Index

In: Observing Writing
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IndexACT-R332–334, 341academic writing194–205addressee227, 229, 249, 286, 326, 330, 334, 336articulation rate369articulatory buffer192, 203attention290, 289, 299 learner attention277 visual attention32audience see addresseeautomated writing evaluation (AWE) accuracy126, 127, 133, 135 deployability126, 127 usability127, 132, 134, 136 utility127, 129automatized linguistic analysis90automatization212 writing benefits of287, 289, 299bursts57, 199, 308–309, 310–311, 316, 318, 268P-burst73, 80, 88, 200, 352–353R-burst73, 200–204Camtasia146, 260, 265, 275circumlocution266cognitive load230, 268, 277, 285–300cognitive capacity268cognitive cost334coherence59 coherence problems243 coherence gaps326collocation371colours97–99, 112 line colour116 mathematical coloured models118Common European Framework of References260communication oral325, 368 written325, 368communicative goals270, 330, 331compare-diagnose-operate-model332computational linguistics71computer keystroke logging tool Cywrite131 JEdit2, 102 Inputlog71, 75, 88, 111, 134, 217, 240, 260, 291, 351 Scriptlog32, 44, 104, 127, 170, 336 Trace-it102, 215collaboration132, 143, 145content generation see idea generationcontext authentic setting52, 60, 145, 258, 277 newsroom144, 145, 146, 147 revision see revision: contextual and pre-contextual social context52, 143, 148, 149 upper secondary school258copy task/typing45, 60, 164, 170, 181–186, 286, 290–297criticality in online source use271, 280crp toolbox169–180, 186 dynamics (of type writing)163, 165–167, 171–177, 185, 186 embedding165, 166, 173, 174, 176, 180 matlab172 phase-space165, 166, 172–176 recurrence plot164, 165, 178, 186 recurrence quantification analysis163, 164, 186 rqa163, 164, 168–172, 175–177, 180–187 tutorial163, 164, 186Cywrite see computer keystroke logging tool: Cywritedata management144, 149data visualisation see visualisationdesign-based research125dictionary217, 219n, 240, 241, 258, see also Internet: dictionarydrafting312, 369Dutch37, 71, 215EFLsee foreign language: English (EFL)feedback90, 125, 132, 137–138, 194, 261Finnish170fluency57, 72–74, 184, 191, 199, 215, 219, 220, 222, 285, 291, 297–300, 352free writing293genetic criticism100genetic methodology96geo-temporal analysis112Geographical Information System (GIS)105, 106, 109, 110, 118German170, 194, 258, 266, 277graph theory97grounded theory152handwriting logging tools Eye and Pen51, 101 Ductus51 HandSpy50, 52–56imaginal module333, 334, 341Inputlog see computer keystroke logging tool: InputlogInternet access258, 261 dictionary259n, 281, 257n, 266, 269, 277, 264, 268, 276 sources258, 259, 261–284 translation tool263, 265, 271, 274, 277 website browsing258, 268 window switches260–207, 263–277Javascript128JEdit see computer keystroke logging tool: JEditknowledge crafting329knowledge telling73, 74, 329, 331knowledge transforming329, 331Knowledge transformation151, 153, 154, 156, 158language/languages affordances370 awareness41, 143 first language (L1)37, 58, 71, 73, 211, 258 foreign language classes259 English (EFL)71, 212, 215–216, 220, 229, 259, 350 learner258, 278 Indigenous language350 majority language356 mother tongue260, 268 proficiency229, 279, 315 second language (L2) see language/languages: foreign language: English (EFL) third language (L3)258, 277lexical choice272, 368lexical retrieval215, 268lexical transformation89, 90linear/linearity42, 76, 96, 151, 223, 287, 352 global318–322 representation102–105 visualization106–112 non-linear/ity76, 111, 317 transitions312, 317, 318linguistic analysis semi-automated71, 73, 77linguistic knowledge72, 213–214, 229–230, see also proficiencylinguistic process analysis88linguistic resources214, 229, 258, 271, 277literary art372memory declarative332–335 long term193, 278, 330 procedural332 working41, 71, 212, 287–288, 295, 300mental lexicon246, 268mental model326, 332, 335, 341mental representation147, 327–329, 331, 332, 335metaphor148, 236, 372 identification240–241 processing238, 247–249metaphoricity245–247metaphorical language236 in L2 learners236–238morphology73, 219, 241, 266, 353, 355, 358, 359Natural Language Processing (NLP)71, 77, 366natural setting see context: authentic settingnewsroom see contextnewswriting/news production143, 147–150, 157, 158North Sámi350, 351note-taking66, 194online see Internetpauses31, 57, 107, 131, 191, 218, 262, 287–289, 307–308, 311–314, 333, 340, 367 defining37, 76, 77, 78, 218–219, 292, 313–315 as cognitive indices245–247, 306, 310, 312–314 duration43, 55, 58, 74, 83, 87, 131, 242–244, 248, 294, 295–296, 298–299, 314, 319, 336 frequency42–43, 293–294 location65, 71, 81, 293–294, 296–298, 300, 388post-writing questionnaire75, 217–218, 227–228, 230pragmatic knowledge330, 332, 342pragmatic goals213, 334–335, 341pragmatic transformation329predictability368, 371processing demand see cognitive loadproductivity42, 164, 190, 196professional writing39, 143, 151, 278, 290proficiency high88, 191, 215, 221, 223, 226–227, 229, 231 language proficiency level88, 237, 260, 277, 279–280, 315 low215, 221, 223, 226–227, 229, 231 second language (L2)212–213, 214, 238 writing214, 238, 250progression analysis143–159reader see addresseerelationship spatial-temporal112 temporal-chronological104replacement see writing process: revisionretrieval332 accuracy333, 334 lexical215, 268, 313 linguistic units72, 246 orthographic symbols56, 65 memory330, 333 metaphor245 recency248 speed333, 334retrospective verbal protocol (RVP) see retrospective interviewsretrospective verbalizations see retrospective interviewsretrospective interviews30, 36, 39, 43, 143, 148, 157, 239, 241–242, 341, see also stimulated recallretrospective reports see retrospective interviewsS-notation see visualisation: S-notationscaffolding280screen recording see CamtasiaScriptLog see computer keystroke logging tool: ScriptLogsculptor writers265sentence production316–319, 321smartpens52spatial dimension101spatial operation101spatiality101, 113–117spatiotemporal aspects99, 101speech connected367 conversational dialogue368spelling88, 193, 194, 212, 214, 228, 241, 249, 272, 279, 293, 322, 252, 261spreading activation333stimulated recall36, 39–41, 244, 260–261, 265, 273, 275, 277, 336, 349, 350syllabification78syntax42, 59, 331, 351, 360Swedish259, 267, 276, 350, 351, 371tangram327–438temporality101, 111, 113–117text already written32, 35, 273, 287, 327, 329, 332, 341 argumentative text212, 215, 217, 228, 260, 336, 351 description text289, 351 narrative text57, 152, 292text genetics118textgenetic analysis98textual genetics111think-aloud protocols32, 36, 43, 215, 219, 225–226, 230, 309–310, 319thinking-for-speaking369thinking-for-writing369Trace-it see computer keystroke logging tool: Trace-itTurkish212, 213, 216–217, 230UAM CorpusTool291upper secondary school see contextusability questionnaire135, 136, 137visualization of the writing processAFP representation109–110, 117 data presentation96, 98, 99, 111, 113–117 data representation96, 97, 98, 101, 111, 113–117 linear representation see linear/linearity: linear representationLS graph107–108, 116, 219 graph representation97, 99, 105, 106, 114 Inputlog graphs221–225, 230 nonlinear representation105–106 online source graph263–264 Progression graph152 Progressive visualization110, 112S-notation76–77, 102–104, 107, 113, 147, 151 temporal representation111, 117 timeline representation106–107, 115website see Internetword categories88, 89word characteristics74, 81, 82, 86, 89word combination85, 89word frequency80, 82, 89, 90word length80, 82, 89, 292writing process50, 147, 278, 286–287, 316, 330 experimental research30 linguistic analysis see linguistic analysis organising330 planning247, 330, 322, 265 goals50, 159, 213, 278, 333, 349 ideas36, 57, 193, 195, 246, 268, 306, 330, 348 revision31, 37–39, 71, 77, 101–103, 147, 192, 215, 263, 307, 316–322, 331, 337, 369 addition see revision: insert, insertion delete, deletion42, 100–104, 147, 198, 218, 230, 342, 347, 349, 353 insert, insertion76–77, 100–104, 114, 147, 213, 218, 275, 317, 347 local151, 312 global307, 317–320 pre-contextual/contextual337, 340, 342, 349 leading edge307, 312, 317, 347–350, 352, 353 substitution100, 101, 213, 349, 362 represent/visualize see visualization of the writing process translation50, 73, 204, 278, 307, 330, 348 transcription, transcriber56, 278, 288, 307, 327, 348

Observing Writing

Insights from Keystroke Logging and Handwriting

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