Ottoman Diplomacy in the First Years (1683–1685) of the Ottoman “Long War”

In: The Treaties of Carlowitz (1699)

Abstract

This chapter will focus on the various peace efforts pursued by the Ottomans in the first two years after the Second Siege of Vienna 1683. In 1684 and 1685 the Ottomans submitted various peace proposals to each member of the Holy League. In the end none of these efforts resulted in the desired peace. What were the main reasons for the failure of Ottoman diplomatic efforts? Some possible answers to this question follow: First, in the few weeks after the Siege of Vienna peace seemed possible. This opportunity was not used by the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha because he was focused on revenge for the disgrace. Second, the victories on the battlefields strengthened the faith of the members of the ‘Lega Sacra’ that more victories against the Ottomans were possible. Third, the decision to continue the war against the Ottomans was made easier for the allies because the Ottomans had to fight on more than one front, unlike the members of the ‘Lega Sacra’. Finally, the fact that the European policy of Pope Innocent xi in those years was oriented towards continuing the war against the Ottomans at any price in order to drive the Turks out of Europe forever seems to have played a role in frustrating Ottoman peace efforts.

The Treaties of Carlowitz (1699)

Antecedents, Course and Consequences

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