Index

In: Sufi Institutions
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Index

Page numbers in bold refer to illustrations

ʿAbbādān 106, 161, 175–176, 362–363
ʿAbbās I, Ṣafavid ruler 86, 324
ʿAbbāsid dynasty
and futuwwa brotherhoods 353 under specific rulers
ʿAbd al-ʿĀl 392
ʿAbd al-Ghanī l-Nābulusī 233
ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq Muḥaddith Dihlavī 263
ʿAbd al-Khāliq Ghijduwānī 297
ʿAbd al-Qādir II 87
ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jazāʾirī (Abdelkader) 256, 276–277, 318, 326–327
ʿAbd al-Quddūs Gangohī 263
ʿAbd al-Raḥīm 389
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Jāmī 43, 243, 268, 307
ʿAbd al-Razzāq 388, 389
ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (son of al-Jīlānī) 388, 389
ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. Zayd 362
abdāl (apotropaic saints) 272, 273
ʿAbdallāh Aqtash 98
ʿAbdallāh Ḥajjām 90
Abdelkader (ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jazāʾirī) 256, 276–277, 318, 326–327
Abdelqadir (né Dallas, Ian) 180
ʿAbdullāhī (brother of ʿUthmān Dan Fodio) 324–325
Abraham (biblical figure) 89, 97–98, 388
Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sulamī 37
Abū ʿAlī l-Fārmadhī 303–304
Abū Ayyūb al-Anṣārī 42–43, 339
Abū Bakr, caliph 278, 307, 386, 396
Abū l-Ḥasan Pūshangī 91
Abū Ḥātim al-ʿAṭṭār 364, 365
Abū Madyan al-Shuʿayb (Sidi Boumediene) 120, 149, 258, 296, 380
Abū Manṣūr al-Maghribī 199
Abū l-Najīb Suhrawardī 193, 390
Abū al-Nūr Islamic Center (Damascus) 280
Abū Rashīd Quṭb al-Dīn al-Abharī 390
Abū Saʿīd b. Abī l-Khayr
clairvoyance of 303, 311
influence of 260
khānqāh of 202, 300
as mediator 205
rules of conduct of 63, 106–107, 177, 370
shrine of 118, 121, 339
silsila for 369
on wealth 222
Abū Saʿīd, Timūrid prince 308–309
Abū Sulaymān al-Dārānī 363
Abū ʿUthmān al-Ḥīrī 199
Abū l-Anwār al-Sādāt 36, 220
Abū l-Fatḥ al-Wāsiṭī 389, 393
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abī Bakr al-Harawī 148
Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī, Marīnid sultan 120
Abū l-Ḥasan Bustī 260
Abū l-Wafāʾ al-Baghdādī 399
Acre, siege of 316
ādāb (rules of conduct). rules of conduct
Ādāb al-murīdīn (Abū Najīb) 193 ādāb al-murīdīn (rules of conduct for seekers of the path)116–117
ādāb al-shurb (etiquette of drinking) 201
ādāb al-ṣuḥba (ādāb of companionship) 190
ādāb al-ẓāhira (ādāb of exterior manners) 193
Adam (biblical figure) 89, 98
ʿādāt (customs) 328
advice literature 267–268, 307–309
Āfāq, Khwāja Hidāyatallāh 270–271, 322–324, 351
Aflākī 94–95
Africa. North Africa; West Africa
Afshari, Mehran 14, 89–99
agriculture 40, 50, 51, 121–122, 242–243, 247, 282, 349
ʿahd (pact) 195–196, 204, 208, 211, 297, 308, 337
ahl al-ḥadīth (traditionists) 62
ahl al-ṣuffa (“people of the porch”) 28, 29, 116
Aḥmad (son/successor of ʿUmar b. Saʿīd Tall) 326
Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak al-Lamaṭī 272
Aḥmad al-Badawī 44, 340, 388, 392
Aḥmad al-Bakkāʾī 388
Aḥmad Bamba. Aḥmadu Bàmba Mbàkke
Aḥmad Barelwī 151, 256, 276–277, 278
Aḥmad al-Dardīr 220
Aḥmad Ḥammadī 223–224
Aḥmad Kāsānī Dahbidī 19, 194, 268, 309
Aḥmad Khān Sial 87
Aḥmad Khiḍruwiyya 91
Aḥmad Rūmī 98
Aḥmad Samʿānī 7
Aḥmad al-Sharīf 275, 328, 382
Aḥmad Yasawī 121, 165, 241–242, 395
Aḥmad-i Jām
on Abū Saʿīd b. Abī l-Khayr 260
political involvement of 261
on sanctity 265
shrine of 121, 158, 159, 163, 166
Aḥmadiyya. Badawiyya
Aḥmadiyya Idrīsiyya Shādhiliyya 408
Aḥmadu Bàmba Mbàkke 50–51, 229, 282–283, 319, 409
Aḥrār, Khwāja ʿUbaydallāh
agricultural enterprise of 121–122, 242–243
political influence of 127, 262, 324
protection system of 39, 121–122, 206
and succession 381
supernatural powers of 309, 311
mention of 398
ʿĀʾisha 363
Ajmer 107–108, 127, 148–149, 158, 168, 400
Akbar, Mughal emperor 127–128, 149, 310
(akbar) jihād (greater jihād) 117, 257, 315, 320
akhadha ʿan-hu al-ṭarīqa 368
akhawāt (sisters) 170
akhī associations 37–38, 208, 231, 343 futuwwa brotherhoods
akhīs (brothers). futuwwa brotherhoods
Akhlāq matbūliyya (al-Shaʿrānī) 205
Akhlāq-i muḥsinī (Kāshifī) 267–268
Akkoyunlu (Āq Qoyūnlū) 270, 312, 324
AKP (Justice and Development Party; Turkey) 47
akrama (to treat with reverence, to honor) 219
al-Aksarāyī, Ḥamīd al-Dīn (Somuncu Bābā) 399
ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Khaljī 84
Alatas, Ismail Fajrie 21, 374–382
al-ʿAlāwī, Aḥmad 138, 393
ʿAlawī dynasty 34, 153, 340
ʿAlawī lineages 386–387
ʿAlawiyya 138, 377, 380, 393, 408
Albania 234, 281–282, 342, 355, 358
Aleppo 111, 111, 112, 130, 132, 148, 232, 241, 344, 390–391, 399
Algeria
anti-colonial resistance/jihād in 20, 277–278, 318, 326–327
French colonial rule in 2, 67, 131
French opposition to Sufism in 354–355
rehabilitation of Ṣūfī institutions in 69, 285
ṭarīqa admitting women in 349
ṭarīqa officials in 348
worship of saints in 152 under specific dynasties, regions/cities, Ṣūfī orders
ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib 41–42, 96, 145, 307, 348, 369, 386–387
Alī b. ʿUthmān 389
ʿAlids, cult of 147
Alī l-Khawwāṣ 198, 267
Alī l-Riḍā 41–42
al-ʿAllāmī, Taqī l-Dīn 266
Almohad dynasty 259
Almoravid dynasty 259
alms (ṣadaqa) 81, 218, 219, 271
alms tax (zakāt) 58, 167, 218, 219, 271
altruism
legal regulation of 218
pre-Islamic notions of 219
profits to benefactors of 218
in Sufism 14, 17, 91, 218–225
terminology used for 219 alms; alms tax; donations; waqfs
Amasya 244, 245
ʿAmīlī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn 83
al-Amīn 92
Amīr Khusraw 127
amīr al-muʾminīn 277, 278, 325, 326, 327, 329
amīrs (senior local governors) 38–39, 114
ʿāmma (common believers) 189
Anatolia
futuwwa brotherhoods in 14, 37, 38, 93–95, 208, 343
rural Sufism in 18, 242–248
Ṣūfī institutions in
political influence of 129
shrine complexes in 119, 124–125
tekkes in 114–115, 159
and urbanisation 228, 231, 232
Ṣūfī orders from 398–400 under specific dynasties, cities, Ṣūfī orders
Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party) 281
Anawati, Georges Chehata 6
al-Andalūs 115, 175, 178
Anṣārī l-Harawī, ʿAbdallāh 17, 42, 43, 81, 121, 165, 209, 260, 297
Anṣār/Mahdiyya 201, 283
antinomian Sufism 30, 37, 227, 260, 341
al-Anwār al-qudsiyya fī maʿrifat qawāʿid al-ṣūfiyya (al-Shaʿrānī) 194, 197–198
apotropaic saints (abdāl) 272, 273
Āq Qoyūnlū (Akkoyunlu) 270, 312, 324
Aq Shams al-Dīn 265, 400
Āqāsī, Mīrzā Ḥājjī 312
ʿaqd (contracts) 336–337
Arab Socialist Renaissance Party (Ḥizb al-Baʿth al- ʿArabī l-Ishtirākī) 279–280
Arabic language 17, 92–94, 95–96, 99
Arberry, Arthur John 2–3, 5, 345
arbitration. mediation/arbitration
architecture, of Ṣūfī lodges 162–166
Ardabil 126, 166, 229, 269
Arghūn, Īlkhānid ruler 306, 307
Arslān-bāb (Bābā) 241
al-ʿArūsī, Aḥmad 220
asceticism (zuhd) 10, 13, 19, 28–29, 92, 201, 225, 294, 300, 316, 337, 341, 362–363
(aṣghar) jihād (lesser jihād) 117, 257, 315
aṣḥāb al-balad (masters of the city) 272
aṣḥāb al-nawba (people of the turn) 272
ʿAshīra Muḥammadiyya (Muḥammadan Clan) 356
ashrāf (noble descendants of the Prophet) 278, 350
asmāʾī orders 387
Asrār al-tawḥīd fī maqāmāt al-shaykh Abū Saʿīd (Muḥammad b. Munawwar) 107
assemblies (majlis) 19, 204, 299–300
āstānas, use of term 157–158
Atatürk, Muṣṭafā Kemāl 134, 152, 355
ʿAṭṭār, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn 396
authority
imitatio Muḥammadi 269, 274
Sharifian model of 268, 269
of Ṣūfī saints 267–273
ʿAwārif al-maʿārif (al-Suhrawardī) 116–117, 192, 193, 196, 208, 363, 367, 391
awliyāʾ Allāh (friends of God) 117, 189–190
Awrād al-aḥbāb wa-fuṣuṣ al-ādāb (Yaḥyā Bākharzī) 193
Awrangabad 82, 86, 158, 168
Awrangzeb, Mughal emperor 168, 317
al-ʿAydarūs family 379
ʿAyn Māḍī 133, 327
ʿAynī, Ṣadr al-Dīn 99
ʿayyār (class of warriors) 91–92
Ayyub Khan, Muhammad 284
Ayyūbid dynasty
patronage of Ṣūfī activities by 13, 32, 64, 85, 108, 161, 266, 386
relations between Ṣūfīs and sultans of 266 under specific rulers
Aʿẓam Shāh 168
Azerbaijan 126, 270, 323, 381, 391, 397, 398
Bā ʿAlawī 380
Bābā, Sīdī 203
Bābā Farīd 340, 355
Bābā Ilyās Khurāsānī 243, 244, 245, 259–260
Bābā Isḥāq 259–260
Bābā Kamāl Jandī 395
Bābā Palangpūsh 82, 86, 221, 317
Baba Selim Kaliçani 281–282
Bābā Ṭāhir ʿUryān 260
Bābā Tükles 242
Bābāʾī revolt 246, 249, 259–260
Bābāʾīs 259–260
Babakhanov family 279
Bābur, Abū l-Qāsim, Timūrid prince 308–309
Bābur, Mughal ruler 263
Badawiyya (Aḥmadiyya) 392, 393
Badr al-Dīn (Bedreddīn) 249
Baghdad 14, 37, 62–63, 64–65, 69, 83, 84, 92, 107, 116, 122, 132, 133, 148, 149, 158, 175–177, 190–193, 227, 241, 256, 257, 276, 292, 294, 295, 299, 300, 304, 336, 337, 344, 345, 347, 353, 364, 366, 370, 376, 379, 388–90, 399
al-Baghdādī, Mawlānā Khālid 133, 194–195, 397
Bahāʾ al-Dīn Naqshband 83, 153, 163, 164, 262, 297, 396
Bahāʾ al-Dīn Walad 297, 305, 310, 311
Bahāʾ al-Dīn Zakariyyāʾ Multānī 390, 391
Bākharzī, Sayf al-Dīn 262, 395
Bākharzī, Yaḥyā 193
l-Bakrī, ʿAlī 278
al-Bakrī, Muḥammad 36, 47, 278
al-Bakrī, Muṣṭafā 194
Bakriyya 36, 396, 398
Bālim Sulṭān 399
Balkans. under specific countries/regions
Balkh 42–43, 256, 294, 364
al-Balkhī, Shaqīq 257, 368
Balyānī, Amīn al-Dīn 85, 261
Bamba, Amadu 179, 209
banning
of Ṣūfī activities
in Albania 355
in China 136, 355
in Malaysia 69
in Saudi Arabia 151, 355
in Turkey 46, 48–49, 135, 152, 210, 234
in USSR 136, 152, 279, 355 state control
Bāqī bi-Llāh 126–127
Baqīʿ cemetery 151
baraka (blessings) 16, 17, 21, 59, 83–86, 117–119, 128, 129, 137, 150, 161, 187, 188, 190, 203, 211, 284, 339, 367–368, 374, 375, 401, 409
baraka bureaucracy 19, 256, 279–285
Bardhi, Baba Reshat 281–282
basant festival (spring festival) 87
al-Bashīr, ʿUmar 283
Basra 176, 241, 293, 362, 364
bathhouse workers 97, 99
bayʿa (oath of allegiance) 196, 204, 297, 326 337, 348–349, 367, 409
Baybars I, Mamlūk sultan 353
Baybars II al-Jāshnikīr, Mamlūk sultan 32, 221–222, 338
Bāyezīd II, Ottoman sultan 228, 265
Bayrāmiyya/Bayrāmiyye 22, 399–400
Baysunghur, Timūrid prince 42
Bayt al-Ḥikma 63
bazm (royal banquets) 299, 300, 311
Bedreddīn (Badr al-Dīn) 249
begging (suʾāl) 13, 29, 82, 89, 90, 167, 212, 222–223
begging bowls (kashkūls) 341, 342
Begtimur, Armanid ruler 304
behaviour, rules of. rules of conduct
Bektaş Veli, Hacı (Bektāsh, Ḥājjī) 35, 41, 122, 124, 125, 153, 243, 399
Bektāshiyya/Bektāşiyye
abolition of 35, 342
and akhī associations 208
establishment of 398
founder of. Bektaş Veli, Hacı
and Janissaries 35, 265, 317–318, 342, 399
organisational structure of 342
political influence of 35
re-establishment of 281–282
relations between sultans and 265
and Sayyid Ghāzī’s shrine 125
spiritual practices of 399
spread of 22, 123, 232
Ben Badis/Bin Bādīs 152
Bengal 40, 67, 389, 390, 400
Berke Khān 262
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali 284
Bible 337
Bidar 163, 163, 168
Bishr b. Ḥārith al-Ḥāfī 89
al-Bisṭāmī, Abū Yazīd 190, 297, 396
Black, Christopher 343
blessings (baraka) 16, 17, 21, 59, 83–86, 117–119, 128, 129, 137, 150, 161, 187, 188, 190, 203, 211, 284, 339, 367–368, 374, 375, 401, 409
Boko Haram 320
Bosnia-Herzegovina 15, 67, 69, 135, 228–229
Bouteflika, Abdelaziz 285
Braudel, Fernand 12
brothers (ikhwān) 94, 170 disciples/students/followers
Brown, Peter 189, 206
al-Budshīshī, Shaykh Ḥamza 408
Bukhara 35, 99, 153, 163, 164, 193, 242, 380, 396
Burhān al-Dīn Gharīb 82, 85, 264, 400
butchers 85, 96–98
Cairo
khānqāhs in 32, 33, 36, 85, 108, 232, 235, 266, 342, 399
as religious centre 149, 347, 353
shrine complexes in 41, 83, 120
veneration of Ṣūfī masters in 119, 220, 272
zāwiyas in 158, 194
cash waqf 62
Catholic Church 346
Caucasus 9, 19, 131, 277, 278, 316, 319–320, 327–328, 397
Çelebī, Pīr ʿĀdil 399
Çelebī, Pīr Ḥusayn 399
censorship (ḥisba) 258
Central Asia
anti-colonial resistance in 131, 317
relations between Ṣūfīs and sultans in 42, 65, 147, 255, 261–262, 267–268, 306
rural Sufism in 121, 241–243, 246
Ṣūfī orders from 394–398 under specific countries/cities, dynasties, Ṣūfī orders
centralisation, of Ṣūfī activities. see state control
Ceyhan, Semih 21–22, 385–401
Chaghatayids 261 under specific rulers
chains (silsilas). silsilas
chains of transmission (isnāds) 348, 367–368, 376
Chardin, Jean 1–2
charity. donations
al-Charkhī, Yaʿqūb 396
chief attendants (naqīb al-nuqabāʾ) 200
chief shaykhs (shaykh al-shuyūkh) 32, 64, 108, 266, 353, 357
chiefs (nuqabāʾ) 200–201, 273
Chih, Rachida 16–17, 187–212, 235
Chihil majlis (al-Simnānī) 307
China 5, 135, 136, 233, 270, 346, 351, 355, 376, 390, 395, 397 under specific regions, Ṣūfī orders
Chishtī, Mawdūd 265
al-Chishtī, Muʿīn al-Dīn 108, 122, 127, 148–149, 158, 299, 400
Chishtī Ṣābirīs 209, 284
Chishtiyya
branches of 400
establishment of 66, 107–108, 400
founder of. Chishtī, Muʿīn al-Dīn
political influence of 263–264
shrines of 148–149, 168
spread of 126–127, 400
views of, on donations 82
mention of 276
Chittick, William 7–8
chivalry (futuwwa). futuwwa
Chodkiewicz, Michel 189
Choudhury, Rishad 233
circle (daaira) 235
cities
Ṣūfī institutions in
impact of cities on 232–236
impact on cities of 228–230
impact on social fabric of 230–232
Sufism in 227
rural areas
clairvoyance (firāsa) 198, 255, 263, 311
classifications, of Ṣūfī orders 385–387
Clayer, Nathalie 6, 17–18, 227–236
cloak. khirqa
clothing
of ascetics 362–363
of futuwwa brotherhoods 94–95, 343
khirqa 21, 263, 298, 337, 339, 363–366
mending of 363
muraqqaʿa 363–366
of Ṣūfīs 364–366
treatises on 365–366
codes. rules of conduct
coffee consumption 18, 232–233
colonialism
Ṣūfī response to
in general 273, 318–319
in Algeria 277–278, 318, 326–327
in Caucasus 277, 319, 327–328
in Central Asia 317
in India 276
in Libya 275, 328, 382
in Mali 274, 325
against Ottoman Empire 275
in Senegal 282–283
and Sufism 67–68, 131, 134, 194, 256, 273–279
common believers (ʿāmma) 189
Companions (ṣaḥāba) 116, 187
companionship (ṣuḥba/ṣuḥbat) 17, 170, 188, 190, 192, 196, 204, 208, 362, 366, 392, 400
conduct, rules of. rules of conduct
Les confréries musulmanes du Hedjaz (Le Chatelier) 2
Les confréries religieuses musulmanes (Depont & Coppolani) 2, 273
conversions
to Islam 86, 146, 149, 242, 261, 262
to Sufism 138, 209, 309
Cook, David 19–20, 315–320
Cooley, Charles Horton 11
Coppolani, Xavier 2
Corbin, Henry 4
Cornell, Vincent 37, 39
Coşan, Esat 281
council of godly men (dīwān al-ṣāliḥūn) 272–273
council of the saints (dīwān al-awliyāʾ) 256, 272, 278–279, 297–298
countryside. rural areas
court advisers
Ṣūfīs as
in early period 303–306
in modern period 312
in post-Mongol period 306–312, 344–345 under specific Ṣūfī masters
craftsman. merchants/craftsman
crusades/crusaders 108, 316
cult of saints. Ṣūfī saints
customs (ʿādāt) 328
daaira (circle) 235
al-Dabbāgh, Abd al-ʿAzīz 272
al-Dāghestānī, ʿAbdallāh 138
dahiras (religious societies) 51–52
Dallas, Ian (Abdelqadir) 180
Damascus 43, 64, 65, 86, 109–110, 132, 133, 138, 150, 159, 178, 204, 232, 241, 266, 272, 276, 277, 280, 300, 304, 338, 342, 345, 353, 390, 391, 397, 399
Damāwandī, Muḥammad Ḥusayn Naṣr Allāh 312
l-Daqqāq, Abū ʿAlī 89, 197, 368–369
daras (estates) 51
dargāh (shrine complexes). Ṣūfī shrine complexes
Darqawiyya 180, 393
darvīsh (beggar), use of term 341
Darwīsh Āhū-pūsh 260
al-Dasūqī, Ibrāhīm 388, 392, 393
Dasūqiyya 392–393
Data Darbar (Lahore) 44–46
Dātā Ganj Bakhsh (al-Hujwīrī). al-Hujwīrī
Dāʾūdiyya branch 388
Dāya al-Rāzī, Najm al-Dīn 267, 395
Ḍayfa Khātūm 112
De Jong, Frederick 6, 47
death commemorations (ʿurs) 44, 86, 149, 170, 200, 339, 355
decline
in Ṣūfī lodges 130–132, 345
in Sufism 3, 195, 233–234, 406, 408, 410
deconstruction, concept of 2
dede (grandfather). Ṣūfī masters
Dede Garkın 243, 244, 245
Dedeköy 244
Delhi 82, 84, 86, 126–127, 132, 133, 168, 169, 263, 276, 390
Democratic Unionist Party (al-Ḥizb al-Ittiḥādi al-Dīmūqrāṭī) 356
Deobandi 16, 151, 410
Depont, Octave 2
deputies (muqaddam) 20, 187, 210, 347–350
dergāh (central shrine) 35, 137–138
Derrida, Jacques 2
dershanes (classrooms) 356
Dhakhīrat al-mulūk (Sayyid ʿAlī Hamadānī) 267
dhikr ceremonies (ḥaḍra) 170, 200, 210, 348, 351, 352, 354
dhikr/ ṭarīq al-khafī (silent ritual repetition) 387
Dhū l-Nūn al-Miṣrī 147, 190
digitalisation 408
Dingiray 325
disciple-master relationship
in general 187, 191, 195–199, 336
based on Qurʾān and Sunna 196–197
and love and trust of master 202–203
reciprocity in 204
and rules of conduct. rules of conduct
and serving the master 199–204
and shaykhs’ attitude 198
al-Sulamī on 368
disciples/students/followers (murīds) 207
in general 348–349
relationships of
with master. disciple-master relationship
with other disciples 205, 208
dispensations (rukhṣa/rukhaṣ) 193, 366
dīwān al-awliyāʾ (council of the saints) 256, 272, 278–279, 297–298
dīwān al-ṣāliḥūn (council of godly men) 272–273
Dīwān al-Waqf al-Sunnī (Iraq) 69
Dīwān-i ḥikmat (al-Yasawī) 241, 395
Diyanet (Turkey’s directorate of religious affairs) 49, 50
donations (futūḥ/fatḥ)
by artisan guilds 86
from non-Muslims 86–87
as part of rituals 82
refusal vs. acceptance of 81–83
for Ṣūfī lodges 35, 85, 167
for Ṣūfī shrines 85
Dudoignon, Stéphane A. 22, 405–412
Dungan revolt 317
al-Dūrī, ʿIzzat Ibrāhīm 69
Durkheim, Emile 11–12
Durocher, Maxime 228
duty to rebel 258
duwayra (small house). Ṣūfī lodges
education system, of Gülen movement 50
Egypt
relations between Ṣūfīs and sultans in 19, 38, 266, 311
rural saints in 44, 240
Ṣūfī activities in
forming of associations 235
state control of 47–48, 135, 153, 233, 278–279, 354
Ṣūfī institutions in
khānqāhs in 108–110
and political legitimisation 153
ribāṭs in 178–179, 345
zāwiyas in 114, 194, 202–203, 206, 207
Ṣūfī orders from 392–393
waqfs system in 13, 68 under dynasties, regions/cities, Ṣūfī orders
elite of the elite (khāṣṣat al-khāṣṣa) 189
enraptured by God (majdhūb) 31, 211–212
Ephrat, Daphna 15, 105–139
Erbakan, Necmettin 281
Ernst, Carl 8–9
Eşrefoğlū ʿAbdallāh Rūmī 124
Europe, Sufism in 50, 70, 138, 209, 234, 256, 280, 406, 407 under specific countries
Fakhr al-Dīn ʿAlī Kāshifī 308
Faqīh Rūḥ al-Dīn Rāmgardī 85
faqīr (impoverished) 221
al-Farāhīdī, al-Khalīl b. Aḥmad 174
Farīd al-Dīn Ganj-i Shakar 82, 87, 263, 400
Faridi, Shahidullah 284
Fāriẓiyya 388
Fatehpur Sikri 128, 168, 169
Fawāʾid al-fuʾād (Ḥasan Dihlavī) 263
felt hats (tājs) 341, 342
Fez 39, 133, 172, 258, 268, 269, 272
finances
of Ṣūfī institutions
in general 351–352
alms tax (zakāt) 167
begging 167
donations 35, 85, 167
patronage. patronage
waqfs 31–34, 35, 63–64, 119–120, 167, 221–222, 338, 352
firāsa (clairvoyance) 198, 255, 263, 311
Firdawsī 297
Firouzeh, Peyvand 15–16, 157–170
Firozabad 168
followers. disciples/students/followers
France
colonialism of
in general 2, 318–319
in Algeria 277–278
in Senegal 282–283, 326
in Sengambia 50–51 colonialism, Ṣūfī response to
Sufism in 137, 408
fraternity (ukhuwwa) 208, 212 futuwwa brotherhoods
friends of God (awliyāʾ Allāh) 17, 117, 189–190
frontier spirit 147, 174
Fuḍayl b. ʿIyāḍ 316
Fulani jihād 318, 324
Fulani people 274, 318, 324
fuqarāʾ (poor or ordinary Ṣūfīs) 59, 114, 191, 408–409
Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya (Ibn al-ʿArabī) 81
futūḥ/fatḥ (donations). donations
Futuvvat nāma (Najm al-Dīn Zarkūb) 96
futuwwa (chivalry)
books of 38, 95–98
brotherhoods/fraternities. futuwwa brotherhoods
definition of 91
origins of 91–92
progenitors of 96
Sufism and
in general 14, 37–38
and asceticism 92
introduction into 90–91, 219
and social urban fabric 231
three levels of 219–220, 223
futuwwa brotherhoods
in general 342–343, 358
and ʿAbbāsid dynasty 353
in Anatolia 13, 94–95, 208, 343
clothing of 94–95, 343
conditions for acceptance into 92
and crusaders 316
hierarchies within 92–93
initiations into 93–94, 343
in Iran 95, 343
persons excluded from 96–97
repression of 343
and Sufism 316
terms of address within 94
treatises on 38, 95–98, 343 akhī associations
futuwwat-nāma (treatises on futuwwa) 38, 95–98, 343
Gaborieau, Marc 6
Gabriel, Angel 98
Gambia, religious groups in. see under specific religious groups
gardens (rawḍa) 235
Gardet, Louis 6
Garkınī ṭarīqa 243
Gauharshād, Timūrid queen 42
Gāzurgāh 121, 163, 165
Geertz, Clifford 83–84
gender segregation 50
Geoffroy, Eric 8
ghawth (poles). quṭb/aqṭāb
Ghawthiyya branch 388
al-Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad 13, 18, 28, 29, 107, 170, 177, 201, 255–259, 267
Ghāzān Khān 261
Ghāzī Khusrev Beg 229
Ghāzī Muḥammad 277
Ghaznawī, Nūr al-Dīn Mubārak 390
ghazw (raids) 315 jihād
al-Ghazwānī, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdallāh 40, 269
al-Ghijduwānī, ʿAbd al-Khāliq 297, 395, 396
Ghulām ʿAlī 133
Gīsū Darāz, Sayyid Muḥammad 168
globalisation, of Sufism 50–53, 137, 209, 234, 407, 409
God, complete trust in 82, 89–90, 224
Green, Nile 9, 43
Gril, Denis 197
Guardamar 175
Guénon, René 4
guilds
in Bukhara 99
donations by 86
patronage of 85–86
treatise on 98–99 futuwwa; futuwwa brotherhoods; merchants/craftsman
Gulbarga 168
Gülen, Fethullah 50, 137
Gülen movement 50, 137
Gulzār-i abrār (Shaṭṭārī) 401
ḥabs/ḥubūs/aḥbās (pious endowments). waqfs
al-Ḥaddād, Abū Ḥafṣ 89, 190, 191, 294–295, 365
ḥadīths 3, 7, 63, 64, 89, 132, 133, 146, 175, 191, 192, 199, 202, 229, 256, 257, 259, 267, 284, 293, 296, 315, 337, 348, 367, 376, 408 isnāds
Ḥaḍramawt 379, 380
ḥaḍras (dhikr ceremonies) 170, 200, 210, 348, 351, 352, 354
al-Ḥāfiẓ, Muḥammad 209
Ḥafṣid dynasty 38, 116
Haji Jalaluddin 280
Ḥājjī Bayrām Walī 399, 400
Ḥājjī Bektāsh. Bektaş Veli, Hacı
Ḥakīm Ātā (Sulaymān Bāqirghānī) 242, 395
al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmidhī 147, 189–190, 191, 256
Hamadānī, Sayyid ʿAlī 95, 267, 395
al-Hamadānī, Yūsuf 241, 395, 396
Ḥamdūn Qaṣṣār 89, 90
Hamès, Constant 234
Ḥāmidiyya Shādhiliyya 356
Hammoudi, Abdallah 198–199, 203
Ḥamza, Shaykh 203
Ḥamza(t) Bek 277
al-Ḥanafī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad 40, 297, 311–312
Ḥarāfīsh 30
al-Harawī, ʿAbdallāh 219–220, 223
l-Ḥarīrī, ʿAlī 389
Ḥarīriyya 389
Hart, Kimberly 49
Hārūn al-Rashīd, Abbāsid caliph 316
al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī 362, 368, 369
Ḥasan Dihlavī 263
Ḥasan Jurī 86
Ḥasan Pasha 220
Ḥātim al-Aṣamm 364, 368
Haṭṭin, Battle of 316
Hausa people 318, 325
l-Ḥawārī, Aḥmad b. Abī 364
hayba (reverential fear) 198
Ḥaydar 269
Ḥaydariyya 30, 86, 212, 245–246
health care 247–248
Heidemann, Stefan 64
The heritage of Sufism (Lewisohn) 5
hermitage (ṣawmāʿa) 31, 157
al-Ḥifnāwī, Muḥammad 220
hijra (migration) 274–276, 318, 319
ḥimāyat (protection) system 39, 121–122
Hinduism 263
ḥisba (censorship) 258
Historiography (Knysh) 1
Ḥizb al-Baʿth al- ʿArabī l-Ishtirākī (Arab Socialist Renaissance Party) 279–280
al-Ḥizb al-Ittiḥādi al-Dīmūqrāṭī (Democratic Unionist Party) 356
Hoexter, Mariam 60, 61
Hofer, Nathan 11–12, 14, 16, 58–70, 174–180, 345
hospices 15, 64, 105, 106, 108, 150, 174, 176, 177, 179, 221
hospitality, at Ṣūfī lodges 194, 199, 202, 204, 206, 210, 231, 247
Hospitaller knights 316
Hüdāyī, ʿAzīz Maḥmūd 400
al-Hujwīrī (Dātā Ganj Bakhsh)
on begging 223
on branches of Sufism 369
on clothing 366, 367
on al-Nūrī 224
shrine of 44
mention of 265
Hülegü, Mongol ruler 65, 261
Ḥulvī/Ḥulwī 386
Humāyūn, Mughal emperor 128, 168
Ḥusayn Bāyqarā, Timūrid ruler 42, 43, 121, 165, 262
Ḥusayn Wāʿiẓ Kāshifī 94
Ḥusnāʾ 221
Ḥusniyya 341–342
Hussein, Saddam 68–69, 285
Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, Muḥammad 41, 132, 150–151, 355
Ibn al-ʿArabī, Muḥyī l-Dīn
on adab 296
books of 297
on donations 81
shrine of 43, 150
on silsilas 369
transmission of teachings of 231
Ibn al-ʿArīf 259
Ibn ʿAṭāʾ Allāh al-Iskandarī 266, 345, 394
Ibn ʿAṭāʾ Abū l-ʿAbbās 212
Ibn Barrajān 259
Ibn Baṭṭūṭa 37–38, 94, 114, 343
Ibn al-Fāriḍ 297
Ibn Ḥamdīn 258
Ibn Ḥanbal 363
Ibn Idrīs, Aḥmad 195, 274
Ibn al-Jawzī 29, 83
Ibn Jubayr 300
Ibn Karrām 161, 177
Ibn Kathīr 316
Ibn Khafīf 176, 365
Ibn al-Miʿmār 92–94, 95, 96
Ibn al-Mubārak 90, 175, 257, 296, 316
Ibn Munawwar 90, 118
Ibn Nadīm 368
Ibn Qasī 259
Ibn al-Qaysarānī (al-Maqdisī, Abū l-Faḍl) 366
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya 29, 41
Ibn Qunfudh, Aḥmad b. Ḥusayn 220
Ibn Taymiyya 29, 41, 150
Ibrāhīm al-Aʿzab 389
Ibrāhīm b. Adham
as ascetic-cum-warrior 106, 338
on earning living 90
legend of 256–257, 294
on muraqqaʿa 364
title of 297
mention of 316
Ibrāhīm al-Dasūqī 388, 392, 393
Ibrāhīm Zāhid al-Jīlānī 390–391, 397
Idrīs (biblical figure) 98
Idrīs, Muḥammad 275, 329, 382
Idrīs al-Fāsī, Aḥmad b. 133, 274, 381
Idrīsid dynasty 269, 275, 378–379
Idrīsiyya 381
Ifrīqiyya 82, 115, 116, 147, 178, 194, 257, 393 under specific dynasties; under specific Ṣūfī orders
Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn (al-Ghazālī) 28, 258
ijāza (licences) 347–348, 376, 394
ikhwān (brothers) 94, 170 disciples/students/followers
Ikhwān al-Muslimūn (Muslim Brotherhood) 46, 48, 152, 280, 355, 357
ʿilāj rūḥānī (spiritual healing) 203
Ilkhānid dynasty 165, 261, 306–307 under specific rulers
illiteracy 240, 247
Īltutmish, Shams al-Dīn 263
ʿImād al-Dīn ʿUmar 266
imarets (soup kitchens) 32, 33, 35, 38, 228
imitatio Muḥammadi 269, 274
impoverished (faqīr) 221
India
anti-colonial resistance/jihād in 276–277, 278, 317
British opposition to Sufism in 354–355
relations between Ṣūfīs and sultans in 263–265
Ṣūfī institutions in
khānqāhs in 107–108, 126, 127
political influence of 129
shrine complexes in 127, 129
Ṣūfī orders from/in
in general 126–127
overview 400–401
political influence of 263–264 under specific dynasties, regions/cities, Ṣūfī orders
Indonesia 19, 47, 148, 195, 234, 235, 256, 280–281, 379, 393, 397, 400
initiatory mantle (khirqa). khirqa
Īnjū dynasty 261
institutionalisation, of Sufism 66, 116, 192–193, 224–325
institutions, sociological theory of 11 Ṣūfī institutions
insurrections/revolts 246, 248–249, 259–260, 275, 327–328 jihād
Internal Rules for the Sufi orders (al-lāʾiḥa al-dākhiliyya lil-ṭuruq al-ṣūfiyya) 279
internet, Sufism and 407–412
Introduction au soufisme (Geoffroy) 8
An introduction to the history of Ṣūfism (Arberry) 5
Iqbāl, Jāvīd 45
Iqbāl, Muḥammad 45
Iran
futuwwa brotherhoods in 95, 343
relations between Ṣūfīs and sultans in 261
Ṣūfī institutions in 121, 126, 229
Ṣūfī orders from 394–398
Ṣūfī temporal sovereignty in 269–270 under specific dynasties, regions/cities, Ṣūfī orders
Iraq
Ṣūfī orders from 388–391
waqfs system in 68–69 under specific dynasties, regions/cities, Ṣūfī orders
ʿIrāqī, Fakhr al-Dīn 165, 391
ʿIsā Beg 229
ʿĪsāwiyya 346, 347
Isfahan 83, 241, 305
al-Iṣfahānī, Abū Nuʿaym 19, 296
Īshān Mengli 261
ishanate 271
Ishānism 151
Iskender, ʿAlī Dede 228
İskenderpaşa Mosque 48
Islam
conversions to 146, 242, 261
mysticism in. Islamic mysticism
reform in 3–4, 151, 324–326
ribāṭ-style 180
spread of 67, 146, 211, 229, 240–242, 257, 264–265
two-tier model of 37
Islamic law 218, 277
Islamic Law and Society (journal) 60
Islamic mysticism
definitions of 335
organisation of
in general 335–336
as debasement 335
disciple-master relationship. disciple-master relationship
futuwwa brotherhoods. futuwwa brotherhoods
itinerant brotherhoods 341–342, 358
lodges. Ṣūfī lodges
orders. Ṣūfī orders/networks/paths
studies on 335
Islamic mysticism: A short history (Knysh) 9–10
Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) 69–70
Islamisation 67, 146, 211, 229, 240–242, 257, 264–265 jihād
Ismāʿīl, Khedive 354
Ismāʿīl Ḥaqqī Bursavī 400
Ismāʿīl I, Ṣafavid ruler 126, 312, 324, 381
Ismāʿīl al-Inbābī 119
Ismāʿīl Khān 270, 271
Ismāʿīl Rūmī 124
isnāds (chains of transmission) 348, 367–368, 376
ʿiṣyān (rebellion). insurrections/revolts
Italy, colonialism of 275, 328–329, 382
īthār (preferring the other). selflessness
itinerant brotherhoods 20, 30, 211, 341–344, 358
al-Jabanyānī, Abū Isḥāq 257
Jadidism 151
al-Jaghbūb 229
Jahānabādī, Shāh Kalīm Allāh 82
Jahangir, Mughal emperor 310
Jalāl al-Dīn Ḥusayn Bukhārī 390
Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, Mawlānā 2, 122, 124, 125, 137, 153, 166, 167, 170, 231, 265, 297, 305, 344, 358, 399
Jalwatiyya/Celvetiyye 22, 399, 400
Jamāl Phatrī, Sayyid 389
Jāmī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān 43, 243, 268, 307
Jamʿiyyat al-ʿUlamāʾ al-Muslimīn (Ulamāʾ Association) 152
Janissary Corps (elite Ottoman troops) 19, 35, 265, 317–318, 342, 399
Javād Nūrbakhsh, Shaykh 7, 409, 410
Javānmard Qaṣṣāb 97–99
javānmardī (chivalry). futuwwa
Jawāmiʿ ādāb al-ṣūfiyya (al-Sulamī) 192
al-Jawhara al-muḍīʾah fī sulūk al-ṭālib wa-nuṣḥ al-barīya (Ibrāhīm al-Dasūqī) 393
Jaysh Rijāl al-Ṭarīqa al-Naqshbandiyya (Men of the Army of the Naqshbandiyya) 320
al-Jazūlī, Muḥammad 40, 116, 268–269, 346, 394
Jazūliyya Shādhiliyya 18, 149, 178, 247, 256, 268–269, 346, 347
Jerusalem 18, 108, 109, 110, 232, 342, 390, 391
al-Jibāwī, Saʿd al-Dīn 391
Jibrīl b. ʿUmar 274
jihād
of Abdelkader (Algeria) 277–278, 318, 326–327
of Aḥmad Barelwī (India) 276–277, 278
of Aḥmad al-Sharīf (Libya) 275, 328, 382
against crusaders 316
of Dan Fodio (Nigeria) 273–274, 318, 324–325
lesser vs. greater 257, 315
of Shāmil (Caucasus) 277, 278, 319–320, 327–328
Sufism and 257, 317–320
of Tall (Mali and Senegal) 274, 319, 325–326
types of 315–316
use of term 315 frontier spirit; insurrections/revolts
al-Jīlānī, ʿAbd al-Qādir 122, 158, 298
books of 389
Dan Fodio’s vision of 318
saintly eminence of 388
shrine of 69, 347, 389
worship of 148
mention of 369, 379
al-Jīlī, Jamāl al-Dīn 395
Jinnah, Ali 284
Job, biblical figure 98
Jong, Frederick de 6, 47
The Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient 60
journeying (rūḥānī) 387
al-Junayd, Abū l-Qāsim
on Abū Ḥafṣ al-Ḥaddād 191, 294–295
and disciple-master relationship 316
eight rules of 177
on political life 256
on serving kings 310–311
mention of 37
Junayd b. Ibrāhīm Ṣafawī 269, 324, 397
jurisdiction (wilāya) 265
Juybārī family 380
Jūzjānī, Minhāj-i Sirāj 263
Kabbani, Hisham 138
Ḳāḍīzādelī movement 62
al-Kalābādhī, Abū Bakr 365
Kamāl al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān 261
Karamustafa, Ahmet 37, 227
Karrāmiyya 31, 63, 106, 161, 177, 191, 365
Kart dynasty 261
Kāsānī Dahbidī, Aḥmad (Makhdūm-i Aʿẓam) 19, 194, 268, 309
Kashf al-maḥjūb (al-Hujwīrī) 44, 366
Kashgar 271, 323, 351
al-Kāshifī, ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn al-Wāʿiẓ 262, 267–268
Kāshifī Sabzawārī 96
kashkūls (begging bowls) 341, 342
Kasnazān, ʿAbd al-Karīm Shāhī 285
Kasnazāniyya 284–285
Kay Khusraw II, Saljūq sultan 243
Kayqubād I, Saljūq ruler 243, 305
Kazakhstan 121, 165, 241–242
al-Kāzarūnī, Abū Isḥāq 176, 191, 257, 261
al-Kāzarūnī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn 119
khādim (superintendents) 20, 170, 199–200, 203, 339, 340, 347
Khāksārs 99, 317
al-khalʿa (robe of honour) 298
khalīfa (divine lieutenancy on earth) 297, 311
Khalīl Būrghāzī 96
Khalīlullāh, Shāh 162–163, 163, 168
khalwa/khalwat (seclusion) 230, 328, 389, 398
al-Khalwatī, ʿUmar 398
Khalwatiyya/Halvetiyye
as asmāʾī order 387
branches of 398
chiefs of 200–201
establishment of 398
founder of. al-Khalwatī, ʿUmar
organisation of 36
relations between sultans and 130, 265–266
rules of conduct of 201
spiritual practices of 398, 400
spread of 123, 194, 312, 394, 398
superintendents of 200
mention of 86, 194
Khāmūsh, Niẓām al-Dīn 396
Khan, Hussain Ahmad 14, 81–87
Khan, Nusrat Fateh Ali 47
Khānqāh al-Farāfra 111, 112
Khānqāh al-Farāfra (Aleppo) 111, 112
khānqāhs/khānaqāhs (Ṣūfī lodges)
in Egypt 108–110
establishment of 106, 338
feeding of poor by 33
finances of. finances
functions of 112–113
in India 107–108, 126, 127
institutional structure of 113
practice of majlis in 299
prayer practices at 32–33
rules of conduct for. rules of conduct
spread of 107–112
use of term 157–158, 370 Ṣūfī lodges (in general)
al-Kharkūshī, Abu Saʿd (or Saʿīd) ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad 294, 363, 365
al-Kharrāz, Abū Saʿīd 89, 208, 225
khāṣṣa (spiritual elite) 189
Khatmiyya 133, 283, 356
al-Khawwāṣ, Ibrāhīm 368
Khazīnī 268
khidma (service) 17, 188, 199–204, 206, 210, 222, 224, 296
Khiḍr, Qurʾānic figure 146, 348
khilaʿ (robe of honour) 337
khilāfa (Prophet’s legacy) 297
khirqa (initiatory mantle transmitted from master to disciple) 21, 263, 298, 337, 339, 343, 363–369
Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich 136
khulafāʾ (master’s deputies) 21, 200, 385, 401
Khuldabad 168, 229, 264
al-Khuldī, Jaʿfar 368
Khurāsān 106–107, 339
Khusraw II, shah of Iran 243
al-Khwāfī, Zayn al-Dīn 390
khwāja, use of term 297
Khwāja ʿAbdallāh Anṣārī 17, 42, 81, 121, 165, 209, 260, 297
Khwāja Āfāq 270, 271, 322, 323, 329, 351
Khwāja ʿAlī 269, 397, 399
khwājagān 91, 242, 262, 297, 322, 395, 396
Khwājagān path 396
Khwājas/Khojas 129–130, 262, 322, 351
Khwārazm Shāh, Alāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad 304
Kīmiyā-yi saʿādat (al-Ghazālī) 258, 267
al-Kirmānī, Awḥad al-Dīn 390
Kirmānī, Shāh Shujāʿ 91
Kırşehir 95, 122, 124, 125
Kitāb adab al-mulūk fī bayān ḥaqāʾiq al-taṣawwuf (anon.) 295–296
Kitāb ādāb al-ṣuḥba (al-Sulamī) 192, 294
Kitāb al-bayāḍ wa-l-sawād (al-Sīrjānī) 366
Kitāb al-futuwwa (Ibn al-Miʿmār) 92–94, 95
Kitāb al-futuwwa (al-Sulamī) 90–91, 219
Kitāb al-jihād (ʿAbdallāh b. al-Mubārak) 257
Kitāb khalʿ al-naʿlayn (Ibn Qasī) 259
Kitāb lubs al-muraqqaʿāt ( Ibn Khafīf) 365
Kitāb al-tadbirāt al-ilāhiyya fī iṣlāḥ al-mamlaka al-insāniyya (Ibn al-ʿArabī) 297
Kitāb tahdhīb al-asrār (al-Kharkūshī) 294
Kızılbāş/Qizilbāsh 270, 323–324, 342, 398
Knysh, Alexander 9–10
Köksal, M. Fatih 96
kolkhoz system 279
Komuniteti Bektashian Kryegjyshata Botërore Bektashiane (Bektashi Community–World Bektashi Chief Grandfather Centre) 281–282
Konya 35, 122, 124, 125, 153, 166, 167, 170, 232, 265, 347, 399
Kosovo 135–136, 282
Kotku, Mehmed Zahid 49, 281
Kubrā, Najm al-Dīn 262, 395
Kubrawiyya 66, 395, 396
Kufa 241, 362
Kuftārū, Aḥmad 280
al-Kuntī, Sīdī Mukhtār b. Aḥmad 389
Kurdistan 19, 256, 275–276, 284
Lacombe, Olivier 6
Lahore 44–46, 87
al-lāʾiḥa al-dākhiliyya lil-ṭuruq al-ṣūfiyya (Internal Rules for the Sufi orders) 279
Lālā, ʿAlī 395
al-Lamaṭī, Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak 272
Lane, E. W. 342
law, Ḥanbalī school of 29, 307
Le Chatelier, Alfred 2
Lemeẓāt (Ḥulvī) 386
Lewisohn, Leonard 5
Libya
anti-colonial resistance/jihād in 20, 275, 328, 382
unification of 329, 382 under specific dynasties, regions/cities, Ṣūfī orders
licences (ijāza) 347–348, 376, 394
Little Senegal (New York City) 52
lodge-tomb complexes. Ṣūfī shrine complexes
al-Lumaʿ fī l-taṣawwuf (al-Sarrāj) 190–191, 365
Māʾ al-ʿAynayn 319
Mā rawā-hu al-asāṭīn fī ʿada al-majīʾ ilā l-salāṭīn (al-Suyūṭī) 267
Macedonia 135, 282
Madagh 209–210
al-Madanī, Muḥammad Ẓāfir 393
Maʿdhūriyya 341–342
madrasas
and internet 410
state patronage of 165, 177
and Ṣūfī lodges 107, 109, 112, 113, 122, 158, 163, 165, 230, 370
use of term 158
waqfs for 31, 45, 63–64
Maghrib 14, 16, 18, 37, 38, 65, 115, 133, 145, 147, 149, 178, 179, 204, 232, 249, 255, 258, 269, 274, 326, 378–380, 393, 396, 405 North Africa
Māhān 166
Maḥāsin al-majālis (Ibn al-ʿArīf) 259
Mahdism 178, 248–249, 258, 274
Mahdiyya. Anṣār/Mahdiyya
Maḥmūd II, Ottoman sultan 35, 68, 276, 399
Majd al-Dīn Baghdādī 395
majdhūb (enraptured by God) 31, 211–212
majlis (assemblies) 19, 204, 299–300
al-Majlis al-Āʿlā lil-Ṭuruq al-Ṣūfiyya (Supreme council of Sufi orders) 135, 354
Majlis al-Qawmī lil-Dhikr wa-l-Dhākirīn (National assembly of remembrance and those who remember) 283
Majlis al-Ṣūfī (Sufi Council) 21, 354, 358
Maktūbāt (al-Sirhindī) 397
Malāmatiyya/Melāmīs 90–91, 227, 233, 341, 365
Malaysia 69, 393, 397
Maldives 67
Malfūẓāt-i Naqshbandiyya 82, 317
Mali 46, 153, 229, 235, 274, 325, 379
Mālik b. Dīnār 362
Malik Ḥusayn 262
Malik Zayn al-Dīn 264
Mamlūk dynasty 16, 30, 33, 38, 62, 65, 111, 112, 148, 165, 240, 266, 292, 311, 345, 353, 386 under specific rulers
al-Maʾmūn, Abbāsid caliph 62–63, 92, 293
Manāqib al-ʿārifīn (Aflākī) 94–95
Manbaʿ al-abḥār fī riyāḍ al-abrār (Khazīnī) 268
Manṣūr al-Baṭāʾiḥī 389
Manṣūr al-Ḥallāj 303
Mantaz 120
maqāms. Ṣūfī shrine complexes; Ṣūfī shrines
Maqdīsh, Maḥmūd 273
al-Maqdisī, Abū l-Faḍl (Ibn al-Qaysarānī) 366
maraboutism (miuridizm) 149, 278
Marabouts et khouan (Rinn) 2
Maratha rulers/nobility 86
Marīnid dynasty 38, 65, 116, 147, 249, 268–269 under specific rulers
marriage 51, 52, 190, 197, 338–339, 350, 352
Marsy, François-Marie de 2
Maryamiyya 138
Mashhad 42, 146
mashhads 146
Masjid Touba (New York City) 52
Maṣmūda Berbers 178
Massignon, Louis 5
master’s deputies (khulafāʾ) 21, 200, 385, 401
Mathnavī-yi maʿnavī (Rūmī) 2, 230–231
Mauritania 51, 209, 229, 234, 319, 394
mausoleums. Ṣūfī shrines
Mauss, Marcel 264
Maussian gift obligations 264
Mawlānā Khālid al-Baghdādī 275, 276
Mawlānā Nāṣirī Siwāsī 95, 96–97
Mawlawiyya/Mevleviyye
establishment of 123, 398
as musammā order 387
relations between sultans and 130, 265
spiritual practices of 399
spread of 22, 347, 399
tekkes of 66, 137, 158
Mawlāy Idrīs 272
Mawlāy Sulaymān, Moroccan sultan 133
mawlids (saints’ birthdays) 44, 47, 60, 119, 148, 187, 207, 210, 220, 339, 351, 352, 389, 392, 394
Mayeur-Jaouen, Catherine 16, 145–153, 205
al-Mayūrqī, Abū Bakr 259
mazārs (shrines). Ṣūfī shrines
McGregor, Richard 17, 218–225
meals, preparing and serving of 201–202
Mecca 15, 28, 42, 43, 60, 108, 117, 132–133, 149, 176, 178, 219, 274, 325
Meclis-i Meşāyiḥ (Council of Shaykhs) 354
mediation/arbitration 39, 84, 190, 205–206, 262, 311–312, 340
Medina 28, 116, 151, 219, 277, 283, 363, 389, 400
Meḥmed ʿAlī, Ottoman governor 36, 47
Meḥmed II, Ottoman sultan 42, 66, 400
Meier, Fritz 10
merchants/craftsman
futuwwa and 37–38, 91–95 guilds
metaphors of royalty
in general 292–293
in Christianity 293
in Islam 293
in Judaism 293
in Sufism
and adab 294–298
and royal banquets 299–300, 311
Mevlānā. Rūmī, Jalāl al-Dīn
Mevlana Museum 170
Mevleviyye/Mevlevī
central authority of 347
endowments made to 35
naming of 344
new organisational forms within 356
mention of 319
migration (hijra) 274–276, 318, 319
Mīhana/Mīhna (Khurasan) 191, 339
Milli Selamet Partisi (National Salvation Party) 281
Ministry of Awqāf
in Egypt 47–48, 278–279
in Pakistan 44–45
al-Mīrghanī, Abdallāh al-Maḥjūb 133
al-Mīrghānī, Muḥammad ʿUthmān 283
Mīrghaniyya 133
mirrors for princes 267–268, 309
Mirṣād al-ʿibād min al-mabdaʾ ilā l-maʿād (Dāya al-Rāzī) 267
miuridizm (maraboutism) 149, 278
“Le modèle prophétique du maître spirituel en islam” (Gril) 197
modernity, and Sufism 134–136 new media
Molé, Marijan 6
monastic orders 346
Morocco
intertribal arbitration by shaykhs in 205
revival of Sufism in 138
Ṣūfī institutions in
political influence of 18, 129, 133, 134, 205, 209, 355
and political legitimisation 38, 69, 153
ribāṭs in 39, 64, 115, 147
shrine complexes in 118–119
zāwiyas in 17, 40, 65, 115–116
Ṣūfī shaykhs as local rulers in 34, 129, 340
Ṣūfī temporal sovereignty in 268–269
waqfs system in 69, 355 under specific dynasties, regions/cities, Ṣūfī orders
al-Mubārak, ʿAbdallāh b. 90, 175, 257, 296, 316
Mughal Empire 40, 122, 127–129, 131, 149, 317 under specific rulers
Muḥammad, Prophet
cult of relics of 150
descendants of 350, 375, 379, 380
mending of clothes by 363 ḥadīths
Muḥammad ʿAbdallāh Ḥasan 319
Muḥammad ʿAlī Pasha 278, 354
Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh 283
Muḥammad b. ʿAlī l-Idrīsī 275
Muḥammad b. Munawwar 107
Muḥammad b. Wāsiʿ 296
Muḥammad Bashārā 60
Muḥammad Bello 274, 325
Muḥammad al-Ḥājjī 340
Muḥammad al-Ḥanafī 40, 297, 311
Muḥammad al-Mahdī 275, 382
Muḥammad Mallāwah 263–264
Muḥammad Tughluq 83–84
Muḥammad Yār 86–87
Muḥammadan way (al-ṭarīqa al-muḥammadiyya) 268, 269, 271, 274
Muḥammadiyya Shādhiliyya 46, 356
al-Muḥāsibī 364
muḥibb (admirers) 20, 348–349
Muḥriz b. Khalaf 257–258
Muḥyī l-Dīn 326
Muʿīn al-Dīn Chishtī 108, 122, 127, 148–149, 158, 299, 400
Mujaddidiyya 66, 127, 133, 276, 396–397
founder of. Sirhindī, Aḥmad
al-mulūkiyya al-ṣūfiyya (the royalty of Ṣūfīs) 295
Munya bt. Maymūn 118–119
muqaddams (deputies) 20, 187, 210, 347–350
al-Muqaddasī 146, 161
al-Murābiṭ 178, 258–259
murābiṭūn (pious warriors) 62, 149, 175, 180, 340, 410
Murād I, Ottoman sultan 35
muraqqaʿa (patched frock) 21, 337, 363–366
murīd (disciple). disciples/students/followers
Murīdiyya
establishment of 50–51
estates of 51
founder of. Aḥmadu Bàmba Mbàkke
hospices of 179
political influence of 282–283
religious societies of 51–52
spread of 51
and urbanisation 229
in USA 52–53
use of internet by 408, 409
and Wolof ethnic group 209
murīds (disciples, students) 20, 93, 170, 195, 196, 209, 259, 278, 322, 328, 329, 335–337, 348–349, 357, 409, 410
murīdūn revolt 259–260
al-Mursī, Abū l-ʿAbbās 266, 393
musammā orders 387
Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwān al-Muslimūn) 46, 48, 152, 280, 355, 357
Muṣṭafā al-Bakrī 194
Musta’in Romly 280–281
al-Mustanṣir II, Abbāsid caliph 353
muṭahharan (ritual purity) 197
mutashābihūn (imitators) 344
mutaṭawwiʿa (volunteer fighters) 338–339
mutṭawiʿūn (volunteers) 316
Muwāḥḥid dynasty 120, 147, 259
Mystical dimensions of Islam (Schimmel) 4–5
mysticism. Islamic mysticism
The mystics of Islam (Nicholson) 2
Mystique musulmane (Anawati & Gardet) 6
Les mystiques musulmans (Molé) 6
myths 98, 245, 348
Nadwat al-ʿUlamāʾ 280
nafsānī journeying 387
Nāgawrī, Ḥamīd al-Dīn 390
Nahdlatul Ulama (Awakening of Scholars) 280–281
Naʾīn, Ṣafāʾ al-Salṭanah ʿAlī Khān 312
NAIT (North American Islamic Trust) 69–70
Najīb al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Buzghush (d. 678/1280) 390
Najm al-Dīn Rāzī 198, 395
Najm al-Dīn Zarkūb 94, 95, 96
al-Nakhshabī, Abū Turāb 364
naqīb al-nuqabāʾ (chief attendants) 200
Naqshband, Bahāʾ al-Dīn 83, 153, 163, 164, 262, 297, 396
Naqshbandiyya
banning of 48–49
branches of 396–397
establishment of 396
founder of. Naqshband, Bahāʾ al-Dīn
and jihād 317
lineage of 386
and modernity 134–135
as musammā order 387
political influence of 35, 262, 308–309
protection system of 121–122, 206, 242–243
rural Sufism of 242–243
spiritual practices of 397
spread of 123–124, 126–127, 242, 263, 396–397
succession in 380–381
and al-Yasawī’s legacy 241 Khwājas/Khojas; under specific branches
Naqshbandiyya Āfāqiyya 270–271, 397
Naqshbandiyya Haqqaniyya 138
Naqshbandiyya Isḥāqiyya 270
Naqshbandiyya Khālidiyya 133, 194–195, 275, 277, 319, 347, 397
Naqshbandiyya Khālidiyya Ḥaqqāniyya 408, 409
Naqshbandiyya Kuftāriyya 280
Naqshbandiyya Mujaddidiyya 66, 127, 133, 276, 396–397
nasab (hereditary lineage)
definitions of 374–375
importance of 375
vs. silsilas 378–381
use of term 374
al-Naṣīḥa al-kāfiya (Zarrūq) 268
Naṣīḥat al-mulūk (al-Ghazālī) 267
al-Nāṣir al-Dīn Allāh, ʿAbbāsid caliph 192, 304
Nāṣir al-Dīn Awrān/Evren 94–95
al-Nāṣir Faraj b. Barqūq 311
al-Nāṣir li-Dīn Allāh, ʿAbbāsid caliph 38, 92, 95, 192, 345, 353, 369
al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Qalāwūn 32
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein 4
al-Naṣrabādhī 197, 368, 369
National assembly of remembrance and those who remember (Majlis al-Qawmī lil-Dhikr wa-l-Dhākirīn) 283
nationalisation, of Ṣūfī actvities. state control
nationalism, and Sufism 284
Nawrūz Rūmī 98
Nazım Kıbrısı, Shaykh 7, 138, 409
Neoplatonism 2, 28, 223
neo-Sufism 69, 271, 410–411
neo-tarikats 49
New Age religiosity/spirituality 138, 234
new media
Sufism and
in general 47, 49, 405–406
internet 407–412
social media/networks 408–409
and social-industrial legacies 406–407
new technologies, Sufism and 132
Niasse, Ibrāhīm 282
Nicholson, Reynold Alleyne 2
Nigeria 229, 273–274, 283, 318, 320, 324–325 under specific Ṣūfī orders
Niʿmatullāh Walī, Shāh 163, 166, 168, 170
Niʿmatullāhiyya 5, 22, 86, 170, 407–410, 412
Nīshāpūr 37, 42, 64, 89, 147, 176, 190–192, 241, 365, 370
al-Nishāpūrī, Abū Ḥafṣ al-Ḥaddād 90, 190, 191, 264, 295, 365
Niẓām al-Dīn Awliyāʾ 82, 83–84, 85, 127–128, 168, 169, 199, 264, 400
Niẓām al-Dīn Maḥmūd 261
Niẓām al-Mulk 165, 260, 292, 303–304
Niẓāmī Bākharzī 307
nomadic societies 27, 130, 229, 239–243, 245–246, 318
non-conformism 248–249
non-Muslims, donations by 86–87
North Africa
ribāṭs in 31, 147, 178
Ṣūfī orders from 393–394 under specific dynasties, countries/cities, Ṣūfī orders
North American Islamic Trust (NAIT) 69–70
Nouakchott 234
Nubia 147
nudhūr (donations). donations
nuqabāʾ (chiefs) 200–201, 273
Nūr al-Dīn al-Iṣfahānī 120
Nūr al-Dīn Zāde 265–266
Nūr al-Dīn Zangī 64, 111, 266
Nūrbakhsh, Javād 7, 410
al-Nūrī, Abū l-Ḥusayn 17, 223, 224, 364
Nur/Nurcu (light) movement 21, 48, 134–135, 137, 234, 356
Nursi, Said 48, 50, 134–135, 234, 356
oath of allegiance (bayʿa) 196, 204, 297, 326, 327, 337, 348–349, 367, 409
O’Brien, Cruise 51
Ocak, Ahmet Yaşar 18, 239–249
Ohlander, Erik 346
Opus Dei 346
oral cultures 243, 245
Les ordres mystiques dans l’islam (eds. Popovic & Veinstein) 6–7
Orientalist/Orientalism 1–2, 4, 261
Otmān Bābā 265
Ottoman dynasty
and futuwwa 38, 85
and futuwwa brotherhoods 343
and Janissaries/Bektāshiyya 19, 35, 316, 319, 342, 399
relations between Ṣūfīs and sultans in 265–266
and Ṣūfī activities
patronage of 123–124, 125–126, 150, 228, 229, 248
state control of 36, 130–131, 233, 278, 354
waqfs system in 33, 47, 58, 62, 68, 353
Özal, Korkut 281
Özal, Turgut 281
Özbek Khān 242
pact (ʿahd) 195–196, 204, 208, 211, 297, 308, 337
Pakistan 8, 14, 19, 44–45, 69, 137, 153, 195, 200, 209, 256, 284, 320
Papas, Alexandre 1–22, 18–19, 225, 234, 255–286, 381
Pārsā, Muḥammad 396
Partai Politik Tarekat Islam 280
Patrizi, Luca 19, 292–301
patronage
of artisan guilds 85–86
of madrasas 165
of relics 69
of Ṣūfī activities
in general 42–43, 64–65, 167–168, 353
by ʿAbbāsid dynasty 345, 369
by Ayyūbid dynasty 32, 85, 108, 266
of Mamlūk dynasty 30
by Mughal Empire 127–128
by Ottoman dynasty 123–124, 125–126, 150, 228
by ruling elite 113
by Saljūq dynasty 38–39, 64, 107, 167–168
by Timūrid dynasty 42–43, 121
sytem of, of Naqshbandiyya 121–122, 206
Paul, Jürgen 39
peanut farming 50, 51, 282
people of the turn (aṣḥāb al-nawba) 272
Persatuan Tarbiyah Islamiyah (Union for Islamic Education) 280
Persian language 14, 17, 30, 95–99, 220, 221, 263, 297
pilgrimages (siyāḥa) 208 Ṣūfī shrine complexes
Pinto, Paulo 15, 105–139
pious endowments. waqfs
pious warriors (murābiṭūn) 62, 149, 175, 340
pīr (founding figure). Ṣūfī masters; under specific Ṣūfī orders
Pīr Maʿbar Kʾhandāʾit 264
Pīr Shāh Dawla 389
poles (quṭb) 193, 272, 298, 388, 409
political influence
of Ṣūfī masters 129–130, 187, 193–194, 262, 303–312, 322
of Ṣūfī orders 30, 34–36, 129–130, 262, 263–264, 270, 282–283, 308–309
political legitimisation
Ṣūfī masters and 260, 262
Ṣūfī shrines used for 153
waqfs used for 59, 64, 136
poor, the 13, 17, 29, 30, 32, 33, 40, 45, 51, 59, 105, 107, 115, 125, 157, 162, 170, 191, 202, 208, 220–221, 224, 235, 240, 349, 362
Popovic, Alexandre 6–7
poverty/wealth 13, 27, 28–30
printing 18, 134, 233, 406
protection (ḥimāyat) system 39, 121–122
proto-Ṣūfīs 316, 336, 362–363
psychological Sufism 410
al-Qādir, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAbd 388
Qādiriyya Būdshīshiyya 17, 200, 203, 209–210, 408, 410
Qādiriyya/Qādiriyye
as asmāʾī order 387
central authority of 347
establishment of 387
founder of. al-Jīlānī, ʿAbd al-Qādir
and jihād 325
naming of 344
spiritual practices of 389
spread of 124, 126, 379, 388–389
succession in 379
mention of 276, 277, 280, 319, 326 under specifc branches
Qājār, Muḥammad, Shāh of Persia 312
Qājār, Nāṣir al-Dīn, Shāh of Persia 312
qalandar (uncouth), use of term 341
Qalandars
Karamustafa on 37
and patronage 30
popularity of 342
and Saljūq dynasty 260
support for 245–246
way of life of 20, 30, 96, 212, 341–342, 358, 399
Qarakhānid dynasty 241
Qaramānids 124
Qaṣīda al-rāʾiyya (Abū Madyan al-Shuʿayb) 296
Qāytbāy, Mamlūk sultan 149
al-Qināʾī, ʿAbd al-Raḥīm 178–179
qiyām (revolt). insurrections/revolts
Qizilbāsh/Kızılbāş 270, 323–324, 342, 398
qubbas. Ṣūfī shrine complexes
al-Qubruṣī, Nāẓim 7, 138, 409
Qurʾān
2:263–64 219
2:271 219
2:274 219
3:104 258, 316
3:110 316
7:26 363–364
8:11 309
10:62–5 189
12:53 315
25:12 266
25:52 315
35:32 189
49:1–5 196
53:33 197
59:9 224
106 201
112 201
digital versions of 408
on selflessness 219
Quraysh 375
al-Qushayrī, Abū l-Qāsim
books by 81, 91, 192, 195, 197, 316, 336, 365
on clothing 365
as court advisers 303–304
on l-Daqqāq 197
on l-Daqqāq 368–369
on royalty of Ṣūfīs 296
teaching of Sufism by 17, 64, 107
quṭb/aqṭāb (poles) 193, 272, 298, 388, 409
Qutlugh Khān 264
Rabbani, Wahid Bakhsh Sial 284
Raḍwān, Shaykh 206, 207
Rāghib, Yūsuf 148
Ragrāga 147
Ramla 176
Ranjit Singh, maharaja 86–87
Rasāʾil Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ 293–294
Rashaḥāt ʿayn al-ḥayāt (al-Kāshifī) 262
rawḍa (gardens) 235
rebel, duty to 258
rebellions. insurrections/revolts
Refah Partisi (Welfare Party) 281
reform
in Islam 3–4, 151, 324–326
Sufism and 47, 132–133, 233, 351, 354 bureaucratisation; institutionalisation
religious practices. spiritual practices
religious societies (dahiras) 51–52
retirement (ʿuzla) 223
reverential fear (hayba) 198
revolts. insurrections/revolts
Ribāṭ al-Baghdādiyya (Cairo) 33
Ribāt al-Maʾmūniyya (Bagdad) 304
Ribāṭ Nakūr (Nakūr) 115
Ribāṭ Shākir (of Maṣmūda Berbers) 118–119, 178
Ribāṭ Tīṭ-n-Fiṭr (of Ṣanhāja Berbers) 178
Ribāṭ Zawjat Ināl 221
ribāṭs ([Ṣūfī] outposts)
at ʿAbbādān 106, 175
in Baghdad 177
early history of 175–177
in Egypt 178–179
establishment of 106, 147, 338
functions of 113
at Guardamar 175
in the Maghrib 178–179
in Morocco 115
in Ramla 176
rules of conduct for. rules of conduct
spread of 177–179
in sub-Saharan Africa 179
al-Suhrawardī on 117
use of term 157–158, 174–175, 338, 370
in West Africa 179–180
for women 33–34, 221, 349 Ṣūfī lodges
al-Rifāʿī, Aḥmad 388, 389
Rifāʿiyya
establishment of 389
lack of central authority of 347
spiritual practices of 390
spread of 22, 130, 210, 389–390, 392–393
mention of 86, 319
Rinn, Louis 2
Risāla (al-Qushayrī) 81, 192, 195, 197, 316, 365
Risāla-yi ādāb al-ṣiddīqīn (Kāsānī Dahbidī) 194
Risāla-yi tanbīh al-salaṭīn (Kāsānī Dahbidī) 309
Risale-i nur külliyatı (Nursi) 134–135
ritual purity (muṭahharan) 197
rituals
of Badawiyya (Aḥmadiyya) 205
donations as part of 82
at Ṣūfī shrines
in general 149
criticism on 151 Ṣūfī festivals
rosaries (tasbīhs) 341
Ross, Eric 229
royal banquets 299–300, 311
rūḥānī (journeying) 387
rukhṣa/rukhaṣ (dispensations) 193, 366
Rukn al-Dīn, Shaykh 83–84
Rukn al-Dīn al-Sujāsī 390
rules of conduct (ādāb)
in general 106–107, 177, 187–188
based on Qurʾān and Sunna 196–197
codification of 192
importance of 190–192
and metaphor of royalty 294–298
for novices 116–117
Rūmī, Eşrefoğlū ʿAbdallāh 124
Rūmī, Jalāl al-Dīn (Mevlānā)
poetry of 137, 230–231
on relationship Ṣūfīs and rulers 305–306
shrine of 125, 153, 166, 167
tekke of 170, 358
mention of 2, 122, 124, 265, 297, 344, 399
rural areas
illiteracy in 240
Ṣūfī institutions in, functions of 246–248
Sufism in
in general 39–40, 239–241
Naqshbandiyya 242–243
and nomadic tribes 243, 245–246
non-conformist dimension of 248–249
sources on 240
Wafāʾiyya 243
Yasawiyya 241–242 cities
Russia 4, 131, 151, 273, 277, 319, 327, 406 Soviet Union
Sabra, Adam 13–14, 27–53
al-Sabtī, Abū l-ʿAbbās 224
Sabzevar 86
ṣadaqa (alms) 81, 218, 219
Saʿdī dynasty 34
Saʿdiyya 391–392
Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Ardabīlī 269, 323
Ṣadr al-Dīn Ibrāhīm Ḥammūya 261
Ṣadr al-Dīn Shāh 87
SADUM (Spiritual Directory of the Muslims of Central Asia) 279
Ṣafavid dynasty
founding of 34, 126
relations between Ṣūfīs and 269–270
repression of futuwwa brotherhoods by 343
and Ṣafaviyya 323–324, 381 under specific rulers
Ṣafaviyya
establishment of 126
founder of. Ṣafī l-Dīn al-Ardabīlī
leadership of 269
and Ṣafavid dynasty 323–324, 381
spread of 397
temporal sovereignty of 269–270
Ṣafī l-Dīn al-Ardabīlī 126, 166, 229, 269, 323, 381, 397
Ṣafwat al-taṣawwuf (al-Maqdisī) 366
ṣaḥāba (Companions) 116, 187
sāḥas (zāwiyas in Upper Egypt) 202–203, 206
Said, Kurdish Khālidī Shaykh 48
Saʿīd al-Suʿadāʾ/Ṣalāḥiyya (Cairo) 32, 85, 108, 266
saints’ birthdays (mawlids) 44, 47, 60, 119, 148, 187, 207, 210, 220, 339, 351, 352, 389, 392, 394
Saladin. see Ṣalāh al-Dīn b. Yūsuf, Ayyūbid ruler
Salafism/Salafīs 41, 46–47, 69, 150, 153, 195, 320, 405
Salafiyya 132, 134
Ṣalāh al-Dīn b. Yūsuf, Ayyūbid ruler
founding of khānqāhs by 32, 85, 108, 266
khānqāh in commemoration of 111, 111, 112, 112
‘Ṣalāḥiyya’ (Jerusalem) 108, 109, 110
al-Salāḥiyya Saʿīd al-Suʿadāʾ 85
Salāmān va Absāl (ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Jāmī) 268
Ṣāliḥ, Ibrāhīm 283–284
Salīm Chishtī 128, 169
Sālimiyya 176
Saljūq dynasty
and Qalandars 260
relations between Ṣūfīs and sultans in 243, 246, 260, 265, 305
state patronage of Sufism by 15, 32, 38–39, 64, 107, 113–114, 165, 167–168 under specific rulers
Salmān al-Fārsī 96, 97
al-Samanūdī 196
sanctity (walāya) 19, 117, 118, 147, 189, 198, 206, 227, 256, 265, 268, 271, 272, 292, 379
Ṣanhāja Berbers 178
al-Sanhūtī, Yāsīn b. Ibrāhīm 306
Sanjar b. Malikshāh, Saljūq sultan 260
al-Sanūsī, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī 67, 206, 275, 348, 381
Sanūsiyya 20, 67, 209, 229, 275, 319, 328–329, 381–382, 394
founder of. al-Sanūsī, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī
saqqāʾ (water-carriers) 201, 347–348
Sarajevo 228–229, 234
Sarbidarān movement 86
Ṣārı Ṣaltūq 228
Sarī l-Saqaṭī 89, 175, 368
Sarmast, Ṣūfī 264
al-Sarrāj, Abū Naṣr 28, 190–191, 208, 222, 365
Saryazdī, Dhū l-Riyāsatayn Qāḍī Muḥammad b. Jaʿfar 312
Sassanid dynasty 293, 300
Saudi Arabia 46, 151, 355
ṣawmāʿa (hermitage) 31, 157
Sayf al-Dīn Bākharzī 262, 395
al-Ṣayyād, ʿIzz al-Dīn Aḥmad 389
Ṣayyādiyya 389
al-Sayyid al-Badawī 44, 340, 388, 392
Sayyid Ghāzī (al-Baṭṭāl) 124–125
Sayyid Jalāl al-Dīn Bukhārī 84
Sayyid Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Kamāl al-Dīn b. ʿAjlān 86
sayyids (descendants of the Prophet) 350, 375, 379, 380
Schimmel, Annemarie 4–5, 345
Schuon, Frithjof 138
seclusion (khalwa) 230, 328, 389, 398, 400
secularisation 47, 50, 134, 151–152, 195, 355
Sedgwick, Mark 4, 20–21, 335–359
selflessness (īthār)
acts of 218
moral value of 219
terminolgy used for 219
three levels of 219–220, 223–225
transformative possibilities of 222 altruism; futuwwa
Selim I, Ottoman sultan 43
Senegal 14, 50–53, 179, 209, 229, 235, 248, 256, 282–283, 319, 325–326, 394, 407, 408, 410 under specific Ṣūfī orders
service (khidma) 17, 188, 199–204, 206, 210, 222, 224, 296
shadd (girdle belt) 93, 343, 353
al-Shādhilī, Abū l-Ḥasan 13, 29–30, 222, 344, 345, 351, 392, 393
Shādhiliyya
branches of 346–347, 393–394
establishment of 393, 408
founding of Saʿdī dynasty by 34
grades of muḥibb 349
leader of. al-Shādhilī, Abū l-Ḥasan
long existence of 351
naming of 344
political influence of 30
relations between sultans and 266
spiritual practices of 394
spread of 66, 116, 149, 345, 393
and trade 29–30 under specific branches
Shāh Ismāʿīl 34, 269–270, 381
Shāh Maḥmūd 82
Shāh Musāfir 82, 84, 86
Shāh Wālī Allāh 86
Shāhrukh, Timūrid ruler 42, 121
Shambhala guide to Sufism (Ernst) 8–9
Shāmil, Imām 19, 256, 277, 278, 319–320, 327–328
Shams-i Tabrīz 358
Shaqīq al-Balkhī 257, 368
Sharaf al-Dīn Maḥmūd Shāh, Īnjū ruler 261
al-Shaʿrānī, ʿAbd al-Wahhāb
books by 17, 194, 197–198, 205, 308
on al-Junayd 310–311
on khirqa 298
on mediation 205
on people of the turn 272
on reverential fear 197–198
on sainthood 296
supernatural powers of shaykhs 311
zāwiya of 194
al-Sharīf, ʿAbdallāh 205–206
Sharifian Sufism 21, 378–379
Shaṭṭār, ʿAbdallāh 400
Shaṭṭārī, Muḥammad Ghawthī 401
Shaṭṭāriyya 312, 400–401
Shawqiyya 341–342
Shaykh Saʿīd 275
shaykh al-shuyūkh (chief shaykhs) 32, 64, 108, 266, 353, 357
Shaykh Ẓahīr 98
al-Shiblī 190, 257, 364, 368
Shihābiyya. Suhrawardiyya
Shīʿism 4, 8, 32, 34, 41, 96, 121, 126, 147, 257, 268, 323, 324, 342, 348, 378, 397
al-Shirwānī, Yaḥyā 398
shrine firms 43–44 Ṣūfī shrine complexes; Ṣūfī shrines
Sidi Boumediene (Abū Madyan al-Shuʿayb) 120, 149, 258, 296, 380
Sīdī Shākir 118–119
Sikandar Lodī 264
Sikh Empire 340
silent ritual repetition (dhikr/ ṭarīq al-khafī) 387
silsilas (spiritual lineage)
in general 21, 308, 312, 348
of ʿAlawiyya 377
definitions of 375–376
importance of 376, 378
isnāds as model for 367–369, 376
as link to Prophet 378
vs. nasab 378–381
as spiritual genealogy 242, 378
use of term 374
al-Simnānī, ʿAlāʾ al-Dawla 19, 306–307
al-Sirhindī, Aḥmad 127, 276, 397
al-Sīrjānī, Abū l-Ḥasan 366
sisters (akhawāt) 170
Skender-Vakuf 228
smartphone applications 409
social media/networks 408–409
Ṣofyalı Bālī Efendī 265–266
Sokoto Caliphate 179, 274, 324–325
soldiers. ʿayyār
Somuncu Bābā (al-Aksarāyī, Ḥamīd al-Dīn) 399
soup kitchens (imarets) 32, 33, 35, 38, 207, 228
Soviet Union. Russia
Soviet Union (USSR)
Ṣūfī activities in
banning of 136, 152, 279, 355
state control of 279–280 Russia
Spiritual Directory of the Muslims of Central Asia (SADUM) 279
spiritual elite (khāṣṣa) 189
spiritual healing (ʿilāj rūḥānī) 203
spiritual lineage (silsilas). silsilas
spiritual practices
of Ṣūfī orders 32–33, 299, 387, 389, 390, 391, 394, 395–396, 398, 399 Ṣūfī festivals
spring festival (basant festival) 87
Srinagar 158
state control
of Ṣūfī activities
in general 46–47, 352–354, 358
in Egypt 47–48, 135, 233, 278–279, 354
by Ottoman Empire 130–131, 233
in Pakistan 44–45, 284
in Syria 135
in USSR 279–280 banning
of waqfs 45, 68–69
Strothmann, Linus 44
students. disciples/students/followers
suʾāl (begging) 13, 29, 82, 89, 90, 167, 212, 222–223
sub-Saharan Africa 16, 67, 178, 179, 229, 230, 396
succession 21, 34, 231, 350–351, 374, 380–382
Sudan 133, 256, 274, 275, 283–284, 352, 356, 398
Sufi Council (Majlis al-Ṣūfī) 354, 358
Ṣūfī dynasties. Ṣūfī sultanates/caliphates
Sufi essays (Nasr) 4
Ṣūfī festivals 44, 86, 87, 119, 148, 149, 339, 355, 389, 392
Ṣūfī hagiographies 39–40, 306
Ṣūfī households 36, 44
Ṣūfī institutions
bureaucratisation of 256, 279–285
definitions of 11, 13
impact of cities on 232–236
Knysh on 10
lodges. Ṣūfī lodges
longue durée approach to 12
mystical dimensions of 12–13
shrines. Ṣūfī shrine complexes; Ṣūfī shrines
state control of. state control
and urbanisation 152, 228–230
waqfiyya of 60
Ṣūfī lineages
ʿAlawī 386–387
heads of. Ṣūfī masters
of Naqshbandiyya 386
nasab in. nasab
silsilas in. silsilas
Ṣūfī lodges (in general)
in general 105, 157, 338, 357
architecture of 162–163
in Baghdad 64–65
closing of 135–136
decline in 345
early history of 159, 161
functions of
in general 66–67
as centres for worship of saints. Ṣūfī shrine complexes; Ṣūfī shrines
as centres of agriculture 242, 243, 246
education/proselytising 230–231, 248
as foci for regional cults 128
health care 247–248
hospitality/food dispensation 199, 202, 205, 207, 247
securing of roads/mountain passes 247
and sociability 230–232
Ṣūfī bodies in 161–162
in urbanisation 228–230
incorporation of, into Ṣūfī networks 345
institutionalisation of. institutionalisation
life at 170
and madrasas 165
permanent residents at 199–200
political dominion and 128–129
in rural areas 345
spread of 65, 192, 193–194
state control of. state control
terminology used for 31, 157–159, 178
waqfiyya of 170 khānqāhs/khānaqāhs; ribāṭs; zāwiyas; under specific lodges
Ṣūfī manuals 188, 190–193, 194
Ṣūfī masters (shaykhs/pīrs)
in general 170
advice literature of 267–268, 308, 309
assets of 36
backgrounds of 349
non-conformist 248–249
officials of 199–200
political influence of 129–130, 187, 193–194, 262, 303–312, 322
relationships of
with disciples. disciple-master relationship
with sultans 260–273, 303–312
roles of
in general 204–205
as defender of the poor 220
education/proselytising 261–262
feeding of the poor 220–221
as kingmakers 168, 262
as local rulers 322–330, 340 under specific shaykhs-sultans
as mediators 39, 84, 190, 205–206, 262, 311–312, 340
as patron saint of guilds 208
and political legitimisation 260, 262
sacred character of 196
as saints. Ṣūfī saints
and succession. succession
supernatural powers of 198, 255, 263, 303, 309, 311
titles of 36, 278, 329
veneration of. Ṣūfī saints
visiting of 209–210 under specific shaykhs
The Sufi orders in Islam (Trimingham) 3, 335
Ṣūfī orders/networks/paths (ṭarīqas)
banning of. banning
becoming voluntary associations 234
vs. Catholic monastic orders 346
classifications of 387
continuity of 385–386
and cult of saints. Ṣūfī saints
educational methods of 387
emergence of 345–346, 376
finances of. finances
founding figures of. under specific orders
heads of. Ṣūfī masters
incorporation of lodges into 345
influence on society of 386
institutionalisation of. institutionalisation
and internet 408–411
and Janissaries 35, 265, 317–318, 342, 399
life cycle of 351
lineages of. Ṣūfī lineages
as marketing brands 410
membership of 348–349
naming of 34, 344, 347, 386
officials of 199–202, 347–348
orders and suborders 346–347 under specific orders and suborders
organisation of 36, 44, 356–357
part-time participation in 344
political influence of. political influence
recruitment for 209
silsilas of. silsilas
spiritual practices of 32–33, 299, 387, 389, 390, 391, 394, 395–396, 398, 399
spread of 122, 194–195
succession in. succession
support for 386
transnational 50–53
tribal affiliations of 208–209, 350–351 under specific Ṣūfī orders
Ṣūfī poetry 47
Ṣūfī saints (walī/awliyāʾ)
authority of 267–273
concept of 227
and council of godly men 272–273
cult of
in general 41, 117–120, 147–148
criticism on 150–152
modernisation of 407
Moroccan 37, 39
from ribāṭ system 344 Ṣūfī shrine complexes; Ṣūfī shrines; under specific saints
Ṣūfī Sarmast 264
Ṣūfī shrine complexes (dargāhs)
in general 105
in Anatolia 124–125
buildings contained in 120
in Cairo 120
development of 118, 120, 339
finances of. finances
in India 127, 129
in Iran 121, 126
in Morocco 118–119
in rural areas 340
use of term 157–158, 300 shrine firms; Ṣūfī shrines
Ṣūfī shrines
celebration of festivals at 44
definitions of 145
desecration of, by Salafīs 46
early history of 146–147
expansion of 147–150
festivals at 44, 86, 87, 148, 339
finances of. finances
guidebooks about 148
patronage of. patronage
and political legitimisation 153
rediscovering of 42–43
rituals at 149, 151
and royal funerary sites 168
state control of. state control
terms used for 145–146
and urbanisation 152
visiting of
in general 41, 117–118, 339
criticism on 41–42, 150
for health reasons 339
by women 339 shrine firms; Ṣūfī shrine complexes; under specific shrines
Sufi studies
dichotomy in 2, 3–4, 7
growth in 1
historical development of
before 1990s 1–6
from 1990s onwards 6–10
Ṣūfī sultanates/caliphates 322–330
in general 322, 329–330
and anti-colonial resistance 326–328
Khwājas/Khojas 322–323
Ṣafavid dynasty. Ṣafavid dynasty
Sanūsī Kingdom 328–329, 381–382
Sokoto Caliphate 179, 324–325
Tukulor Empire 274, 325–326
Ṣūfīs
clothing of 364
coffee consumption of 232–233
as court advisers. court advisers
insurrections led by. insurrections/revolts
and jihād. jihād
as missionaries 39, 67
occupations of 83
and patronage. patronage
relationships of
with Hindus 263–264
with sultans 260–266
roles of
in general 190
as mediators. mediation/arbitration
and settling of uninhabited lands 40, 66–67, 246
as warriors 264, 276–277
and urban social fabric 230–232
use of new media by 47, 49
and working vs. relying on God 83, 89–90 Sufism
Sufism
altruism in 218–225
antinomian 30, 37
and asceticism 28–29, 92, 225, 336, 341, 362–363
in Baghdad 227
banning of. banning
beginnings of 37, 316, 336, 362–363
charismatic form of 225–226
and colonial powers. colonialism
conversions to 138, 209
and court etiquette 299–300
criticism on 150–152
as cultural heritage 137
in cyberspace. new media
decline in 3, 195, 233–234, 406
festivals in. festivals
and futuwwa. futuwwa
and futuwwa brotherhoods. futuwwa brotherhoods
gender practices in 349
globalisation of 50–53, 137, 209, 234, 407, 409
hierarchies in relation to God in 189
influences on waqfs of 59–60
institutionalisation of. institutionalisation
institutions. Ṣūfī institutions
itinerant brotherhoods in 341–342
and jihād 317–320
and modernity 134–136 new media
and nationalism 284
and new technologies 132
nomadic societies and 243, 245–246
non-doctrinal dimensions of 7
orders. Ṣūfī orders/networks/paths
origin story of 28
patronage of. patronage
and pious warriors 175
political influence of. political influence
and poverty/wealth 27, 28–30
and reform. reform
reliquary 69
revival of 136–137, 209
rule-based 177
in rural areas. rural areas
saintly rulership in 256, 267–273
and Salafism 46–47, 69, 320
and societies/geographies 37–40
studies on 61
and Sunnī culture 191
terminology of. terminology
in urban areas. cities
waqfs influences on 61–62 Ṣūfī institutions; Ṣūfī lineages; Ṣūfī lodges; Ṣūfī masters; Ṣūfī orders/networks/paths; Ṣūfī saints; Ṣūfī shrine complexes; Ṣūfī shrines; Ṣūfī sultanates/caliphates; Ṣūfīs
Sufism: A beginner’s guide 7
Sufism: A global history 9
Sufism: A new history of Islamic mysticism (Knysh) 9–10
Sufism: An account of the mystics of Islam (Arberry) 2–3
Suharto 280
Suhayl Sharwānī 98
ṣuḥba/ṣuḥbat (companionship) 17, 170, 188, 190, 192, 196, 204, 208, 362, 366, 392, 400
al-Suhrawardī, Abū l-Najīb 116, 177, 193, 222, 344–345, 390
al-Suhrawardī, ʿUmar
on begging 222
books by 95, 116–117, 192, 193, 196, 343, 363, 367
on clothing 367
as court adviser 304, 344–345
on khirqa 363
and patronage 345, 369
on ribāṭs 117, 175
ribāṭs of 192–193, 369
on rules of conduct 196
spreading of futuwwa by 38
on Ṣūfī masters 196
on ṣuḥba and ukhuwwa 208
on superintendents 200
Suhrawardiyya
establishment of 390
khānaqāh of 85
leader of. al-Suhrawardī, Abū l-Najīb
naming of 344
spiritual practices of 391
spread of 66, 126–127, 345, 390–391
suicide bombings 46
al-Sulamī, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān
on adab 191–192, 294
on altruism 219
books by 91, 192, 368
on clothing 365
duwayra of 176, 370
on al-Ḥaddād 190
on Ibrāhīm b. Adham 256–257
on master-disciple relationships 368
teaching of Sufism by 64
on visiting shrines 148
al-Sulamī, Izz al-Dīn b. ʿAbd al-Salām 297
Sulaymān Bāqirghānī (Ḥakīm Ātā) 242, 395
Sulaymāniyya 49–50, 285
Süleymān I, Ottoman sultan 125
sulṭān, use of term 297
Sulṭān Walad 98, 265, 297
sultans, relationships with Ṣūfī masters260– 273, 303–312
Summer, William Graham 11
Sunayd b. Dāwūd al-Miṣṣīṣī 296
Sunnī Islam 39, 108, 115, 148, 191, 265, 268, 307, 317, 341, 342
superintendents (khādim) 20, 170, 199–200, 203, 339, 340, 347
supernatural powers
online display of 409
of Ṣūfī masters 198, 255, 263, 303, 309, 311
Supreme Council of Sufi Networks (Egypt) 48
Supreme council of Sufi orders (al-Majlis al-Āʿlā lil-Ṭuruq al-Ṣūfiyya) 135, 354
al-Suyūṭī 267
Sy, Muṣṭafā 282
Sy, Tidjane 282
Syria
Ṣūfī activities in, state control of 93, 135, 136, 149, 319, 397, 398, 401
Ṣūfī institutions in
in general 14, 15, 108, 113, 136, 165, 177
bureaucratisation of 256, 279–280
Ṣūfī orders from 391–392
waqf policy in 64
waqfs system in 68
Ṭabaqāt al-ṣūfiyya (Anṣārī) 81
Ṭabaqāt al-ṣūfiyya (al-Sulamī) 368
Ṭabaqāt-i Nāṣirī (Jūzjānī) 263
table manners 202
Tabrīzī, Jalāl al-Dīn 390
Taflīqa, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Bū 285
Ṭāhir Dhū l-Yamīnayn 92, 188
Tāj al-ʿĀrifīn Abū l-Wafāʾ al-Baghdādī 388
Tajammuʿ al-Waḥda al-Waṭaniyya al-ʿIrāqī (Coalition of the Iraqi National Unity) 285
Tajikistan 136, 279
tājs (felt hats) 341, 342
takiyyas 158, 159
ṭalibés (disciples, students) 51, 325, 329 disciples/students/followers
Tall, ʿUmar b. Saʿīd 274, 319, 325–326
Tamerlane. Tīmūr, Timūrid ruler
Ṭanṭā 20, 44, 340, 392
Tarim Basin 130, 270–271, 323, 351
ṭarīqa (Ṣūfī orders). Ṣūfī orders/networks/paths
al-ṭarīqa al-muḥammadiyya (Muḥammadan way) 268, 269, 271, 274
tasbīhs (rosaries) 341
Tāshufīn ibn ʿAlī, Almoravid sultan 258–259
taṣrīf, taṣarruf (supernatural powers). supernatural powers
tawakkul (complete trust in God) 82, 89–90, 224
al-Tawfīq 278
Tāybād 163, 164
al-Ṭayyib, Muḥammad 202–203
Tegüder Aḥmad 261
tekkes/tekiyye/tekye (Ṣūfī lodges)
in Anatolia 114–115
in Bosnia-Herzegovina 135
of Hacı Bektaş 35
use of term 157–159, 338
Templar knights 316
terminology
used for
address 94, 170
altruism/selflessness 219
Ṣūfī lodges 31, 157–159, 174–175, 178, 338, 370
Ṣūfī shrines 145–146
temporal power 297–298, 311 metaphors of royalty
Thāqib Dede 399
Thibon, Jean-Jacques 21, 362–371
Threshold Society 356
Tidhkārbāy Khātūn 33
al-Tijānī, Aḥmad 133, 194–195, 274, 284, 394
Tijāniyya
apolitical stance of 327
establishment of 133, 194–195, 394
founder of. al-Tijānī, Aḥmad
political influence of 67, 283
spread of 325, 330, 394, 409
and tribal affiliations 209
and urbanisation 229, 235
mention of 274
Tīmūr, Timūrid ruler (Tamerlane) 121, 166, 241, 262
Timūrid dynasty 42–43, 121 specific rulers
al-Tirmidhī, al-Ḥakīm 147, 189–190, 191, 256
Touba 51–52, 229, 282, 407, 410
Traditionalism 4, 138
trans-imperial mobility 233
Triaud, Jean-Louis 229
tribal saints 246
Trimingham, John Spencer 3–4, 206, 335
Tughril III, Saljūq sultan 304
al-Tuhāmī, Shaykh Yāsīn 47
Tukulor Empire 274, 325–326
Tunisia 38, 133, 134, 152, 153, 193–194, 257 under specific regions, Ṣūfī orders
al-Turābī, Ḥasan 283
Turbat-i Jām 121, 159, 160, 163, 166
Turkestan (city) 121, 165, 166, 241
Turkestan (region) 18, 129–130, 256, 270, 271, 309, 390, 395, 396
Turkey
Islamic bourgoisie in 48
revolt against Kemalis regime in 275
rural Sufism in 241–242
Ṣūfī activities in
banning of 46, 48–49, 135, 152, 210, 234, 355, 358
forming of associations 234
Ṣūfī institutions in
bureaucratisation of 21, 256, 281
tekkes in 123, 135, 152, 153, 241
Sufi studies in 1 under specific dynasties, regions/cities, Ṣūfī orders
Turkish language 37, 96, 99, 232, 269, 297, 323
Turkmen 34, 245–246, 260, 269, 270, 285
ṭuruq (pl. of ṭarīqa). Ṣūfī orders/networks/paths
al-Tustarī, Sahl 176, 197, 258
ʿUbaydallāh b. Maḥmūd 309
ʿUbbād 120
ukhuwwa (fraternity) 208, 212
ʿulamāʾ (religious scholars) 59, 151, 232, 261, 336–340, 344, 347, 349, 350, 352–358
Ulamāʾ Association (Jamʿiyyat al-ʿUlamāʾ al-Muslimīn) 152
Ulema-Madžlis 135
ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb 363
Ungaria, Georgius de 124
United Kingdom (UK) 137, 180, 276, 328
United States of America (USA) 52–53, 69–70, 138, 356
urban areas. cities
urbanisation 52, 66, 145, 146, 151, 152, 228–230
ʿurs (death commemorations) 44, 86, 149, 170, 200, 339, 355
ʿUthmān Dan Fodio (ʿUthmān b. Fodiye) 20, 273–274, 318–319, 324–325
Uways al-Qaranī 148, 348
uwaysī (mode of transmission) 148
ʿUyūn al-ajwiba fī funūn al-asʾila (al-Qushayrī) 365
Uzbekistan 19, 99, 136, 147, 153, 242, 256, 279
ʿuzla (retirement) 223
Uzun Ḥasan Āq Qoyunlū 165, 324
vaqf/vakıf (pious endowments). waqfs
Vazīr al-Dīn, Shaykh 263–264
Veinstein, Gilles 6–7
Vikør, Knut 20, 322–330
visiting (ziyāra)
of masters 209–210
of shrines
in general 41, 117–118, 145, 339
criticism on 41–42, 150–151
by women 339 Ṣūfī saints
vocal ritual repetition (dhikr/ṭarīq al-jahrī) 387
Les voies d’Allah (eds. Popovic & Veinstein) 6–7
Wade, Abdoulaye 283
Wafāʾ family 379
Wafāʾiyya 36, 221, 243, 399
Wahhābī movement 132, 151
walāya (metaphysical closeness to God) 189–190
walāya (sanctity) 19, 117, 118, 147, 189, 198, 206, 227, 256, 265
walī/awliyāʾ (saints), use of term 311 Ṣūfī saints
waqf irṣādī 62
waqf mushtarak 65
Waqf Ordinance (Pakistan; 1979) 45–46
waqf trustee (mutawallī/nāẓir) 58
waqfiyya/waqf-nāma (endowment deeds)
definition of 58
of Ṣūfī institutions 60
waqfs (pious endowments)
in general 27
banning of 68
colonial authorities and 68
definition of 58
development of 58
influence on Sufism of 59–60
management of 60
revival of 70
state control of 45, 68–69
studies on 60–61
types of 58
uses of
for political legitimisation 59, 64, 136
for public services 64
for Ṣūfī institutions 31–34, 35, 63–64, 119–120, 150, 167, 221–222, 338, 352
in support of jihād 62–63
for transmission of knowledge 63–64
widespread use of 58–59 waqfs
warfare
and proto-Ṣūfīs 19, 174, 316 ʿayyār; futuwwa; Janissary Corps; jihād
Wāṣiliyya 341–342
al-Wāsiṭī, Abū l-Fatḥ 389, 393
water-carriers (saqqāʾ) 201, 347–348
Wazīrat al-Awqāf (Ministry of religious endowments) 135
wealth/poverty 13, 27, 28–30
web 2.0 408–409
Weber, Max 11
Werbner, Pnina 225
West Africa 20, 51, 67, 179–180, 195, 274, 318, 319, 324, 325, 327, 330, 407 under specific countries/cities, dynasties, Ṣūfī orders
wilāya (jurisdiction) 265
Wolof people 51, 209
Wolper, Ethel Sara 228
women
and gender segregation 50
as muqaddams 349
ribāṭs for 33–34, 221, 349
visiting of shrines and lodges by 118–119, 128, 177, 193, 203, 339
Xidaotang 233
al-Yasawī, Khwāja Aḥmad 121, 165, 241–242, 395
Yasawiyya
establishment of 395
founder of. al-Yasawī, Khwāja Aḥmad
rural Sufism of 18, 241–242
spiritual practices of 395–396
spread of 268, 395
support for 245–246
Yavari, Neguin 19, 303–312
Yavuz, Hakan 48
Yugoslavia 135, 234
Yūsuf u Zulaykhā (Jāmī) 243
zakāt (alms tax) 58, 167, 218, 219, 271, 338
Zarcone, Thierry 6
Zarrūq, Aḥmad 268, 394
Zauqi, Muhammad 284
zāwiyas (Ṣūfī lodges)
in Egypt 114, 202–203, 206, 207
finances of. finances
functions of 113–114, 194
in Libya 275
in Maghrib 149
in Morocco 115–116
in Tunisia 193–194
use of term 157–159, 338
Zayn al-Dīn Abū Bakr Tāybādī 163, 164
Zayn al-Dīn, Malik 264
Zayn al-Dīn Shīrāzī 168
Zayn al-Dīn Yūsuf 120
Zaynab (wife of Sultan Ināl) 221
Zia ul-Haq, Muhammad 284
Zindapir 137
ziyāra (visiting). visiting
zuhd (asceticism) 10, 13, 19, 28–29, 92, 175, 201, 225, 294, 300, 316, 337, 341, 362–363
zuhhād (wandering renunciants) 18, 62, 255