IndexAbbeville16puy388Abruzzo347academies6, 17, 274, 362, 389, 391392Mohyla Academy (Kiev)258, 275Ostroh Academy265, 274275Acapulco280Adrian vi (pope)238Africans / blacks14, 135, 141142, 281, 286, 287, 289, 294298, 300Aguilar y Seijas, Francisco de (bishop)292Alamire, Petrus335Alani, Andrea249Albanians5, 238hospice in Rome252Albertano da Brescia12, 157174Albertus Magnus94Alcuin163Alessandria214Alexander vi (pope)237Alexander vii (pope)146Alighieri, Dante169, 421Alisaundre, Adam201Allacci, Leone362Allegri, AntonioCorreggioAltdorf confraternity of Good Works61alumbrados142, 144Alvarado, Pedro de290Amerindians14, 135, 141, 184, 280305Amiens puy387389, 392394, 399404Amsterdam320, 324, 377, 379380Anabaptists377Anderlini, Fausto136Anianus of Alexandria (saint)6Anne (saint) altars196, 203n37, 204205, 207, 209confraternities and guilds4, 70, 7475, 84, 196198, 200, 202203, 205, 207209Anthony (saint)99Antigua de GuatemalaSantiago de GuatemalaAntwerp367, 377, 379380chambers of rhetoric370373, 375377, 381The Gillyflowers381confraternities334, 337, 343confraternity of Our Lady334Seven Sorrows372guilds4, 6, 35Aquileia (patriarchate)54Aquinas, Thomas9394, 214Aragon15, 145, 246, 307310, 312, 322, 324Arbués, Pedro (blessed)150Ardee195204, 206208, 210confraternity of Holy Cross, St George and St Katherine203Aristotle9394, 96, 104Arles104, 312Armenians14, 259, 278, 353354Arnoldi, Alberto443, 447454Arras puy16, 31, 386387, 395396, 402404confraternity of Our Lady31, 386, 402Artois368Ascona5051Asshwell, Magina200Assisi confraternity of Santo Stefano331plays347Asti319Atahualpa (ruler)301Augustine96, 98, 163, 172Augustinians7374, 84, 371Auto de fé145147, 150151Avignon236Azariah da Fano, Menahem314, 316Azikri, Eleazar314Baldese, Ambrogio di438440, 444, 453454Baldus163Ballard, John204Bandinelli, Tommaso144banner, processional128, 131, 189, 271, 419420, 429banquets / meals36, 124n21, 169, 319, 321, 323, 358, 360, 378, 390, 393395, 399400. feastingBarbara (saint)287, 358Bardi, Camerata de’335Bardi, Dianora219220Barnabites183Basilians278Bathory, Stephen (king)260, 266, 274Beauvais puy388Belcari, Feo330, 355356, 359Belgium25, 404Bellandini, Mariano358Bellini, Gentile338Bellinzona45, 4951, 5362confraternities of the Rosary50Sacrament5161Saint Roch59Saint Martha49, 55, 5960Benedetto / Frate Trombetta157Benedict the Moor / Benito de Palermo (saint)286, 295Benedict xiv (pope)227Benedictines10, 2730, 43, 61, 338Berekhiah Modena, Aaron (rabbi)315317, 322Bergamo6, 103, 143, 161, 214confraternity Sant’Alessandro in Colonna114Berlandi, Jacobo139Bernard of Clairvaux168Beswick, Alexander204Bethune37Beverley Guild of Saint John5BianchiWhites (movement of)Bibrka78Bielsk274Bielsko261, 266Bijns, Anna377Birgu confraternity of Good Christians136Bissone51Blatna70Blue Barge guilds28Bochnia75Body of ChristEucharistBodzanta of Kosowice (bishop)72Boethius163Bohemia10, 6566, 6871, 8183, 322323Boleslawiec71Bolkow71Bologna134135, 148, 160, 165, 214215, 228, 312confraternities214, 229, 317Devoti102San Girolamo360Santa Maria della Morte214227Santa Maria della Vita136Boniface ix (pope)248Bonvicino, Alessandro (called il Moretto)115, 125Book of the Dead224225Borghini, Vincenzo358359Borgo San Sepolcro214Borri, Giuseppe Francesco144Borromeo, Carlo (archbishop)51, 55n38, 57, 5960, 111, 127Borzecin75Boscoli, Pier Paolo217218, 221, 223Brabant369370, 373374, 376377Bramhall, John (bishop)209Braniewo79Brazil147, 149confraternity of St Peter Martyr147Companhia dos Familiares147Brescia124125, 143, 160162, 165, 167, 214confraternities of the Body of Christ115116, 124Congregation of the Fathers of Peace143congregatio of notaries162disciplinati143Brest266, 273n46, 274Council of (1595–96)260, 261Union of (1596)260Bretons245Brigata, festive361Brihuega288Brisighella214Brissago51Britain194, 199, 208Bruccioli, Antonio136Bruges4, 2324, 26, 2829, 39, 334n20, 367368, 371, 373archers’ guild40company of the White Bear28The Holy Ghost369, 372, 374375, 382Brunelleschi, Filippo351, 357Brussels368369chambers of rhetoric371373The Book369, 378379, 382The Cornflower378379, 382bull, papal286(1399)248(1571)83(1578 “De la Santa Cruzada”)286(1604 “Quaecumque”)83, 283(1610)283(1611 “Cum inter caeteras”)149(1766)284Buondelmonti, Ippolito219220Burgess, Thomas207Burgos confraternity of the Holy Christ285Burgundy246, 368, 404Burnell, Robert (sir)208Bysshop, Nicholas196Caballeros de la Cruz (confraternity)283Caccini, Giulio335Caen388389, 393, 396398, 402, 404Calimala guild441CalixtinesUtraquistsCallixtus iii (pope)237Calvin, John180181Calvinism, Calvinists136, 180182, 262n13, 377379, 381Camaino, Tino di440443, 446447, 449, 451, 454Campo de Calatrava135Canini, Girolamo130Capellanus, Andreas163Capgrave, John348Capponi family239Agostino217218, 221, 223Capuchins63, 135, 138, 228229Carafa, Gian Pietro (cardinal)139Carmelites84, 371Discalced Carmelites84Carmi, Yosef315Carnival15, 28, 355, 357, 360, 390Carona49, 51casaccia / casacce4, 420421Casimir iii the Great of Poland (king)258Casolo, Giacomo Filippo143Cassiodorus163Castellani, Castellan de’356, 358Castenedolo confraternity of the Body of Christ125Castile145, 246, 310confraternities250253in Rome250253associations312Castilians246, 251253, 312, 320321Concordia of (1553 and 1580)146Catalonia145Catalans237238, 246248, 312confraternity in Rome247, 250251Catania214, 229Cavalca, Domenico356Cavalli, Francesco340Cazonci (rulers)301Cecchi, Giovan Maria13, 174, 362Cecilia (saint)360, 400Cervi, Bernardino413415Cesky Krumlov70Châlons-sur-Marne104Chambers of rhetoric382Alpha and Omega (Ypres)375In the Honour of Mary (Ghent)373, 378, 381The Book (Brussels)369, 378379, 382The Communicants (Wormhout)375The Cornflower (Brussels)378379, 382The Fountain (Ghent)40, 365, 367, 369, 372, 374, 383The Gillyflowers (Antwerp)381The Holy Ghost (Bruges and Ypres)369, 372, 374, 382With Pleasure (The Hague)372chantries194211charité / carité4, 36, 104charity8, 26, 35, 37, 55, 66, 73, 84, 86, 9294, 96100, 102104, 106, 111, 118, 142143, 165, 167168, 176177, 179182, 184, 186187, 189192, 194, 202, 219, 223, 225226, 253, 272, 276, 285, 288, 308309, 311, 317318, 324, 360, 366, 370, 380, 395, 439444, 446447, 449, 451, 453454Charles I of England (king)197, 209Charles V von Habsburg (emperor)111Châteauneuf-lès-Tours92Chaucer, Geoffrey173Chelm7778, 261, 274Chelmo80Chiapas280, 293, 300301Chiggiogna51China183Christian Doctrine12, 116, 139Christine of Lorraine (grand-duchess)362Chrudim70Cicero93, 163Cicognini, Jacopo336Clement viii (pope)83, 229, 283Clinchamps de Malfilâtre, Jacques396cobblersshoemakersCodde, Richard203n37, 204Coimbra149Como46n2, 54n35, 5658, 128n30, 131, 148bishop of51, 56confraternity of the Most Holy Sacrament131ConfraternitiesChristian Doctrine139Christological106, 285, 388, 392Comforting13, 213230Compagnia dei Neri (Florence)214, 217, 221, 223, 226, 228229Bianchi della Giustizia (Naples)227, 229230San Giovanni Decollato214San Giovanni Decollato (Milan)61San Giovanni Decollato dei Fiorentini (Rome)213n, 229, 247248, 254Santa Maria dell’Annunciazione (Ferrara)219Santa Maria della Morte (Bologna)214215, 222224Cross203, 283, 287Devoti102Eucharistic11, 4563, 69, 71, 77, 79, 81, 111117, 123128, 130131, 137, 139140, 285, 289, 292, 295, 300, 305, 389Flagellants9, 45, 55, 5861, 143, 158, 158, 330332, 348350, 407, 420421Good Works61Holy Ghost26, 51, 71, 7374, 79, 104, 266Laudese15, 138, 330331, 333, 343, 350, 352, 356, 358Literary66, 70, 7478, 80, 82, 8586, 368, 372, 383, 402literary contests378Marian4, 12, 3132, 42, 62, 66, 6972, 74, 7680, 82, 8485, 103, 203n36, 203, 206, 214215, 219, 223227, 265, 283, 289, 294, 330, 334, 353, 371373, 378, 381, 435National Albanians5, 238n17, 252Dutch/Flemish244, 249, 251Florentines5, 137139, 239, 247Genoese237, 239Germans5, 6, 77, 137, 238, 244, 248251, 255Illyrians5Slavs5, 242, 253254Transalpines247Priests66, 69, 7577, 7880, 83Rosary50, 61, 70, 74, 84, 139, 141, 287289, 300, 371Saints Alexander114Anne202203, 205, 207209Anthony99, 142Barbara287Benedict the Moor286, 295Cecilia400Denis245Dominic346Eligius37Ephigenia295Fantin215, 225Fortunatus17, 390Francis77Genesius17, 390George111114, 150, 352, 357Jacob354, 241, 246n46, 248, 250, 253254James70, 33Jerome144, 253254, 360John the Baptist61, 137138, 213n1, 214, 226227, 229, 247248, 250251, 254, 332John the Evangelist215, 332334, 337338, 360362John of Capestrano150Julian the Hospitaller244, 249, 251Leonard99Louis245Luke4, 6Magi353354Mark4, 332333, 340Martha49, 55, 5960Martin99Martin de Porres295Mary Magdalene389390Nicholas of Tolentino290, 295Paul (Polo)138139Pedro Arbués150Peter Martyr49, 145151, 407408, 421424, 426, 429Michael311Raphael331, 335, 343, 356, 362, 417, 419n27Roch50, 56n42, 59, 61n65, 136, 245, 334, 338340, 342, 409n12Sebastian12, 50, 406420, 424, 429Stephen331Theodore339Victor17, 390Zanobius330Souls in Purgatory181, 285, 287, 289290, 300, 413Trinity78, 136, 143, 195n4, 266, 285, 290, 337Constance48, 61confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament61Council of (1414–18)259Constantine’s constitution (334)166Constantinople260, 263, 320patriarch of263converso140, 150, 311, 320321converts, conversion139141, 222, 281, 298, 311Cordovero, Moses314Corfu320Corneille, Pierre396Corpus ChristiEucharistCorpus Domini feast54, 116, 128processions421422.For confraternitiesEucharistCorreggio (Antonio Allegri)412413, 415, 422n40, 424, 428429Cortés y Larraz, Pedro (bishop)302Cortés, Hernán282283, 290, 298Coryat, Thomas340Cosmos and Damian (saints)287craft guildsguildsCremona134, 148, 160, 171, 214Crignon, Pierre396Crispin and Crispinian (saints)249Cristoforo da Bologna216Croce, Giulio Cesare219Crocesignati134, 145, 148149, 152Crucifix, cross134, 137, 148, 202204, 214, 263, 268, 300, 338, 419420, 452confraternities of203, 283, 287miracle-working226processional54, 349350, 419421Cuauhténoc (ruler)300Cusack, Joan206Thomas (sir)203Czech brethren262n13Daddi, Bernardo444446da la Riva, Bonsevin171DanteAlighieri, Danteda Portico, Agostino352n19Debica75de Carleton, Richard201de Castelein, Mathijs377de Ferris, Bernardino137138de Fossis, Piero333, 340de la Halle, Adam396Delahide, John208de la Rue, Pierre335Delft4della Robbia, Luca217218Dell’Ottonaio, Giovambattista359, 361de Madio, Emmanuel161de Mena y Roelas, Gonzalo (archbishop)294de Nigro, Petrus161de Quiroga, Vasco (bishop)299de Roovere, Anthonis371Deventer35DiamanteBrigatadi Cione, Jacopo453Nardo452Diedi, Lorenzo di Ser Nicolaio di355Giovanni355Dieppe16, 392, 396, 403puys of the Assumption387, 389, 399, 402of the Nativity387388Dietrich of Nieheim248DisciplinatiFlagellantsDismas (thief)213215, 218Dominic (saint)134, 285Dominicans3, 50, 74, 84, 112, 134, 141, 151, 287, 289, 295, 329, 354friar218, 371Doni, Giovan Battista361Douai, puy of the Assumption387, 389, 400, 404Dovizi da Bibbiena, Bernardo (cardinal)252Dowdall, George210Dowdall, Robert (sir)204dowry4, 14, 142, 151, 178, 253, 288, 311, 313, 318320drinkingbanquets, feastingDrogheda195205, 207209confraternity of St Anne203, 207208Drohobych78, 266du Bellay, Joachim396, 397n56Dublin194198, 200203guild and confraternity of St Anne202, 205, 207209Duff, John204Dutch Republic16, 379381, 383. Low Countries and NetherlandsDutch Revolt (1568–1648)373374, 379380Eastern Catholic ChurchUniate ChurchEinsiedeln confraternities of the Blessed Sacrament62Our Lady of Sorrows62Rosary6162Elblag79, 273Eligius / Eloy (saint)37Elizabeth (saint)249Elizabeth i of England (queen)210England5, 35, 102, 173, 178n7, 182, 200n29, 321Ephigenia (saint)295Erasmus, Desiderius136Este, Borso d’ (duke)218Eucharist109110, 112, 117124, 131, 143, 203, 428confraternities11, 4563, 69, 71, 77, 79, 81, 111117, 123128, 130131, 137, 139140, 285, 289, 292, 295, 300, 305, 389devotion1, 912, 81, 109131, 169, 426n46, 427, 429processions59, 71Eugenius iv (pope)352, 355Evora149Ezzelino iii da Romano161Faenza148, 214Faunt family198Thomas200feasting, drinking36, 138, 180, 284n6, 296, 304, 395. banquetsFerdinand ii of Spain (king)247Ferrara214, 218219, 229, 312, 317, 320confraternity of the Annunciation219Ferrari, Gaudenzio112Flagellants9, 45, 55, 5861, 143, 158, 330332, 348350, 407, 420421flagellant movement (1260)407flagellation58n53, 106, 112, 135, 137138, 329331, 345347, 350Flanders910, 2527, 34n31, 35, 3739, 41n63, 42, 244, 368371, 373374, 376Fleming family206Patrick204Florence56, 15, 134136, 148, 165, 171, 182, 187, 247, 250, 252, 318, 330, 332, 343, 345363, 433456Confraternities of the Annunciation353Arcangelo Raffaello331, 335, 343, 356, 417Buonomini di San Martino99Gesù Pellegrino106Madonna di Orsanmichele436437Magi353354Neri (Company of the Blacks)214, 217, 221, 223, 226, 228229Purificazione353, 355356, 360Risurrezione353San Giorgio352, 357San Giovanni Battista332San Giovanni Evangelista360362San Iacopo tra le Fosse354Santa Maria del Bigallo434, 436, 440Santa Maria della Misericordia17, 434455Santa Maria delle Laudi350351Santissima Annunziata353San Zanobi330of the Virgin134Hospitals: Santa Maria Nuova182Florentines5, 102, 247, 330, 444, 449in Rome239, 247in Venice137139Foppa, Vincenzo116Forty Hours (devotion)54, 131, 426, 429foundlingsorphansFowling, John208Fraet, Fans377France24, 6, 1617, 25, 50, 103, 173, 178n7, 227, 246, 305, 321, 339, 368n16, 374, 385, 388, 390, 403405Francis (saint)285, 300, 416Francis i of France (king)403Franciscans54, 84, 161162, 169170, 184, 194, 206, 289, 293, 295, 298, 300, 329, 338, 347, 377Frederick ii Hohenstaufen (emperor)160, 161n13Freiburg im Uechland confraternity of the Holy Ghost104friendship9294, 9697funerals / burials27, 30, 32, 3637, 55, 66, 68, 71, 81, 83, 86, 101, 135, 147, 149, 151, 204, 224225, 252, 268271, 273, 277, 281, 283, 295298, 301302, 308309, 310313, 322323, 329, 332333, 337, 343, 413, 438, 444, 454Funschal149Gabrieli, Giovanni340Gagliano, Marco da335Gallane, Alice201Galuppi, Baldassare341Gdansk80, 273, 320Geneva181182Genoa134, 161162, 164, 214, 420congregatione of notaries162Gerini, Niccolò di Pietro438440, 444, 454Germany4, 15, 48, 173, 179n7, 251, 308, 321, 391Gerson, Jean227Ghent2627, 30, 3233, 367369, 372374, 376, 378379, 381, 383chambers of rhetoric: In the Honour of Mary373, 378, 381The Fountain40, 365, 367, 369, 372, 374, 383confraternity of St James of Compostela33guilds35, 37, 40ghetto307, 312313, 317319Giamboni, Bono171Gideon (metropolitan)260Girolami, Remigio de’94, 102Girolamites358Giustinian, Leonardo330n4Glogow confraternity of the Annunciation71Goa149Godfrey of Cambrai163Godfrey of Winchester163Gonzaga, Ercole (cardinal)139Gorla, Alessandro60Gottarelli, Serafino144Gouda380Gratian163Gregory I the Great (pope)365Gregory ix (pope)163Gregory xiii (pope)59, 83, 264, 286n12, 429Grodek78, 266Grudziadz80Guadalajara380, 287289Guanajuato280, 290Guatemala280, 289, 293, 300, 302, 305Guerrero303guilds46, 911, 1517, 2325, 28, 3444, 6670, 7274, 7779, 92, 95n10, 96101, 104105, 135, 137, 158, 173174, 194195, 199, 202, 204205, 207209, 219, 245, 267, 269, 281283, 286, 288, 290, 307308, 310, 321323, 366, 368369, 373, 378, 380, 382383, 397, 441craft/trade guilds3639, 43, 67, 69, 135, 208, 245, 267, 286, 310, 366archers10, 3941, 4344, 369artisans281, 282n1artists4, 6bakers4, 6, 245, 249251barbers322blacksmiths37Blue Barge guilds28brewers37cannoneers78drapers4goldsmiths101, 399lawyers and notaries12merchants5, 28, 3436, 43, 69, 100military guilds369musicians39priests/clerics/priests24, 39, 44rhetoricians10, 3940, 43, 366shipwrights16shoemakers6, 137shooting guilds366silversmiths310sword makers4tailors290wool merchants441Saint Francis96Saint John5Saint Mark4Guzmán, Nuño de290Haarlem4, 380Hahn, Joseph Yuspa (rabbi)322Hainault368369Halle, Our Lady of (shrine)93Halych77, 259260, 266, 274Hamlin, William209Henggler, Rudolph47Henrici, Nicolò249Henry viii of England (king)185Hertogenbosch confraternity of Our Lady335Hevrot307, 316, 318, 323Ashmoret ha-Bokre311Benevolent Women323Biqur Holim, Bicurolim (Society for the Sick)310Burial Society of Polin323Gemilut Hasadim312313, 317Hasi Betulot131, 320Havurat Bahurim319Havurat Zerizim (Havurat Ha-Bahurim)319Hevra kadisha308310, 321323Hevrat Machshivim315Hevrat Nizharim317Hevrat Zerizim319Kat ha-Havurah307, 309Malbishei Arumim312Me’irè Shachar313Mohar ha-Betulot (Hebrà para Cazar Orfas e Donzelas)317, 320Rodefe Mitzvot313Rodfe Zedeq or Conpannya de la Merce (Saragossa)310Santa Companhia de dotar orfans e donzeles pobras318319, 321Shomrim la-Boker313Soed Holim318Talmud Torah315Holy Spirit / Holy Ghost cult of81confraternities of26, 51, 71, 7374, 79, 104, 266order7374puys369, 372, 374375, 382Seven Gifts of422, 428Tables of26Holy Thursday ritualmandatumHorace163Horsovsky Tyn70Hospental confraternity of the Office61hospice / hostel7, 1214, 26, 37, 86, 103, 178, 191, 222, 239, 240242, 244, 246249, 252254, 272, 310, 438, 440, 446hospital7, 1214, 2627, 33, 68, 71, 7374, 76, 82, 8586, 94, 104, 137n8, 142, 144, 176184, 186187, 189, 199, 208, 214215, 224227, 229230, 240242, 244245, 252254, 258, 262, 264, 268, 272273, 277, 281, 283, 289, 293, 294295, 299, 381, 407, 421, 429, 446Hradec Kralove69Huesca310Hugh of St Victor163Hunter, Alexander202Hus, Jan69Hussites69Huy37hymnals / hymn singing82, 138, 315, 345, 350, 358. lauda, laudarioIberia2, 111, 133135, 140141, 146, 152, 227, 308, 311confraternities143Iberians in Rome246. Spain and PortugalIgnatius of Loyola (saint)285imitatio Christi215, 228Indulgences51n23, 54, 57, 59, 67, 7273, 75, 81, 84, 115, 117, 143, 150151, 169, 178, 180, 277, 286, 348, 429Infessura, Stefano236Innocent iii (pope)163Innocent iv (pope)134Innocent vii (pope)248Innocent viii (pope)227Innocent xi (pope)146Innocent xii (pope)146Inquisition11, 133152, 199, 220Ireland173, 194211Isidore of Seville163Italy25, 8, 11, 15, 26, 45, 103, 112, 114, 131, 133134, 140n12, 142144, 146, 148, 150, 152, 157, 163, 172173, 177, 188189, 212216, 224, 227228, 230, 308, 312313, 315318, 329, 340, 343, 347, 363, 366, 391, 407, 423, 453454James (saint)70, 79of Compostela33, 70Japan183, 188, 339Jeremiah (patriarch of Constantinople)266Jerome (saint)163, 242Jesuits48, 6263, 8485, 138139, 141, 183, 228, 261, 273, 275, 293, 379confraternities188Jewish confraternitiesHevrotJews14, 128, 134, 140142, 150, 158, 219, 222, 259, 307324Ashkenazic308, 313, 315, 320322Sephardic302323confraternities8, 15, 189, 307324pogroms294Joachim (patriarch of Antioch)265266John (saint)196John the Baptist (saint)214, 221, 226, 229, 252253, 332John the Evangelist (saint)215, 332334, 337338, 360362judges158, 169, 171, 173, 291Julian the Hospitaller (saint)244, 249, 251, 355Julius iii (pope)227justas17, 389, 392Kabbalah307308, 312, 314316, 323Kadan70Kamieniec78Kamieniec Podolski77Kamionka Strumilowa266Kapelle374Karaites259Kazimierz7174Keppock, John196, 200Kiev77, 258, 259263, 266267Kiev-Halych (metropolis)259260Killeen195n3, 206confraternity of the Blessed Virgin206King’s Lynn96Kleparz71, 73Komarno78, 266Koprzywnica75Koronowo80Koscierzyn80Kourim70Krakow7174confraternities in7273, 8182synod of (1621)83Krasnystaw274Krasowski, Dmytro274Krosno78Kutna Hora69Laghi da Lugano, Nicola60, 130Landinelli, Lodovico219Latini, Brunetto172Latium347lauda9, 15, 120, 217218, 220, 329333, 335, 338339, 342, 345347dramatic lauda335, 347laudario330, 333, 345346, 350Lecce214, 229Ledewyche, Christopher207Leicester96Leiden4, 379380Lens confraternity of Our Lady31Lent270, 335, 338, 343, 346, 358Leo X (pope)227, 239, 248Leonard (saint)99Leone, Tomaso360lepers71leper-house208Lerdo law (1856)305Leszno273Leto, Pomponio17, 390392Letowice76Liège367n10Liguria420Ligurians in Rome239Lille40puy387Lima284Lincoln95Lisbon141, 147confraternities of Peter Martyr149Rosary141St George150St John of Capestrano150Lithuania77, 257259, 264, 266267, 274, 322. Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthLitomysl70Livorno214, 218, 320321, 324Lombardy1, 45, 49, 110, 114116, 126, 353n22Lombards in Rome239, 242, 244245London45confraternities105puy387388, 393, 404Loreto6confraternities of Our Lady of Loreto84Lorraine246Lotto, Lorenzo115Louis xi of France (king)247Louise of Savoy (duchess)403Low Countries1516, 2429, 3337, 39, 4143, 329, 334, 343, 365367, 370, 373375, 378379, 382383, 385n, 389Lübeck99confraternities of St Anthony99St Leonard99Lucan163Lugano4951, 54, 58, 61Luini, Bernardino112115Luke (saint)4, 6, 98, 213, 422Luria, Isaac314Luther, Martin137, 169n49, 180, 377Lutherans137, 180, 182, 262n13, 273, 375376, 379Lutsk77, 260261, 266268Lviv7778, 260261, 265266, 274275confraternities77, 263n16Assumption264267, 271, 276277Blessed Virgin Mary77Cord of St Francis77Germans77the Poor77Sacrament77Machiavelli, Niccolò13, 135, 174Madrid confraternities of Slaves of the Most Holy Sacrament of the Magdalene389390St Anthony142St Peter Martyr150151Maes, Hendrik370371Maffei, Paolo119Magatti, Pietro Antonio129Magna devotio / Hallelujah movement (1233)157Mahilyow267Majorca311Confraría Novella de Sant Miguel311Malta136Manas219220mandatum (ritual)138139, 335Mantua comforting confraternity214Crocesignati148prayer associations314Mark (saint)4Marmentino confraternity of the Body of Christ125Marot, Clément396Jean396marrano140Martin (saint)99, 196Martín de Porres (saint)295Martin of Braga163Martin V (pope)236Mary (the Blessed Virgin)33, 70, 8284, 103, 170, 196, 203, 207, 271, 278, 330, 332, 337, 368369, 371, 379, 397, 402, 406, 424, 447. under Confraternities, Puys, TheatreMary Tudor (queen)209Masi, Bartolomeo360Maundy Thursday feet washing ceremony138139, 335play346Mazzucchelli, Pier Francesco (called il Morazzone)131Mdina confraternity of Good Christians136Mechelen4, 35, 37, 371372, 380Medici, Ferdinando I (grand duke)362Lorenzo de’223, 229, 356357Piero de’357, 360Melanchthon, Philip136Mellini, Giovanni Maria (cardinal)149n34Merulo, Gaudenzio136Mexico14, 135, 147, 190, 281, 286, 291, 295, 298, 300archbishop of284, 304confraternity of St Peter Martyr151152Mexico City280281, 283285, 287, 292, 295, 297298, 303304Michoacán293, 298, 303Middelburg35Milan5354, 61, 110112, 136, 143144, 148, 171, 214, 245confraternities of the Body of Christ111Most Holy Sacrament128San Giorgio al Palazzo111114San Giovanni Decollato61San Pietro Martire148Santa Corona112Santissima Trinità143of the Virgin134Minsk267, 274Miscomini, Antonio356Misericordia359, 443confraternities17, 77, 183, 214, 339340, 342, 434455Mišljenović, Maria253Modena148, 214, 312, 314316, 318, 324, 430confraternities of Saint Sebastian406420, 424, 429St Peter Martyr407, 421424, 426, 429Suffragio dei Morti413415Modena, Aaron BerekhiahBerekhiah Modena, AaronMogilev266267, 271, 274MolinismQuietismMolinos, Miguel de142, 144Montaigne, Michel de236Montesinos, Fernando142Monteverdi, Claudio340Monti, Gennaro Maria3Morisco135Morosini, Marco (bishop)143Moscow259261, 276Mostyska78Mouton, Jean335Mulattos / mestizos286, 289, 293296Muratori, Ludovico Antonio23, 185Muslims12, 140141, 144, 178, 189, 222Muzi, Piero di Mariano355, 359Naples135, 214, 224225, 228, 250confraternity of the Bianchi della Giustizia227, 229230Nesi, Giovanni13, 135NetherlandsLow CountriesNetherlands, Spanish16New France184New Mexico187New Spain14, 135, 141, 147, 280282, 284285, 287, 290, 295297, 300301, 305Nicholas of Tolentino (saint)290, 295Nicholas V (pope)242Nicodemus346gospel of213Nieuwpoort374Nizinkowice78Normandy4, 39n55, 368, 386, 388, 402, 404notaries and lawyers12, 80, 150, 158, 161162, 172, 238239Nowy Sacz75Nowy Targ75Núñez de Haro y Peralta, Alonso (bishop)304Oaxaca287, 293, 301Obrecht, Jacob334Olesnicki, Zbigniew (bishop)73, 7576Oliveira, Fernando141Oratorians183, 336Orneta79orphans17, 73, 166167, 168n47, 220, 223, 268, 272273, 277, 320, 434, 437441, 444, 447, 449, 452, 455orphanages7, 178, 180, 189, 191, 222, 229, 381Orthodox population258261, 264267, 273, 276278Orthodox Church14, 77, 257258, 260267, 271278Orthodox confraternities14, 257259, 261269, 271277Orvieto347Ostrogski, Konstanty Wasyl (prince)261Ottokar I of Bohemia (king)68Ottoman Empire238, 242, 324Oudenaarde377378guild of archers40Our LadyMary (the Blessed Virgin)Ovid136, 163Pacheco, Miguel (fray)142Pacifico, Lorenzo137Padua confraternity of San Giovanni Evangelista215Palafox, Jaime (archbishop)144Palermo214Palestine309, 322Paris5Basoche390n22confraternities4, 387, 399puy387388theatre399Parma confraternities of crocesignati148comforting confraternity216disciplinati158Parmentier, Jean396Pascal, Jacqueline396Passarotti, Ippolita219Passion of Christ81, 109, 111115, 117121, 124128, 215, 228, 346, 409confraternities388, 392plays347349, 358, 423Patecchio, Gherardo171patriarch of Antioch265of Aquileia54n35of Constantinople260, 263, 265266, 275of Moscow260261of Venice138139Pátzcuaro293Paul iii (pope)227Paul iv (pope)139Peace of God movement102Pelagianism142144Peri, Jacopo335Perpignan310Peru305Perugia confraternities214, 345of San Domenico346plays219, 345347inquisition144Pesaro6Peter (saint)422confraternity285Peter ii of Portugal (king)146Peter Leopold of Tuscany (grand duke)3, 228Peter Martyr / of Verona (saint)11, 134, 149, 407confraternities of49, 145151, 407408, 421424, 426, 429Peter of Blois168Petrucci, Pier Matteo142Petrus Alfonsi163Philip ii of Spain (king)111, 151, 224, 339, 376Philip iv of Spain / iii of Portugal (king)142Philip the Fair (duke of Burgundy)371Philip the Good (duke of Burgundy)368Piacenza confraternity of disciplinati158Picardy368Pietro di Dordrecht, Giovanni248pilgrimages9, 33to Rome225, 241, 243, 240to St James of Compostela33, 70pilgrims12, 3233, 57, 7071, 79, 166, 222, 235236, 240241, 252253, 348, 407, 446Pilsen70, 75Pinsk261, 274Pio, Giovanni Luco218, 221Giovanni Marco218, 221Pisa320confraternities of goldsmiths101of shoemakers6Misericordia214Pius iv (pope)83, 136, 227Pius V (pope)150, 224playstheatrePlunkett (family)206Christopher (sir)206Podlaski274Polacco, Giorgio130Poland910, 14, 65, 68, 71, 75, 77, 8184, 173, 257260, 262, 322Polin, Jacob323Moses323Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth259, 260263, 273274, 276, 278, 322Poliziano, Angelo12, 13n18, 135, 174Polotsk260261Pomerania65, 71, 78, 80Ponteranica confraternity of the Body of Christ115Poomrell, William209poor169, 179180, 182, 277, 309310, 322care of86, 112, 168confraternities of the7378, 8182, 85puy of the poor391of Poor Priests76of St Catherine76, 80of St Lazarus80poorhouses208. hospices and hospitalsPorto149Portugal133, 141, 146, 149150, 179, 321, 376. IberiaPrague65, 6870, 322323prayer27, 30, 34, 59, 6667, 8183, 120, 122, 142144, 195, 216, 220, 225, 264, 270, 287, 310311, 313, 315316, 332, 336, 366, 375, 406, 412, 426n46, 428communities of10, 2731, 41, 43, 371for the deceased83, 270, 366, 375prayer books67, 82, 315silent prayer142144. Rosaryprinting industry and houses14, 258, 262, 264, 273, 275276, 277, 345, 356357, 371Procaccini, Camillo60processions9, 15, 43, 54, 59, 68, 71, 81, 103, 114, 116, 124, 128, 131, 139, 145, 148, 189, 199, 203, 208, 214, 216, 225, 227, 270271, 278, 284, 285, 287, 296, 302, 312313, 318, 322323, 329, 332333, 337339, 343, 345, 349350, 352, 354, 367369, 371372, 374, 378382, 390, 407, 419422Prosper of Aquitaine163Prudentius163Prussia65, 71Przemysl7778, 260261, 271Przemyslidowna, Agnieszka68Publilius Syrus163Puebla280, 286288Pulci, Antonia356357Bernardo355, 357Purgatory178, 180181, 208, 287prayers for souls in Purgatory285, 303puys6, 1617, 368, 385405Marian16, 368, 385389, 402of the Assumption387, 389, 399, 400, 402, 404Holy Ghost369, 372, 374375, 382Love391Nativity387388Notre-Dame387389, 392394, 399404Poor391Saint Catherine76, 80Saint Cecilia400Saint Lazarus80. Abbeville; Amiens;Arras; Beauvais; Dieppe; Douai; Lille; London; Paris; Rouen; Tournai; ValenciennesQuarant’oreForty HoursQuerétaro286287Quietism / Molinism142, 144145Radolinski, Piotr Wysz (bishop)72, 75Radymno78Radziwill, Jerzy (bishop)75Raffael (don)137Rahoza, Michal (metropolitan)261Rainaldi, Girolamo136Raphael (archangel)287, 331, 335, 343, 356, 362, 417, 419n27Rashi (Solomon ben Isaac of Troyes)309Ravenna130, 148, 214Recanati6rederijkerskamerChambers of RhetoricReformation71, 7980, 92, 123, 126, 135, 178184, 186187, 189, 192, 194195, 209210, 228, 265, 273, 375, 383Catholic55, 63, 126, 183, 213, 228, 381Catholic pre-Reformation57, 189Counter-Reformation15, 57, 60, 6263, 125126, 184, 210, 261, 265, 273, 308, 316, 381, 409, 421, 426n46English181, 209Lutheran69Protestant46, 63, 69, 110, 179, 183, 208Renaud de Louens173Reszel79Revello347Passion play347Rhineland35, 45Ribeiro, Gaspar140Righetto, Abraham140Rinaldeschi, Antonio221, 223, 226rites Ambrosian54Aquileian54Byzantine261ritualsflagellation, Forty Hours, mandatum, tenebraeRoch (saint)50, 56n42, 59, 61n65, 136, 245, 334, 338340, 342, 409n12Rohatyn266, 274Rohatyniec, Jurij274Romandy48, 62Romanino, Girolamo115, 125Rome56, 14, 17, 33, 51, 57, 62, 117, 123, 133134, 136, 143144, 214, 216, 225, 227229, 235255, 307, 312, 341, 345, 347348, 376, 390, 392Confraternities235256, 286Concezione della Vergine e Santi Dionigio e Luigi245Gonfalone347350, 409Pietà di San Giovanni Battista247, 248n53, 251San Giacomo degli Spagnoli241, 246n46, 248, 250, 253254San Giovanni Decollato dei Fiorentini213n1, 214, 227, 229, 247248, 250, 254San Girolamo degli Schiavoni253254San Giuliano dei Fiamminghi244, 249, 251Santa Maria dell’Anima dei Tedeschi241, 247n50, 248250, 254Santa Maria della Pietà in Campo Santo dei Teutonici e Fiamminghi244, 248, 251Santa Maria della Purificazione dei Transalpini246Santa Maria di Montserrat degli Aragonesi246248, 250Santissimo Sacramento62, 117Santissima Trinità337Sodalitas litteratorum sancti Victoris, Fortunati et Genesii390Hospices and hospitals249, 253San Giacomo degli Spagnoli241, 246, 252San Girolamo degli Schiavoni242Sant’Andrea e San Niccolò249, 253Santa Maria dell’Anima248San Tommaso degli Inglesi253Swedish hospice253Ropczyce75Rosary137, 287confraternities50, 61, 70, 74, 84, 139, 141, 287289, 300, 371Rospigliosi, Giulio362Rouen17Abbaye des Conards390confraternity of the Passion388, 392puy386404Rovigo, Miriam318Ruinato358Ruthenia77, 258260, 262, 265, 267, 274society275Ruthenian ChurchUniate ChurchRzeszowski, Jan72sacra rappresentazionetheatreSacramentEucharistSafed313316Saint Jean de Luz320Saint-Omer27, 3536Sallust163Sambir260, 266San Luís Potosí280Sandomierz74confraternities74Sanok78, 266Santa Coloma de Queralt310, 311n9Santiago de Guatemala280, 287, 289, 290n19Sanudo, Marin222Saragossa307, 310311Savallo, Donato125Savonarola, Girolamo136, 218, 353Savoy246Schism, Great236schools94, 103, 184, 262, 264, 268, 270, 272275, 277, 288, 330, 334, 370, 374, 391, 406parish schools82, 199Schuddematte, Peter377Schwyz56, 61Sebastian (saint)12, 50, 406408, 412420, 424, 429Sedlec69Seneca162164Serjeant, John208sermons67, 12, 13n18, 94, 104, 136138, 147, 157174, 177, 213n, 346, 349, 354, 359, 371Sforza family110Lodovico (duke)111shoemakers6, 137, 238, 249251, 386Sicily Compagnia dei Bianchi149Siena6, 135, 144confraternities of the Madonna144Poveri Vergognosi99San Giovanni Decollato214, 226San Girolamo144Trinity136hospital of Santa Maria della Scala144, 226, 438n4, 447n22Sigismund iii Vasa of Poland (king)260, 266Silesia65, 71, 78Sixtus iv (pope)242, 245246Skalka73Skaryszew75Skopje320Slane195n3, 206slaves12, 141, 281, 294, 296298, 389Smolensk260261Smotrycki, Meletius276Sola78Solikowski, Jan Dymitr (bishop)264Somaschan183Sottoceneri50Souls in Purgatory181, 285, 287, 289290, 300, 413Spain8, 11, 17, 111, 133, 140142, 144146, 150151, 189, 280, 285, 288, 301, 305, 310, 321, 323, 376, 379380, 389, 391, 419. IberiaSroda Slaska71St Legers family198John203Stary Sacs75Stauropegia263264, 266stauropegic confraternities262264, 267, 276278Stoics93Strzyzow75Sueterby, Thomas203Szyszkowski, Marcin (bishop)83Tanner, Richard196Tarnow7574Tatar confraternities14tavoletta215216, 220222, 225Tczew80tenebrae346Tenochtitlan / TlatelolcoMexico CityTepla70Terence163Ternowyzja78Teruel310Teutonic Order6566, 68, 79, 259Teutonic State10, 65, 68, 7881, 83, 259Teutonic confraternity in Rome244, 248249, 251The Hague chambers of rhetoric: With Pleasure (The Hague)372theatre69, 13, 1516, 61, 110, 150, 208, 212, 219, 222, 292, 329, 335337, 343, 345362, 365381, 383, 385, 390, 392, 394395, 399400, 404405, 409, 421plays: Abataccio356Abraham and Agar358359Abraham and Isac355356, 359Annunciation351352Ascension351Assumption387Barlaam and Josaphat355Beheading of John the Baptist354Creation352Dispute of the Four Virtues356Exaltation of the Cross362Fatted Calf355356, 359360Harrowing of Hell352Haughty King356Jacob and Esau359Judith355Lazarus348, 356, 360Magi353354Miracle of Our Lady399Miracle of the Body of Christ354Nativity352353, 356, 387Ortolano elemosiniere356Passion347348, 423Pentecost357Piero Teodinario360Purification356Raphael and Tobias360Resurrection348, 353, 358Rosanna357Salvation history352St Alessio355, 361St Barbara358St Bartholomew354St Cecilia360St Eustachius355, 357St Giovanni Colombini360St James354St John and Paul357, 360St John the Baptist354St Julian the Hospitaller355St Mary Magdalene358St Romulus358St Uliva361Three Living Kings and Three Dead Kings353Ticino910, 4546, 49, 58, 60Tiel35Tielt370Tintoretto409n12Titian112Tlapa304Tolentines138Toruń80, 273Toulouse poetry association Floral Games391392Tournai4Our Lady of Tournai (statue)369puy387388trade guildsguildsTrent250Council of10, 45, 56, 60, 66, 71, 76, 83, 111, 124, 184, 228, 283Treviso250Trinity devotion to81, 365, 382, 428confraternities78, 136, 143, 195n4, 266, 285, 290, 337images204, 286, 413Trym, Margaret196, 200Tunis320Turin4, 148, 214, 229confraternity of San Paolo4, 5n4, 148Tuscany329, 335, 343Udine6, 136, 250confraternity of the Carità136Umbria329, 331, 335, 343, 345, 347, 350Uniates14, 262, 277Uniate Church258, 261262, 277278Uniate confraternities14, 258, 260263, 269, 277278Urban viii (pope)143Urbino214Usti nad Labem70Utraquists (Calixtines)6971, 82Utrecht4, 367Valdelsa confraternity of Sant’Appiano163Valenciennes16confraternity Notre-Dame du Puy386387, 392394, 399, 400guilds3536van Molle, Ambrosius377van Mussem, Jan374, 377van Putthem, Jan370van Vaernewijck, Marcus378vander Meersch, Claeys369vander Voort, Jeronimus377Venice46, 15, 119, 128n30, 135, 137, 140, 143, 215216, 222, 225, 242243, 250, 255, 313314, 320, 324, 329, 332334, 337, 340, 342343confraternities (scuole)4, 137139, 143, 333334, 337340Calegheri e Zavattoni Todeschi6, 137Compagnia delle donne318Holy Sacrament139140San Fantin215, 225San Giovanni dei Fiorentini137138San Giovanni Evangelista332334, 337338San Marco332333, 340San Rocco338339, 342, 402n12, 409n12San Teodoro339Santa Maria della Carità332, 337Santa Maria della Misericordia339340, 342scuola in San Polo138139Venturino da Bergamo (friar)214, 227Veracruz280Verdon, Walter199, 203, 206Viarani, Andrea218, 221Viaticum52n29, 54, 58, 61, 81, 124Victor (saint)17Victor, Fortunatus, and Genesius (saints)17, 390Vilnius (Lithuania)260261, 264, 266267, 272, 276Vinci, Leonardo da128Virgin of Aránzazu284285of Guadalupe286, 300of the Rosary300of Solitude289Viterbo214Vlachs (population)259Volpi, Giovanni Antonio (bishop)51, 5657Wales249Walloon Flanders368Walton, Thomas208Warmia65, 7980Wars of Religion404Way of the Cross81weavers guilds/confraternities6, 238, 249, 386Wervik371widows149, 166168, 268, 272273, 277Willaert, Adrian335, 340Wisbech105Wladyslav iv Vasa of Poland (king)262Wodman, Nicholas207women89, 1112, 24n4, 2930, 51n24, 53, 58n53, 71, 73, 8485, 94, 9798, 103, 105, 115, 117, 143, 148, 157, 167, 177, 194195, 222, 230, 235, 249, 252254, 268, 296, 302303, 308, 313, 316319, 320321, 323324, 336, 351, 373, 375, 393, 422423, 439, 454Wormhout374, 377Chamber of rhetoric The Communicants375Wroclaw65, 71Wycliffe, John9798Yabbok (river)323youths9, 28, 273, 308, 317, 319, 335, 359, 362, 438440, 443, 447, 454confraternities174, 319, 331, 343, 352, 354357, 361, 417, 419, 426n46, 354355Ypres26chambers of rhetoric Alpha and Omega375The Holy Ghost (Ypres)369, 382confraternities of Notre Dame de Thuyn97Our Lady of Ypres42Yucatán292, 293, 301302Zamosc78, 266, 274Zamoyski, Jan261Zapotec (people, religion)301Zarnowiec75Zeeland369370, 373374Zenale, Bernardo115Zhydachiv78Ziebice71Zlutice70

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