List of Figures and Tables

In: The Translational Design of Universities
Free access
1.1Tacit: Explicit knowledge interchange (Nonaka, 1991)8
1.2Strengths and weaknesses of qualitative vs quantitative (Looi, 2014)14
2.1Complex adaptive assemblage drivers (adapted from Deleuze & Guattari, 1987, in Dovey, 2016, p. 269)25
2.2Four future university scenarios (OECD, 2006)40
2.3Forces for change determining the size of the university (from Hashimshony & Haina, 2014)41
2.4The new American university and its origins (adapted from Crow & Dabars, 2014)42
2.5The emergence of the branch campus model (Garrett & Gallagher, 2014)42
2.6Four possible evolutionary scenarios for universities (Ernst & Young, 2014)43
2.7Research intensive vs teaching; professional training vs higher education45
3.1Main layout prototypes: Schematic presentation of examples53
3.2Schematic description of changes in the organisational structure of the university58
3.3Forces for change determining the size of the university59
3.4Graphic presentation of alternative values for each spatial variable61
3.5Values applied to the three main uncertainties to generate the four scenarios62
3.6Graphic presentation of the spatial characteristics of each of the four scenarios64
4.1Input conditions (left) in the conceptual model explaining the proposition of the built environment as catalyst for innovation. These interdependent conditions are required to create and apply knowledge (innovation as a process in the middle) conducting to different outputs (right) (from Curvelo Magdaniel, 2016, p. 326)74
4.2Overview of the main stakeholders influencing the demand for developing tech-campuses framed into the Triple Helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008) (from Curvelo Magdaniel, 2016, p. 108)76
4.3Data collection plan (from Curvelo Magdaniel, 2016, p. 463)78
4.4Location of urban areas developed by the MIT in collaboration with public and private partners since 1959. Green: Urban area developments. Grey: The MIT’s owned land. Black: The MIT’s owned/leased buildings (Curvelo Magdaniel, 2016, p. 256)80
4.5Technology Square in 201481
4.6Kendall Square in 201484
4.7University Park @MIT in 201485
5.1The cause and effects of a postmodern world (based on Ishikawa Diagram)95
5.2Educational trends100
8.1The purpose-process-place framework (visualised after Duffy et al., 2011, in Beckers, Van der Voordt and Dewulf, 2015, p. 3)154
8.2Purpose of education (derived from Beckers et al., 2015)156
8.3Education processes (derived from Beckers et al., 2015)158
8.4Framework for aligning learning space with educational purpose and process (Beckers, 2016a, p. 40)159
8.5Impression of learning settings in the Nijmegen building (Beckers, 2016b)163
8.6Mean values regarding the importance of characteristics of the physical study environment in higher education buildings (N=697) (Beckers, 2016b)164
8.7Higher education learning space framework (adapted from Beckers et al., 2015)165
8.8Mean values regarding the learning space preferences (N=697) (adapted from Beckers, 2016b)165
8.9Settings for an activity based learning environment (classrooms excluded) (Beckers, 2016, p. 163)167
9.1Philosophical position of the grounded theory (philosophical triangle, based on Candy, 1993)180
9.2The interrelationship of the components of the research approach181
9.3The ten-step process of the research approach in the main study183
9.4The six step process: Archiving, coding, and analysing data in the pilot study186
9.5An example of mapping an individual perception of one student187
9.6Tree codes: Presenting the hierarchical structure of codes in MAXQDA188
9.7Selected codes for technology as an element of the tree codes190
9.8Planning the element based model: Positioning each code to realise its attribute, element, and environment191
9.9The fourth step of coding: Selected codes of nine elements191
9.10The fifth step of coding: Each code positioned according to its environment and its value192
9.11The main attributes of the place-time environments193
9.12The HBDS model and its attributes194
9.13The summarised HBDS model complemented by Face-to-Face and web-based education194
9.14Elements in design studio education: The final conceptual framework199
10.1Space 1209
10.2Space 2 (Photo: Sino-Finnish Centre, 2016)209
10.3An integrated model of learning space and student learning in higher education based on an empirical study in China210
11.1Social construction of knowledge (from Nonaka & Konno, 1998)224
12.1Schematic diagram of an active learning classroom (from Brooks, 2013)246
12.2Steelcase ‘solutions’ for active learning classrooms (from Scott Webber et al., 2013)250
12.3Emergent relational model linking pedagogy, learning environment and student wellbeing (from Waldrip, Cox, & Jin Yu, 2014)251
13.1Peter Jones Learning Commons. Exterior view of west entrance266
13.2Library first floor (G170). Entrance of library267
14.1Six key qualities of academic library spaces291
14.2Barry Street Library of the University of Melbourne, Australia: The library showcases some good example of the use of artificial lighting in study areas with the feature of students’ ability to control the desired level lighting293
14.3In order to control the noise created from student groups working together, in La Trobe University Library at Bundoora Campus, Melbourne, sound absorbing materials were used for the screens dividing the space and defining the group study areas293
14.4Study spaces created along two sides of an internal garden in University of Queensland Ipswich Library, Ipswich, accommodate quiet individual study, offer a pleasant well-lit ambient and view of the rainforest garden and water features, and are not completely secluded or isolated296
14.5In Deakin University Library at Waurn Ponds Campus, Geelong, project and study rooms are defined as separate enclosed spaces while maintaining visual connections. These spaces are also equipped with technologies and furniture to support students’ collaborative learning needs297
14.6Refurbishment of Brownless Biomedical Library of University of Melbourne showcases some good examples of using furniture and colours to define a range of spaces where a formerly dull rectangular space was broken down into a number of smaller spaces that accommodate a variety of functions. Built-in furniture helps in defining areas for small group collaboration and study298
14.7In Queensland University of Technology at Kelvin Grove Campus, Brisbane, a range of colour palettes are used in different library spaces corresponding to specific activities that students are engaged in299
14.8A variety of learning spaces is created in Biological Science Library of University of Queensland, Brisbane, to accommodate a range of individual and group activities. Sliding panels also installed to open up adjacent spaces and create bigger space when necessary300
14.9Dividing elements adjusted on the tables in Macquarie University Library at Macquarie Park Campus, Sydney, have the flexibility to be taken out and create different learning settings301
14.10.Macquarie University Library, Sydney, showcases efforts to create a sustainable learning environment by implementing a range of sustainable design solutions i.e. reusing and recycling demolition and construction wastes, using recycled materials, maximising the use of natural light from courtyards and skylights and controlling glare by shading and double facades, and using Automated Storage & Retrieval System (ASRS)302
14.11.In La Trobe University Library at Bundoora Campus, Melbourne, one of the main entrances is located along one side of the Agora, the central hub of the campus accommodating a range of student services and amenities i.e. ATM, coffee shops, and stores; a strategy that highlights the role of library as the ‘focal point’ of the university campus303
14.12.A number of design features is included in Deakin University Library at Waurn Ponds Campus, Geelong, to turn the library into the heart of the campus. An outdoor area is being designed in front of the library. The library is also in close proximity to student centre building and a natural open area including a pond304
14.13.Inside Deakin University Library at Waurn Ponds Campus, Geelong, the design creatively incorporates some of the carrels of the old library in the ceiling defining a space below and adding a style to the interior architecture. Staircase walls were also made using old and outdated books from the old library which contributes to the identity and historical backgrounds of the library304
14.14.Deakin University Library at Burwood Campus, Melbourne, presents some good examples of providing opportunities for students to not only find their spaces in the library but also to create their “own” places among the library spaces305
14.15.In the refurbishment of level 2 of Walter Harrison Law Library of University of Queensland, Brisbane, design solutions were incorporated to address requirements of technology use i.e. provision of power points on the partitions next to desks and creating a range of spaces to accommodate different functions and activities306
14.16.Refurbishment of Baillieu Library of University of Melbourne, Melbourne, presents a number of design strategies to create inspirational spaces i.e. maintaining openness and creative incorporation of built-in display spaces307
15.1Higher education learning space evaluation concept model 1 (from Rose-Munro & Majeed, 2017)319
15.2Higher education learning space evaluation model concept 1a (from Rose-Munro & Majeed, 2017)320
16.1The three over-arching modes of learning theory (Bolton, 2005)328
16.2Adaptive teaching framework (Bolton, 2005)328
1.1Implementation outcomes variables (from Peters, 2013)15
1.2Mapping the objective research question and method (adapted from Peters, 2013)15
1.3Summary of the university-industry-government relationship (adapted from Etzkowitz, 2000)18
2.1Faculty interest in active learning models39
5.1Summary of findings99
7.1Factor analysis results for WIHIC138
7.2Means, standard deviations and gender differences (ANOVA result and effect size) for WIHIC scales141
7.3Simple correlation and multiple regression analyses of associations between learning environment scales and student enjoyment and achievement142
8.1The industrial model versus the inquiry model in education (derived from Leland & Kasten, 2002)152
8.2Design characteristics of learning spaces161
8.3Design characteristics of four main learning space types (adapted from Beckers, 2016a)161
8.4Respondents characteristics (N=697) (Beckers, 2016b)163
8.5t-values to identify significant differences between learning space preferences per task (Beckers, 2016b)166
9.1Different scenarios of the HBDS model198
10.1A categorisation of three main dimensions of student learning activities208
12.1Students’ learning: Negotiating space, time and circumstances and institutional space development strategy (adapted from Boys, Melhuish, & Wilson, 2014, p. 17)249
13.1Campus members’ location and sociological grouping preference274
13.2Campus members’ location and observed activity275
14.1Key qualities of academic library spaces linked to their corresponding measures or quality indicators291
14.2List of academic libraries visited in Australia292
14.3Criteria of qualities in academic library spaces and their corresponding quality indicators308
15.1Success evaluation criteria, 1 indicates not achieved, 5 indicates successfully achieved323