karam, Yūsuf166, 167Karolia, Mawlana Muhammad186187, 188Kasabashian, Arshalous and Yervant117kashīda (lengthened), use in Arabic graphic design of252256Kawakami, Akane246al-Kawākibī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān66Kawtharānī, Wajīh57, 69Kazan University, Islamic studies at49, 1011Kazantzakis, Nikos360Kazem-Bek, Aleksandr56, 23Kemal, MustafaAtatürkKemalists70, 73, 74Kenya, Islam/Muslims inxviiixixmarginality of265266, 267radio stations/programs of266267, 268276Kerr, Malcom56, 148, 149, 150Khālid, Khālid Muḥammad227, 229Khalidov, Anas21n35Kharijites203n16Khar’kov University5n4al-Khaṭīb, Muḥibb al-Dīn229n16al-Khatib, Mutazxvii, xxxviiiKhawatir 11 (television programme)237Khiabany, Gholam238al-Khiyāl al-siyāsī li-l-Islāmiyyīn: Mā qabla l-dawla wa-mā baʿdahā (The political vision of Islamists: Before and after the state, Hiba Raʾūf ʿIzzat)235Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah, on womanhood303Kiev University, Islamic studies at21Kırkpınar festival (Edirne)340, 341, 346347Islamic elements of343344opening ritual of344UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage status of341342Kiyimba, Abasi382, 383, 385n8, 386, 387knowledgeFoucault on465production and transmission of371traditions of266Knysh, Alexanderxvixvii, xxxviiiKokoschka, Alinaxviii, xxxviii, 327n1Kolonialismus, in Ägypten46Krachkovskii, Ignatii8n9, 13, 17, 2122Krämer, Gudrunxi, 372on autonomy87on corporations89Islamic/Middle Eastern studies reshaping byxiixiii, xvxvi, xxvixxviii, xxxxxxv, 8485on notables as intermediaries9091on Ottoman reforms136137on religious pluralism377research projects/approaches ofxiv, xv, xxi, 83, 398n1Krawietz, Birgitxix, xxxviiiKresse, Kaixviiixix, xxxviiiKriege, Ägypten-Abessiniien (1869)36Krymskii, Agafangel1921Küçek Hanum44n38kufaar (unbelievers), Islam on203204Kultur, in Kairo32, 38, 4243Kurkjian family122Kushti wrestling333Laqueur, Hans-Peter329, 341, 344Lady Goal (Nīlūfar Ardalān)307308Lalande, André165, 166Lambek, Michael267, 276land ownership, in Ottoman Empire98languagesand politicsxviiiuse of, in Egypt2829Latin scriptdominance of254encounters with Arabic script254255ligatures in249lawcourts of, dog appearances in447n11Egyptian, personal status311312monstrosity of447Ottoman, penal97and stupidity448tyranny of459Islamic lawLawlor, Leonard452, 453454, 456Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages (Moscow)1820Le Bon, Gustave162Le Thomas, Catherine371Lebanonconfessional identity of369Shīʿa Islam in371Leca, Jean360361, 372Leder, Stefan345left-wing politicsbook publishing by, in Egypt230231involvement of religious minorities in372legal personality concept86legends345, 346legibilityof Arabic script248249of Islamic calligraphy246247, 258262legitimacy crises, in Egypt417Lepenies, Wolf3letters, arbitrariness of, in Islamic calligraphy261Levitsky, Steven416n5Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien171liberal secular matrix436Libya, revolts in (2012–2012)mobilised publics in407and regime change397398, 403, 404, 406ligaturesin Arabic script248, 249252in Latin script249lijān shaʿbiyya (popular committees, Egypt)412, 413, 417420Linant Pasha, Louis Maurice39linearity, abandonment in Islamic calligraphy of258linesin Arabic script252, 254, 256257in Islamic calligraphy247, 248, 254‘art of the line’Linthicum, Nancy229n19literatureEgyptian28n2modern Arabic, Russian study of13, 2022Russian, Oriental influences on17local space414logical positivism172173logistical power, of states84‘logos’ of Islam249loyalty, of minorities to dominant groups369370Lule, Yusuf382Maccabiah Games331al-Madani, Fakhruddin Owaisi183, 189, 190, 191Madbūlī, Ḥājj Muḥammad231, 232madnessinsanitymadrasasin India, Moosagie’s criticism of183, 185186, 200201in Ottoman Empire132, 137Madrasat al-Alsun (School of Languages, Egypt)160al-Mahdī, Muḥammad al-ʿAbbāsī39, 40Mahdist revolution (Sudan)60Maḥmūd, ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm170Maḥmūd, Zakī Najīb172173Mahmud II (Ottoman Sultan)133Mahnjoh, Priscillia442n3majoritiesdichotomy with minorities, reproduction of431formation of363Muslim, portrayal of tolerant Islam by366Makerere University (Kampala)382al-Maktaba al-Ahliyya (publishing house/bookstore, Cairo)226Maktabat Madbouli (publishing house/bookstore, Cairo)231Maktabat Wahba (publishing house/bookstore, Cairo)224230,  233Malche, Albert135male solidarity, for Iranian women’s rights activismxix, 301, 304305, 307Mālik b. Anas281Mālikī school of law281Malov, Efim8Mālṭī, Ḥabīb Ablā29Mamlūk studies338339Manāhij al-albāb (Rāfiʿ al-Ṭahṭāwī)28al-Manār (journal)xvii, 6263, 161, 226n9on Ottoman caliphate6364, 68on Ottoman Consultative Society67on pan-Islamism64Manasse, Séraphin34Mandanipour, Shahriar307Mann, Michael84al-Marʾa al-muslima (The Muslim woman, article, al-Bannā)318al-Marʾa al-muslima fi l-mujtamaʿ al-muslim (The Muslim woman in Muslim society, Muslim Brotherhood)320al-Marʾa wa-l-ʿamal al-siyāsī (Woman and political action, Hiba Raʾūf ʿIzzat)311, 318al-Marʾa wa-l-rajul wa-hal yatasāwayān? (Woman and man: Are they equal?, article, Shumayyil)317318Mardin, Şerif360Marilhat, Prosper41Markell, Patchen428, 430, 431432, 433, 437, 439Marks, Laura U.247n2al-Marrākushī, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ7374martial arts, Islamic327, 333, 336338, 350Mashanov, Mikhail89massacresof Armenians, in Ottoman Empire127of Muslims in Uganda376, 382385commemoration of388389, 390and nation-state formation363on Rabaa El Adaweya Square (Cairo)235, 237Massignon, Louis165, 166, 170Maṭbaʿat Ḥalabī (publishing house, Cairo)226material objects, Islamic calligraphy on/and256258, 259260materiality, and Arabic script246Mathnawi (Rumi)210al-Māwardī, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb6566, 71, 73Mawloodis199Maẓhar, Ismāʿīl170Mazhar Paşa, Mustafa102n25Mazrui, Sheikh al-Amin bin Ali265Mbembe, AchillexxiMcGill University, Islamic studies atxviiixxixMcLarney, Ellen Anne318, 319The Meaning and End of Religion (Smith)xxixmeanings, of Qurʾān, and people’s needs283Mecca, as seat of Ottoman Caliphate58media coverage, of Muslim protests in Uganda377media representations, study ofxviiimedia space378n2media studies, and Islamic studiesxxxivMediterranean Politics (journal), special issue on Arab revolts398399Mednikov, Nikolai15Meier, Astridxvii, xxxviii, 94, 97mektebs, Ottoman134, 136memoryphotography as a means of112, 115, 118remembrance/commemorationMen in Hijabs campaign (Iran)xix, 301, 305, 307MENA region (Middle East and North Africa), gender relations debates in310311Merkel, Angelaxiii, 441, 461, 462, 464metaphysics173Middle Eastconfessional wars in357conversion of Muslims to Christianity in367corporatism in8687European studies of83, 8485historiography of85minorities inxixinternal autonomy of358359religious358, 363372politics in105sectarian conflicts in357358state and society in85MENA regionmigration, of Kenyan Muslims271milieux urbains, et milieux tribals153154military chivalry tradition (furūsiyya)327328, 339military slaves338339Min hunā nabdaʾu (From here we start, Khālid)227Min hunā naʿlamu (From here we learn, al-Ghazālī)227Minié Bey, Claude-Etienne35minorities360denial of subjectivities of365366in Middle Eastxix, 357, 363372imperial rule over358360, 361Muslim, in Ugandaxx, 378in Ottoman Empire359361, 362political representation of362363and social Darwinism363recognition of428, 431432in Turkey364, 366, 369religious minoritiesminoritisation, and citizenship/nation-state formation360, 361362, 363missionary activities, of Russian Orthodox Church, among Muslims67Mitchell, Timothy84, 99mobilisationcollective155156in informal networks412, 418mobilised publics400, 402403in Arab revolts402, 406408Modern Islamic Political Thought (Enayat)56modernisationdifferent modes of154in Ottoman Empire132133, 136137of education133136, 137140modernity151152Egyptian27, 29, 44, 45, 46and Islam152153, 154155, 159, 193194religion inxxixxxxModernity at Large (Appadurai)336337modified idealism172moeurs, adoucissement des151MohammedMuḥammadMoi, Daniel arap266n2Mombasa, Muslim radio in266mondialisation, of Egypt27Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de161Moosa, Ebrahim183, 185186, 188Moosagie, Mawlana Rashied181, 182183childhood of199200conversion narrative of184185, 202205criticism byof buzrug culture183, 187, 201, 209210of Islam in South Africa186187, 188190, 192of Ṣūfism187, 199, 205212ISIS supporter188, 191192, 193, 194199, 214220jihād notion of183, 185186, 190191, 201, 204205, 213214narrative identity of184185religious education in India183, 185186, 200202moral conduct, religion and147156moral philosophyxviiLa Morale du Koran (Drāz)174La Morale et la science des moeurs (Lévy-Bruhl)171Moreton, Cole444n7Moscow, Islamic studies at1720Mosul361Moṭahharī, Ayatollah Morteżā302, 303Mott, Thaddeus Phelps35mourning, collective389, 390Moustafa, Ahmed252Mubārak, ʿAlī31, 39, 40Mubarak, Husni412Muḥammad (Prophet)8, 339graphic expressions of248249, 251Western perceptions of457458, 459n18Muḥammad, Sulṭān Bīk165Muḥammad III al-Ṣiddīq (Bey of Tunisia)60Muḥammad Aḥmad b. ʿAbdallāh (mahdī)60Muḥammad ʿAlī Pāshā (Khedive of Egypt)38, 40, 159, 160Muḥammad Isḥāq, Shāh284, 287Muḥammad Ismāʿīl, Shāh287Muḥammad Tawfīq (Khedive of Egypt)5960Muhanna (Shaykh of the Ḥasana)101Mujahideen, in Afghanistan337münevver (enlightened scholars)134Muqaddima (Ibn Khaldūn)153Murji’as203205Murkos, Georgii19Murphy, Tim (2003)182Mursī, Muḥammad407, 419Musa Bey123Mūsā, Muḥammad Yūsuf166, 173174muscular Christianity330331muscular Islam327, 330, 331336, 339, 340, 350muscular Judaism331, 336Museveni, Yoweri380, 382music, Islamic views of294Muslim Brothers (Egypt)226n9, 228229crackdown ofxx, 230founding of76ʿIzzat’s support for320321publishing by229n16Muslim worldbreaking points in336modernity in152153sciences in, European influences on159Muslimsappeals for closure of Europe to459conversion to Christianity by367in Europeacceptance ofxxxxirecognition of427428, 429, 432435, 436437visibility of427in Germanyxiii, 435in Kenyamarginality of265266, 267radio programmes/stations of266267, 268276religious education of149in India183, 185186, 200201and recognition policies434in Russian Empire4, 67stereotyping of454in Ugandaxx, 376, 385political representation of385386political rights of378politics of recognition by382383, 386387, 390391protests by376377, 384, 387388remembrance/commemoration practices of379380, 384385, 388389, 390, 391governmental repression of381, 384, 390Sheema district massacre of (1979)376, 382385Western werewolf images of458459Muʿtazilī school of law160, 203n16Mutiny (1857, India)288, 289mutual response, idea of446n7mutuality, Swahili markers of268Muwaṭṭaʾ (Mālik ibn Anas)281al-Muwayliḥī, Ibrāhīm37Muzio, Emanuele42mysticism, of Walī Allāh293294Naadam Festival (Mongolia)342al-Nābulusī, ʿAbd al-Ghanī96Nadim Centre (Egypt)411al-nahḍa (Arab renaissance)13, 158education focus of161in Egypt165, 167on women’s rights316317Naḥwa ʿumrān jadīd (Towards a new civilisation, Hiba Raʾūf ʿIzzat)321Naim, Babanzade Ahmed137, 138Najarian, Rebecca116Najd region100, 102Nanotvi, Muhammad Qasim212n36Napoleon448Daβ Narrenschyff ad Narragoniam (Brant)456459, 465Foucault on460Nasser, Gamal Abdel415Nasser, Ramsey254257national identitiesand print culture223Turkish340341, 364nationalismArab, Riḍā’s attitude towards55, 56in Egypt5960in Muslim world155and minorities360, 363364in Ottoman Empire364nationsformation of, minoritisation and360, 361362, 363psychology of162Navaro-Yashin, Yael329, 341Navrotskii, Mikhail17Negev104n27neoliberalism, human rights associated with313Nerval, Gérard de41networks415416n5informalin Egypt415420, 421mobilisation in412, 418intellectual166neutrality of states, perceptions of431, 432Nicholas I (Tsar)10n18Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), translation into Arabic169170Nidāʾ Tūnis404al-niẓām al-jadīd (new order, Egypt)27Nöldeke, Theodor8norms, and reality, in Muslim societies/Islam148, 149North AfricaMENA region (Middle East and North Africa)NRM government (National Resistance Movement, Uganda)Muslim politicians in385386silence/national reconciliation policies imposed by377, 379, 381, 383, 384Nūbār Pāshā, Bōgōṣ44Nūr party (Egypt)405Nuremberg445n8Nuzhat al-Afkār (journal, Egypt)37obedience to secular authorities, requirement of191, 202Obote, Milton383, 385Öffentlichkeitägyptische38europäische36oil wrestling in Turkeyxix, 327, 328330, 340341, 349350cultural elements of341343, 344347Islamic elements of334335, 343344nationalistic elements of341Omar, A. Rashied183, 185, 189‘On Difference and Understanding: The Use and Abuse of the Study of Islam’ (essay, Krämer)xviiiOne Million Signatures for Women’s Rights campaign (Iran)304opera theatre, in Cairo4243Orientorientalisation of, in Egypt4344Western nostalgia for41, 43OrientalismIslamic calligraphy seen as meaningless in262negative connotations of3Orientalism (Said)3Orientreisender nach Kairo32Orthodox Christianity, missionary activities among Muslims by67osmanische Kultur, in Ägypten28Osmanisches ReichÄgypten als Teil vom3536, 40, 4546Staatsbürgerschaft im32Ostroumov, Nikolai8others, just relations to439Ottoman caliphate55, 56, 58, 61, 76abolition of7475British opposition to5859al-Kawākibī on6667religion and state in6465, 69Riḍā on6364, 66, 68, 6971, 72, 76Ottoman Consultative Society (Jamʿiyyat al-Shūrā al-ʿUthmāniyya)6768Ottoman culture, in Egypt28Ottoman Empirexviicitizenship in32, 360361corporatism in83, 85, 8794, 104105tribal groups99104village communities9499Egypt ruled by32, 3536, 40, 4546guilds in81, 82, 87historiography of8384household size in118119minorities in359361, 362political representation of362363and social Darwinism363modernisation in132133, 136137of education133136, 137140nationalism in364photography in111112family portraits113127reforms inmodernisation; tanẓīmāt-reformsreligion and state in58Ottoman Caliphatereligious groups in100, 105state-society relations inxvii, 83, 9094Syria ruled by99, 102104taxation in9697, 98textile production in123124Özervarlı, M. Saitxvii, xxxixPakistan, traditional wrestling in334pan-IslamismOttoman61, 64of Riḍā56, 61, 64paperbackspocketbookspariahs450451ParisEgyptian elites’ focus on27as model for Cairo’s urban development30world exhibition in (1867), Egyptian contribution30, 31parrhesia451, 453, 465Pasha, Ahmed Vefik138139passports461n20pastoralism, in Syria100101Patel, Mawlana Yusuf186, 187patronage91n11peaceful coexistence361penal law, Ottoman97perpetrators, of Sheema district massacre383384Persian languageinfluences in Turkey of344345Qurʾān translations intoxviii, 280, 282283personal status law, Egypt in311312Peter the Great (Tsar of Russia)4petitioning91Petrov, Pavel18Petrov, Petăr329philosophy173educationin Egypt160in France164165in Ottoman Empire135, 137, 138140Greek, influences on Egyptian ethical thought of169170, 174, 175history ofxviiIslamic159, 163, 173political, of Islamic state56photographyEuropean, of Ottoman Empire127family portraits, as historical source112113Ottoman111112family portraits113127physical culture335Plato449pluralism, religiousand Islam366, 377378regulation of439in Uganda377pocketbooksand censorship232publishing of225, 231political freedom, in Egypt3738, 411political IslamIslamismpolitical philosophy, of Islamic state56political power, of elites400401political representation of minoritiesMuslims in Europe435Muslims in Uganda385386in Ottoman Empire362363political resources399n3in/after Arab revolts404, 405political rights, of Muslims in Uganda378political transformationsfrom Arab revolts399, 401, 404408, 411413, 414, 417419research on400, 402politicisationof family312, 319of women’s rights312politics415in Egypt411, 419of identity368369, 439Islamic191and languagesxviiileft-wing230231, 372Middle Eastern105Ottoman, community-based9798participation in415after Egyptian revolts412413, 417420, 421of women319, 320primacy of85of recognition, of Muslims in Uganda382383, 386387, 390391of remembrance/commemoration378of Muslims in Uganda379380, 384385, 388389, 390of Ugandan government384, 390Ugandan377Politics (Aristotle)448polygamy/polygyny, Islam on302, 314popular committees, after revolts in Egypt412, 413, 417420, 421portrait photography, Ottoman111112positivismlogical172173of Russian Islamic studies16post-mortem photographs, Ottoman115, 118Postnikov, Piotr7n7poverty, in Ottoman Empire127powerexclusion of minorities from360inequalities in, and recognition policies430431political, of elites400401relations, at local level414resources of371strategies for building of, by minorities369372pratique religieuse, et comportement moral147156prayer, as collective mourning389PRE (politically relevant elite)400401in/after Arab revolts (2010–2012)401402, 403404, 406, 407and mobilised publics402, 407Preserved Tablet286n11print cultureand censorship239in Egypt223224and nation state formation240private-public binary320progress, European thought on162prolongation, in Arabic writing252256propaganda of ISIS197eschatology in192, 215prophets/prophecies, al-Afghānī on37protestsof Muslims in Uganda376377, 384, 387388Arab revolts (2010–2012)psychology, of nations162public sphereEgyptian38European36Islamic religious practices in150151, 436437and private sphere320publishing industryin Cairo/Egypt224231in India287292in United States232puritanical movements, Islamic281, 287al-Qābīl, ʿAbd al-Ḥayy174Qādirī, Muḥammad Ayyūb288n16al-Qaraḍāwī, Yūsuf224n3, 225, 228n15, 229, 311, 318opposition to women’s rights activism by313314Qāsim, Maḥmūd171Qurʾāncommentaries on284ethics in174, 175interpretations ofby Iranian women304by Walī Allāh282283translations ofxviii, 284285, 293in Persianxviii, 280, 282283in Russian78in Urdu281282, 283284, 287288, 290291, 292verses, baraka of262Quṭb, Sayyid228Rabaa El Adaweya Square (Cairo), massacre on (2013)235, 237racismin exclusion of refugees448, 449verdicts, and stupidity accusations445radicalism, of minorities, and crises of states369Radio Islam (South Africa)183, 186188, 189, 190Radio Rahma (Islamic radio, Kenya)xviiixix, 266267, 268270and discursive agency273274terrorism discussions on270273Rafīʾ al-Dīn, Shāh281, 283, 284, 285Rambo III (film)337Rasool, Ebrahim187rationalityand Christianity459Foucault on461freedom dominated by455of Islam281, 305irrationalityreadabilityof Arabic script248249of Islamic calligraphy246247, 258262reading, and seeing262recognitioncriticism of theory of430431, 437439of Jews in Europe435436of minorities428, 431432of Muslims in Europexx, 427428, 429, 432435, 436437conditionality of434435, 436437and security issues427of Muslims in Uganda382383, 386387, 390391of refugees461n20The Refinement of Morals (Tahdhīb al-akhlāq, Ibn Miskawayh)164reform movement157, 176in Egypt167in Iran302, 305306on women and family316317, 318al-nahḍarefugee boats, as ‘ships of fools’461‘The Refugee and the Dog’ (article, Der Tagesspiegel)442, 443refugeesacceptance of450animality of452compared to dogs443445confinement of456, 460, 461462Europe closing its borders to462exclusion of447, 448449fears of446, 454in Germany441443, 461pariah status of451speech of454455regime change, after Arab revolts (2010–2012)397398, 403408, 411412, 421reification, of minorities365366religionand commemoration of violence378discursivity of193history of mankind shaped by16in modernityxxixxxxand moral conduct147156and nationalism, in Ottoman Empire364return to/external marks of147, 150and stateAtaturk on69al-Kawākibī on67in Ottoman Empire/caliphate58, 6465, 69and recognition policies436Riḍā on6566, 6970religious acts182religious communities435religious education/learning, Muslim149in India183, 185186, 200201and recognition policies434transmission of286religious groups357in Ottoman Empire100, 105religious identitiesof Muslim minority groups in Middle East368369of states362, 369religious minoritiesin Egypt369, 372in Europe, recognition of428429in Middle East358, 363366, 369370internal autonomy of358359Muslim367369power building strategies of369372in Turkey364, 366, 369religious pluralismand Islam366, 377378regulation of439in Uganda377religious practicesIslamic, in public sphere150151, 436437and moral conduct147156and spirituality150remembrance/commemorationcurative effects of379by Muslims in Uganda379380, 384385, 388389, 390, 391governmental repression of381, 384, 390photographs as112, 115, 118political dimension of378rituals ofxx, 389renaissance169Arab,al-nahḍaRepublic (Plato)449repudiation, Islam on314resistance of religious minorities370to images of tolerance by dominant groups366Muslim minorities368369revelations, Walī Allāh’s claims of285286revoltsin Egypt (2011/2012)233social media use in233238Arab revolts (2010–2012)‘Revolutionising ethics: Is the good also the successful?’ (article, al-Zayyāt)167168revolutions411412n2Mahdist (Sudan)60ʿUrābī (Egypt)59, 60Rhetoric (Aristotle)450Ricoeur, Paul184Riḍā, Muḥammad Rashīdxvii, 55, 5758, 6162, 226and Arab nationalism55, 56, 68ethical thinking by163164journalism of57, 6263pan-Islamism of56, 61, 64reformist project of5557, 6366, 6770on caliphate57, 7073, 76implementation of74al-Kawākibī’s criticism of6667loss of appeal of75support for7677al-Risāla (journal)167168ritualsof opening of Kırkpınar festival344of remembrance/commemorationxx, 389Rorty, RichardxviiiRoy, Olivier185Rozen, Viktor9n16, 1517Rukāna339, 345Rumi, Jalal al-Din210Russia/Russian EmpireIslamic studies in34, 2224at Kazan University49, 1011at Moscow1720at St. Petersburg University6, 1017, 23Muslims in4, 67Russian language, translations intoof Arabic texts9of Qurʾān78Ryzova, Lucie231Sablukov, Gordii78Sacy, Silvestre de10, 17, 22Sadr, Musa371sahr,magicSaid, Edward3, 22Said, Khaled234saints, Sufi veneration of208Sakne (Egyptian singer)38Salafism176conversion to199criticism on188, 320and Deobandism198dissociation from unbelievers in204n17Walī Allāh’s influence on293Salamé, Ghassan367Ṣāliḥ, ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh404Ṣāneʿī, Ayatollah Yūsuf304305Sängerinnen, ägyptischen38Santillana, David86Ṣanūʿ, Yaʿqūb3738Sarajevo361Saussure, Ferdinand de182al-Sayyid, Aḥmad Luṭfī164, 165, 168, 169170, 173Schacht, Joseph86Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, David23Schmitt, Carl459Schneider, Nadja-Christinaxxxivscholars, religious188, 193of al-Azhar3940, 75hagiographies of286Ottoman134South Asian190, 280, 281‘School of Propagation and Guidance’ project (Riḍā)68Schulz, Dorotheaxix, xx, xxxixSchulze, Reinhardxvixvii, xxxixsciencesin Muslim world, European influences on159teaching of, in Ottoman Empire138scriptsArabic247, 248, 252legibility of248249ligatures in248, 249252lines in252, 254, 256257and materiality246prolongation in252256encounters between Arabic and Latin254255Latindominance of254ligatures in249al-Sebaï, Youssef147secondary elites401sectarian conflicts, in Middle East357358A Secular Age (Taylor)150secular authoritiesand recognition policies436437, 438requirement of obedience to191, 202secularisation150, 453and Islam364ʿIzzat’s opposition to319in Muslim societies, absence of150151securityfunctions performed by popular committees418and recognition of Muslims in Europe427Seehofer, Horstxiiiseeing, and reading262Seeing Like a State (Scott)89segmentation85self-censorship, on Egyptian social media237self-government90self-organisation, of Muslims in Uganda386self-portrayalsof Ottoman Empire126in photography112of religious minorities, in Iran and Turkey366self-transformation, as part of civilisation162Selim III (Ottoman Sultan)133Selimiye mosque (Edirne)340semiotics182of jihād notion191, 194Senkovskii, Osip10, 17Seraj, Mufti189190shahāda, graphic expressions of253, 254Shahinian, Hagop118sharīʿa, obligations of, Walī Allāh on294Sharīʿatī, ʿAlī302303Sharīf Ḥusayn6869al-Sharqāwī, Ḥasan175al-Sharqāwī, Muḥammad ʿAbdallāh175shaykhsin European colonial rule104n27Ottoman102, 103, 104Sheema (Uganda)massacre against Muslims in (1979)376, 382385commemoration of388389, 390Muslim protests at376, 384, 387388Shīʿa Islamauthority in304justice principle in304305in Lebanon371martial arts in333Shihābī101102The Ship of Fools (Brant)456459, 465Foucault on460refugee boats as461shtadlanut (intercession, mediation)435436Shumayyil, Shiblī317318Ṣiddīqī, Muḥammad Aḥsan288290sihr,magicsilence379on Sheema district massacre of Muslims383, 388, 390Ugandan government policies of377, 379, 381, 383, 384similarities, focus on342Sindhī, ʿUbayd Allāh291292singers, Egyptian38sinners, Islamic thought on203n16Sirat Amir Ḥamza (Ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib)345al-Sīsī, ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ411, 419, 421slaves, military338339Snare (Mahnjoh)442n3social changein Egyptxviiiand technology230n22social contractin Arab World415of informality416417social Darwinism, in Ottoman Empire363social interaction, Swahili268social justice, Walī Allāh’s views on281social mediain Egyptian revoltsxviii, 223, 233238in Iran, Men in Hijabs campaign on301, 305, 307removal of hate speech on462463surveillance of238in women’s rights activism308social organisation85Social Science Research Council (SSRC, United States)xxxsocial stratification88societiesxviknowledge traditions in266Muslimcollective mobilisation in155156norms and reality in148, 149religion in150151and states83, 415in early modernity92in Egypt416microdynamics of413414in Middle East85in Ottoman Empirexvii, 83, 9094sociology, ethics as part of170171Socrates449450solidarityintellectual expression of443n4of men with Iranian women’s rights activism304305, 307Soroush, ʿAbdolkarim305306South Africaapartheid in184Indian community in183, 186Islam in182, 184185, 186192and support for ISIS181182, 183185, 190192, 193, 194220jihād notion inxvii, 181, 191, 193South Asia, religious scholars in190, 280, 281Southeast Asia, martial arts in336sovereigntymonstrous/wolf images of446447, 459of states, in assigning recognition431432spaces378n2, 414discursive268, 269, 273274Islamic branding of249local414media378n2of mourning389Speaking for Islam (Krämer and Schmidtke eds.)xxxiiispeechfreedom of464465hate, removal on social media of462463of the mad454of refugees454455speech acts, religion as182Der Spiegel (journal)462spiritualityand religious practices150Sprachenerlass (Ägypten, 1870)28St. Petersburg University, Islamic studies at6, 1017, 23Staatsbürgerschaft, des Osmanischen Reiches32Stadtentwicklung, in Kairo30, 3233, 39Stambuli (Abdilahi Nasser)266267, 269, 270272, 274275, 276‘state analysis from below’412, 413415State Museum of Ethnography (Sardarabad, Armenia)119state-society relations83, 415in early modernity92in Egypt416microdynamics of413414in Middle East85in Ottoman Empirexvii, 83, 9094states8384control of, and recognition policies434crises of, and minority radicalism369democratic, Muslim acceptance of186187formation of, and minoritisation360, 361362, 363Islamic, political philosophy of56and religionAtaturk on69al-Kawākibī on67in Ottoman Empire/caliphate58, 6465, 69Riḍā on6566, 6970religious identities of362secularity of, and recognition policies436437, 438sovereignty of, in assigning recognition431432stereotypes, of Muslim males454Stokhof, WimxxviiStorch, Beatrix von462463stupidity464n23accusation in racism verdict of445and law448subaltern status, of religious minority groups370Ṣubḥī, Aḥmad Maḥmūd174Sudan, Mahdist revolution in60Suez Canal, opening of27, 34, 38, 4041, 43Ṣūfī orders285n9ṢūfismKoralia on188study of, in Russia20Surname-i Vehbi81, 82surveillanceneeds for456omni-presence of240of social media238survival, tribal versus urban modes of153154Swahili Islamic radio (Mombasa)Radio RahmaSwahili languagemutuality markers in268respectful dialogue in270SyriaʿAlawīs in371confessional identity of369Ottoman rule of99, 102104tribal groups in100103village communities in9499Tablighi movement, Moosagie’s criticism of205, 220tacit contracts, between minorities and states358, 359Der Tagesspiegel (newspaper)443Taḥrīr al-marʾa (The liberation of woman, Qāsim Amīn)317al-Ṭahṭāwī, Rifāʿa Rāfiʿ28, 159160, 161talismans250Tamarod/Tamarrud movement (Egypt)407, 419tanāsukh beliefs (metempsychosis)367368al-Ṭanṭāwī, Muḥammad ʿAyād19n33tanẓīmāt-reforms (Ottoman Empire)36, 133, 362taqlīd (imitation/emulation) principle304Tavakkolī, Majīdxix, 301al-Ṭawīl, Tawfīq167, 170171, 172, 175Tawżīḥ al-masāʾel (Khomeini)303tax farmers, Ottoman96, 98taxation91in Egypt91Ottoman system of9697, 98Taylor, Charles147, 150Tayob, Abdulkaderxvii, xxxixtechnicalisation151, 152technology, and social change230n22Ter Minassian, Taline372terrorism discussions on Kenyan Muslim radio270273ethnography of275276tertiary elites401testimonies, of survivors of Sheema district massacre382textile production, Ottoman123124Thānawī, Ashraf ʿAlī291theatre, Egyptian29therapies for dealing with trauma, effectiveness of379, 391tolerance, of Islam, Muslim majority image of366Tolstoy, Leo19tourism, in Cairo4142‘Towards the Rise of Women in the Arab World’ (essay, Hiba Raʾūf ʿIzzat)310traditionsdiscursivexv, 183, 193of knowledge266of military chivalry327328, 339neo/modified328Traditionsliteratur, Ägyptische28n2Transactions of the Oriental Division of the Imperial Russian Archeological Society (journal, Russia)16transcendence454n15public references to, in Muslim world150151transformationspoliticalfrom Arab revolts399, 401, 404408, 411413, 414, 417419research on400, 402of self162translationsof Arabic textsin Russian9in Ukrainian19in Urdu289of French texts, into Arabic160161of Greek texts, into Arabic169170of Qurʾānxviii, 284285, 293in Persianxviii, 280, 282283in Russian78in Urdu281282, 283284, 287288, 290291, 292transmissionof knowledge371of religious learning286transmutation Occidentale151dans cultures Musulmans152153trauma, strategies for coping with379, 391travellers, Europeanin Cairo32, 4142in Ottoman Empire126127tribal groupscorporatism of99104modes of survival in153154‘Trouble in Tahiti’ (musical, Bernstein)xxxiitruth commissions379n3TunisiaFrench rule of60revolts in (2012–2012)mobilised publics in407and regime change397398, 403, 404, 405, 406Turkeyfounding of state of73, 74heritage sports in328, 347349higher education in135Islam in330, 343muscular334335national identity of340341, 364oil wrestling inxix, 327, 328330, 340341, 349350cultural elements of341343, 344347Islamic elements of334335, 343344nationalistic elements of341religious minorities in364, 366, 369traditional wrestling in338Turksand Arabs, re-unification of68Central Asia origins of340Riḍā on70Western images of violence and insanity of458Twitter, use of, in Egypt235236UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), Islamic studies atxxxiixxxiiiUgandaMuslims inxx, 376, 385political representation of385386political rights of378politics of recognition by382383, 386387, 390391protests by376377, 384, 387388remembrance/commemoration practices of379380, 384385, 388389, 390, 391governmental repression of381, 390Sheema district massacre of (1979)376, 382385national silence and reconciliation policies imposed by government in377, 379, 381, 383, 384post-colonial history of380381religious pluralism in377Ukrainian language, translations of Arabic texts into19ʿulamāʾin South Africa187188in South Asia190, 280, 281ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb (Caliph)6970ummaleadership of58unity of55Ottoman concerns with61Riḍā on56, 64, 68, 76unbelievers, Islam on203204UNESCO, Intangible Cultural Heritage status granted to Kırkpırnar oil wrestling341342United Statesbook publishing in232Egyptian ties with35Unity and Variety in Muslim Civilization (von Grunebaum)xviiiuniversalism, quest of religious minority groups for372universitiesEgyptian31, 165Ottoman134136, 137, 138140Russian, Islamic studies at49, 1017, 23ʿUrābī revolution (Egypt, 1881)59, 60urban areas, modes of survival in154urban development, in Cairo30, 3233, 39Urdu, translations of Qurʾān in281282, 283284, 290291, 292publication of287288al-ʿUrwa al-Wuthqā (journal)6162al-Usra kamā yurīduhā al-Islām (The family as wished-for by Islam, al-Qaraḍāwī)313314ʿUthmān, Muḥammad38Vehbi (Abdülcelil Levnî)81, 82Verdi, Guiseppe42vernacular languagesArabic148149Qurʾān translations into283284victimhood, of religious minority groups372Vienna World’s Fair (1873)126village communities, Ottoman9596, 9899as corporate group96, 99politics of9798violencecommemoration of378as communication form93of insanity451and Islam271272in Uganda380381against Muslims376, 382385voice strategy of minorities370Volksverhetzung443444, 463464Wādī n-Nīl (journal)37Wahba, Sulṭān Ḥusayn224225, 226227, 229, 232, 232233, 238239Wahba, Wahba Ḥasan225226, 227228, 230, 239Wahba family224, 230n21Wahhābī networks, in India, British suspicions of289Walī Allāh, Shāhxviii, 280authority of280282, 285286, 288, 292293and Deobandism291292mysticism of293294Qurʾān translation and interpretation by282285waqf institutions, Ottoman96, 97warsconfessional, in Middle East357Egypt-Abessinia (1869)36Uganda civil wars380World War II168wasaṭiyya (moderation, the middle way)181water distribution systems, Ottoman9495Weber, Max84, 85wedding photography, Ottoman115, 116117Weidel, Alice463Weltausstellung Paris (1867), ägyptische Anteil30, 31Westimages of Muslims in458459influences on Turkish oil wrestling of342343nostalgia for Orient in41, 43EuropeWirtschaft, ägyptische33, 43, 4546Wittgenstein, Ludwig342wolf/werewolf images, of Muslims458459womendress styles of, in Ottoman Empire121122European, Iranian images of303Islamic law on311312women’s movements, in Iran304women’s rights308, 320activismin Egyptxix, 313international/transnational310, 312, 313Iranian male solidarity withxix, 301, 304305, 307308Islamic opposition to313314in Egyptxix, 312313in Iranxix, 302304, 306, 307308and Islam302, 313314, 316321word processing, Arabic256World Ethnosport Confederation348349world exhibition in Paris (1867), Egyptian contribution30, 31World’s Fair (Vienna, 1873)126world historyxiiWorld War II, impact in Egypt of168wrestlingIslamic views of339regional forms of343traditional342in Iran333in Pakistan334in Turkey338oil wrestlingWuld ʿAlī tribal group (Syria)101Wulff, ChristianxiiiXi’an (China), Great Mosque in259Yazīdīs371Yemen, revolts in (2010–2012), and regime change397398, 403, 404, 406Young Turks, government of68youth, cultural alienation of185Zaghlūl, Aḥmad Fatḥī Pasha161Zaman, Muhammad Qasimxviii, xxxixZan-e Rūz (Today’s Woman, journal, Iran)302Zanān, (Women, journal, Iran)303304Zhuze, Panteleimon (Bandali Saliba Jawzi)9Zivilisation, ägyptische29Zivilisationsdiskurs, in Ägypten2728ZMO (Zentrum Moderner Orient; today Leibniz-Zentrum Moderner Orient)xxxiiZurkhane athleticism333, 342, 346

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