IndexesIndex of Qurʾānic Quotations2/351342/1321102/171752/17749, 66n152, 753/73108n63/1862134/155165/117109, 1117/191347/441117/551347/68130–131n3310/10110, 11110/2813410/8813310/89124, 13311/7711512/1812n212/54130–131n3312/8238, 65n148, 66, 71, 7512/8312n212/96114, 11517/22167–16819/2919821/756926/107130–131n3326/125130–131n3326/143130–131n3326/162130–131n3326/178130–131n3326/193130–131n3327/39130–131n3328/26130–131n3329/33114, 11529/41178–17934/3347n55, 66, 7538/6109, 11139/66943/772244/18130–131n3344/51130–131n3354/1216665/72267/304968/23–2411171/111181/21130–131n3385/1416785/1516795/3130–131n33Index of NamesʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī219ʾAbū ʿAmr ibn al-ʿAlāʾ45, 217, 221ʾAbū Ḥanīfa134ʾAbū Ḥayyān55n93, 108n6, 109n14, 219n42ʾAbū Huḏayl20, 46n51ʾAbū l-Faraj Hārūn188n64ʾAbū Nuwās44–45ʾAbū ʿUbayda47, 49n63ʾAbūs49ʿAfīfi, ʾAḥmad210n7, 213al-ʾAḫfaš43, 45n46, 48, 52n76, 56, 61n129, 66, 73, 102n63, 114–115al-ʾAḫṭal58, 59n106, 76al-ʾĀmidī48n61, 49n62, 52ʾAmīn, ʾAḥmad223ʾAmīn, Muḥammad Šawqī220–221ʿĀmir ibn al-Ṭufayl78, 79n205ʾAnīs, ʾIbrāhīm213, 216–217Aristotle70, 143n16, 150, 151, 154, 170, 173al-ʾAšhab ibn Rumayla44, 72al-ʿAskarī, ʾAbū Hilāl124, 129n29, 131al-ʾAṣmaʿī194al-ʾAstarābāḏī14, 48n61, 49, 69n175, 109n14, 112, 115n47, 141–177al-ʾAṯrī, Bahjat220al-ʿAṭṭār, ʾAbū l-Fatḥ124, 129n29, 131al-ʿAwfī130n33al-ʾAzharī, ʾAbū Manṣūr108, 134n50al-ʾAzharī, Ḫālid ibn ʿAbdallāh213al-Baġdādī48n60, 49n64, 129n29al-Bāqillānī71al-Baṣrī129n29Baššār ibn Burd44–45al-Baṭalyawsī108n6, 111n28, 114n44, 115n47al-Bayhaqī135n54al-Buḫārī211al-Bustānī108al-Fārābī18n9, 141n5, 150, 157n80, 170n144al-Farazdaq45, 67n160al-Fārisī, ʾAbū ʿAlī11, 13, 14n6, 95n24, 109n14, 110n17, 114n44, 124–125, 131, 132–136, 217al-Farrāʾ9, 13, 23–24, 43, 47n55, 56, 72, 73, 107, 110–111, 112, 114al-Fāsī, David192n88al-Fāsī, Muḥammad220al-Fīrūzābādī108Galen181n17al-Ġazālī143, 144, 150, 154, 156–157, 159n92Goldziher123Hai182Ḥājjī Ḫalīfa129n29al-Ḥākim al-Nīsābūrī135n54al-Ḫalīl16, 43, 64n147, 67, 68, 72, 95, 108, 109, 123n2, 185n47, 217al-Ḫansāʾ47–53, 56al-Harawī108, 111n28, 114n44, 115n46, 129n29, 130n30Ḥayyūj185, 186n56, 195n104al-Ḥimyarī108al-Ḫūlī, ʾAmīn216–218, 219Ḥusayn, Ṭāhā208, 216, 218al-Ḥuṭayʾa80al-Ḫwārazmī114n44, 115n46Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr127n18Ibn ʾAbī l-ʾIṣbaʿ48n60, 49n62Ibn ʾAbī Šayba127n17, 130n32, 135Ibn al-ʾAnbārī, ʾAbū Bakr49, 64n144, 182n29, 194, 195n105Ibn al-ʾAnbārī, ʾAbū l-Barakāt30, 37n2, 49n62, 55n90, 58n105, 67n160, 70n181, 71n184, 77n199, 78, 104, 147n32, 197–198Ibn al-ʿArabī135n54Ibn al-ʾAʿrābī49n64Ibn al-ʾAṯīr, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn37, 38n4Ibn al-Ḥājib47n58, 108n4, 115n46, 141–177Ibn al-Ḫaššāb123–140Ibn al-Jabbān129n30Ibn al-Nāẓim112n29, 114n44Ibn al-Šajarī108n6Ibn al-Sarrāj13, 14, 29, 55, 69n177, 102–103, 110n15, 111, 114n44, 115n46, 126, 142, 151Ibn al-Sikkīt128n24Ibn al-Sīrāfī63, 75, 80, 114n41Ibn al-Warrāq19, 23Ibn ʿAqīl15, 108n4, 114n44, 115n49Ibn Bābašāḏ13, 14, 16Ibn Balʿam183n35, 185n52, 190n78, 192n89, 195n104, 201Ibn Barūn179, 186Ibn Chiquitilla189n72Ibn Durayd42n28Ibn Durustawayhi124, 129n29, 130–131Ibn Ezra, Abraham187, 189, 193, 195n104, 201Ibn Ezra, Moses180n13, 181n17Ibn Fāris67n164, 185Ibn Ġayyāṯ197n113, 198–200Ibn Ḫarūf111n28, 114n41, 115n46Ibn Ḥazm181n21Ibn Hišām14, 112n29, 114n44, 187–188n63Ibn Janāḥ / Ben Janāḥ182, 183, 185n52, 189n75, 192n88, 193, 195n104, 199n122, 201Ibn Jazʾ57, 58n103Ibn Jinnī13, 20, 29, 48n60, 54–55n90, 66, 69, 75n193, 114, 126n14, 171n149, 187n62, 219n42Ibn Maḍāʾ20, 22Ibn Māja135n54Ibn Mālik13, 110n15, 112n29, 114n44, 115n46, 127n17, 212Ibn Manẓūr38n6, 42n29, 48n60, 49, 58n104, 59n111, 62, 64n147, 66, 67, 73n187, 74n188, 79n207, 108n7, 151n55, 215Ibn Mujāhid217Ibn Muʿtazz72Ibn Qurayš181n17, 185n52, 192n88Ibn Qutayba42Ibn Rašīq46Ibn Sīda48n61, 49n63, 108, 111n26, 114n44Ibn Sīnā144, 163, 166, 169–170Ibn ʿUṣfūr14, 111n28, 115, 142, 160n96Ibn Yaʿīš104, 111n28, 112n29, 114–115, 142, 151–153, 214, 217ʾIḫwān al-Ṣafāʾ19ʿIkrima124–125, 133Imruʾ al-Qays221al-ʾIrbilī109n14, 115ʿĪsā ibn ʿUmar45n45al-ʾIṣfahānī45n46, 46n48Jābir ibn Hayyān19al-Jaʿdī67n160, 77–78, 81al-Jāḥiẓ44, 45, 69al-Jaranfaš75Jarīr37, 38, 44–46, 60n118, 63, 74, 76al-Jawharī108, 182n29, 189, 194, 196, 200al-Jumaḥī80n210al-Jurjānī, ʿAbd al-Qāhir29, 30, 41, 42n28, 48, 50n67, 112, 164n115al-Kūfī126n14al-Labbān, ʾIbrāhīm219Luġda103Maimonides202al-Malāʾika, Jamīl221al-Maqdisī, ʾAnīs219al-Marzubānī45n46al-Marzūqī, ʾAbū ʿAlī124, 129n29, 131–132al-Maydānī191Menaḥem ben Sarūq180, 192n88al-Mubarrad11, 13, 19, 29, 40n17, 43n32, 60n119, 102–103, 108n5, 111, 115n46, 126n14, 182n29, 186–187, 188n66, 221n46Mujāhid124–125, 127n17, 133, 135Mullā Jāmī14al-Murādī108n6, 109n14, 112n29, 114n44, 115n46al-Murtaḍā48n61, 49, 52n76al-Musayyab ibn ʿAlas114n40Muslim ibn al-Walīd44–45Muṣṭafā, ʾIbrāhīm209, 212n11, 216Mutammim ibn Nuwayra50, 53, 79al-Mutanabbī37al-Naḥḥās24, 114n44al-Nahšalī46n49al-Najjār, Muḥammad ʿAlī216–218al-Naẓẓām21al-Qālī81n212, 185n47al-Qazwīnī46n52, 47n58Quṭrub43, 64n144, 192–193n92al-Rāġib67n164al-Rāzī, Faḫr al-Dīn69n174al-Rummānī13, 114n44Saʿadia Gaon181–182, 185n49, 193n93, 195n104al-Saḫāwī112n30al-Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād108n7Šāhīn, ʿAbd al-Ṣabūr220–221Sāʿida ibn Juʾayya66n157, 79al-Sakkākī50n67, 67n160, 76, 144n16, 157n85, 160n96al-Šalawbīn115n49al-Samarqandī47n58al-Šammāḫ57, 58n103, 76Samuel ben Ḥofni182al-Šantamarī30, 35, 78n201, 112n29, 114n41al-Šarīf al-Jurjānī47n58al-Šarīf al-Raḍī69n174Sībawayhi10, 11–13, 15, 16, 17–18, 20, 28–36, 37–90, 91–104, 107–108, 109–110, 111, 113–115, 116, 125n12, 126n14, 135n54, 136, 147, 171n150, 188, 190–191n79, 193, 212, 214, 217, 221al-Šihābī, Muṣṭafā219–220al-Sīrāfī, ʾAbū Muḥammad, see Ibn al-Sīrāfīal-Sīrāfī, ʾAbū Saʿīd28, 30, 34–35, 63, 101n62, 107n4, 110n17, 126n16, 129n29, 131al-Širbīnī22al-Suhaylī112, 115al-Sukkarī79n208al-Suyūṭī108al-Ṯaʿālibī67, 70n181al-Ṭabarī23–24, 102n63, 104n78al-Taftāzānī47n58al-Tahānawī47, 157, 160n96Tāj, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān218–219Ṯaʿlab48n59, 49, 124, 128–129, 130–131al-Tamīmī217Tanḥum ha-Yerushalmi178–207al-Ṭībī48n61, 49n63al-Tirmiḏī135n54al-ʿUkbarī126n16al-ʾUšmūnī112n29Wāfī, ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Wāḥid213al-Wāḥidī37n3Yefet ben ʿEli186, 201al-Zabīdī74n188, 108, 114n44al-Zajjāj23–24, 109n14, 111al-Zajjājī10–11, 13, 14, 16, 18–19, 114n44, 142, 151al-Zamaḫšarī47n58, 58n104, 64n147, 67n164, 69n174, 70n181, 73n187, 74n188, 104, 112, 115n46, 125, 127n18, 129n29, 130n30, 131n37, 142, 144, 151–153, 182n29, 190, 196, 214, 219n40al-Zayyāt, ʾAḥmad Ḥasan208–225Index of Termsʾaḍdād191–194 see also taḍāddʿaks142, 156–160, 173ʿamal13, 16, 17–18, 22, 31–33, 34, 65, 79, 91–106, 164n116 see also ʿāmil; ʾiʿmāl; istiʿmāl; maʿmūl (fīhi)ʿāmil13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 28–36, 97, 101, 103, 107, 145, 167n130, 170 see also ʿamal; ʾiʿmāl; istiʿmāl; maʿmūl (fīhi)ʿāmmiyya210–211, 219–220, 221, 223ʾanʾan al-ḫafīfa107, 108n4ʾan al-ḫafīfa al-nāṣiba108, 109–110 see also ʾan al-nāṣibaʾan al-maṣdariyya107 see also maṣdarʾan al-mazīda114ʾan al-mufassira107, 109, 111 see also tafsīrʾan al-muḫaffafa107, 108, 110, 111ʾan al-nāṣiba107, 108n6, 109–110 see also ʾan al-ḫafīfa al-nāṣibaʾan al-zāʾida107, 113–116ʾan (al-)zāʾida li-l-taʾkīd114n44, 116ʾan in the sense of ʾay107, 109–112, 116ʾan in the sense of ʾiḏ108n6ʾan in the sense of 108n6ʾan in the sense of li-ʾallā108n6ʾan laġwan107, 113 see also laġw; mulġaʿaraḍ150ʾaṣl39, 41n20, 65, 68, 126–127, 130, 131, 153, 164–165, 170, 194ʿaṭf al-bayān155badal11, 52, 60n118, 76, 94–96, 102, 211 see also mubdal minhubadīʿ44, 46, 58, 67, 72, 76bināʾ19, 215n26 see also mabnībināʾ ʿalā30, 100n55 see also mabnī ʿalā (l-mubtadaʾ)binyan185n52, 186n56, 195constructional idiom47 ff.ḍamīr see ism muḍmar; muḍmarḍamīr mustatir134ḍarūra40 see also poetic licensedawarān / dawr169–173direct speech107, 110–113, 116, 188duʿāʾ124 see also lām al-duʿāʾ; supplicationfaḍla167fāʿil19, 46, 92, 97–99, 101, 104n81, 134, 144, 160–162fāʿiliyya153fāriġ15 see also istiṯnāʾ mufarraġ; mustaṯnā mufarraġ; tafrīġfaṣl58, 142, 149–156, 173 see also infiṣālfiʿl9, 12, 13, 15, 18–19, 49, 53, 59, 61, 94n23, 97–99, 100n55, 101, 104n81, 126n14, 141, 144, 159, 163, 186, 194, 199ʾafʿāl al-qulūb16fiʿl ḥaqīqī19 see also ḥaqīqa; istiʿāra; mustaʿārforeign loans123, 125, 130, 131fuṣḥā208, 210–211, 215, 216, 219, 220–221, 223ġarīb42n31, 74, 194n98God’s names123–124, 127, 133, 135–136ḫabar15, 28–31, 34–35, 53, 141, 158ḥadd101, 126, 141–177ḥadd al-kalām65ḥadd al-lafẓ101ḥadd ḥaqīqī143ḥadd lafẓī143ḥadd nāqiṣ144n16ḥadd rasmī143, 144–149 see also rasmḥadd tāmm144n16ḥaḏf48n61, 49n62, 55, 71n184, 78n202Ḥadīṯ18, 123, 127n18, 134n51, 190, 191n79ḥājiz10–11, 17ḥāl17, 53, 154–155, 160–162, 166–167, 169, 197–198ḥāl muʾakkida162ḥāl muntaqila162ṣāḥib al-ḥāl169ḥaml ʿalā32ḥaqīqa19 see also fiʿl ḥaqīqī; istiʿāra; mustaʿārḥaraka18, 19ḥarf11, 16, 17, 97n34, 108n4, 126, 194ḥarf jarr103, 171–172ḥurūf al-maʿānī127ḥurūf al-mujāzāt103n76ḥasan16ḥāṣir160ḫāṣṣa149–150, 151, 157–159ḥikāya111ʿibāra111ibtidāʾ21, 28–36 see also lām al-ibtidāʾ; mubtadaʾ; mabnī ʿalā (l-mubtadaʾ)ʾiḍāfa33, 44n44, 56–59, 61n125, 64, 66n153, 70, 75, 77, 153, 210–212, 213, 214–215, 219, 222 see also muḍāfʾiḍmār53, 188ʾiġrāq48ʾiḫbār11ʾiḫlāʾ13, 15, 94, 95, 104n83iḥtirāz154ʿilāj55n93ʿilla40n15, 156n79, 171n149iltiqāʾ al-sākinayn131n34, 132ʾiʿmāl65n151, 92, 97n35, 100n55 see also ʿamal; ʿāmil; istiʿmāl; maʿmūl (fīhi)imperative52, 109n14, 116, 124n8, 125, 127n18, 133–136, 188infiṣāl58, 77 see also faṣlʾiʿrāb9, 14, 22–24, 166, 167n130, 168, 208, 209, 210, 211–212, 215, 216–217, 218, 221 see also taqdīr al-ʾiʿrābʾirāda54, 81ʾiskān210, 221 see also taskīnism13, 21–24, 63–64, 69, 75, 76, 94n17, 100n55, 103, 126n16, 142n9, 149, 153, 157–159, 162, 164, 212, 214, 217 see also musammāism fāʿil49, 50, 55, 56–57, 58n104, 59, 132ism fiʿl124, 127, 132, 133–136ism mafʿūl49, 145–146, 190ism muḍmar134 see also ḍamīr; muḍmarism ṯulāṯī208–225ʾišmām11istiʿāra19, 42n28, 44, 50, 68n169 see also ḥaqīqa; mustaʿāristifhām11ištiġāl91, 92n7, 100–101, 104 see also mašġūl; šāġil; šuġlistiʿmāl65 see also ʿamal; ʿāmil; ʾiʿmāl; maʿmūl (fīhi)ištiqāq195n106, 200n123istiṯnāʾ93 see also mustaṯnāistiṯnāʾ mufarraġ12–15, 16, 91, 92, 93, 102 see also fāriġ; mustaṯnā mufarraġ; tafrīġistiṯnāʾ munqaṭiʿ14 see also mustaṯnā munqaṭiʿistiṯnāʾ muttaṣil14 see also mustaṯnā muttaṣilʾitbāʿ217ʾiṯbāt12, 17 see also majāz fī l-ʾiṯbātiṭṭirād142, 156–160, 168, 173–174 see also ṭardittisāʿ37–90 see also saʿa; tawassuʿjāmiʿ160jamīl16jawāb21jins142, 149–156, 173Judaeo-Arabic178–207jumla162kalām15, 20, 21, 23, 68, 115n46, 135, 160n97, 162, 167kalām al-ʿarab183, 190kalām mustaġnī110kalām al-nafs112 see also ḥadd al-kalām; saʿat al-kalāmkalima125–126, 130n33, 151–153, 160n97kāna wa-ʾaḫawātuhā97n35, 196–198kāna al-nāqiṣa197n114kāna al-tāmma197–198kayfiyya157, 170lafẓ15, 17, 21, 23–24, 57, 112, 126, 146–147n31, 151, 160–161, 163, 171–172, 183lafẓa124, 198laġw16, 107n3, 113 see also ʾan laġwan; mulġālaḥn221n46lāmlām al-ʾamr22, 188lām al-duʿāʾ22lām al-ibtidāʾ10 see also ibtidāʾlaqab212, 214, 217, 219al-lawḥ al-maḥfūẓ20, 22logic126n14, 141–177luġa20, 59n109, 128–129, 130n33, 131, 132, 181, 183, 191, 194, 196–197, 198mā l-ḥijāziyya54n86mabnī136, 153, 164–165, 170–171 see also bināʾmabnī ʿalā (l-mubtadaʾ)28, 30, 110 see also bināʾ ʿalā; ibtidāʾ, mubtadaʾmafʿūl19, 40, 60–61, 97–99, 141, 146, 161–162mafʿūl bihi98, 144–146, 160mafʿūl fīhi146 see also ẓarfmafʿūliyya153mafʿūl maʿahu97n36mafʿūl muṭlaq103, 146, 155 see also maṣdarmaḥmūl157majāz41, 42n30, 46n52, 47n55, 68n169, 69, 71n183, 74n188, 163 see also ẓarf majāzī / ẓarfiyya majāziyyamajāz ʿaqlī41, 48majāz fī l-ḥukm41, 48n61majāz fī l-ʾiṯbāt41Majmaʿ al-Luġa al-ʿArabiyya208–225mamnūʿ min al-ṣarf214–215maʿmūl (fīhi)15, 17, 22, 97 see also ʿamal; ʿāmil; ʾiʿmāl; istiʿmālmaʿnā17, 21n14, 31–32, 54n89, 55n90, 57, 71n182, 115n46, 126, 127n18, 151–153, 158–159, 160, 161, 163–164, 165, 168, 171–172, 184, 190, 191, 194, 196–197, 199 see also tafsīr al-maʿnāmāniʿ160manzila30, 68n167, 109, 133, 188maṣdar18, 21, 49–55, 59, 62, 63, 73, 99n45, 103, 107, 135 see also ʾan al-maṣdariyya; mafʿūl muṭlaqmašġūl91, 92, 102, 103n76 see also ištiġāl; šāġil; šuġlmaṯal44, 65, 68–69, 72mawḍiʿ11, 15mawḍiʿ fī l-kalām15mawḍūʿ157, 159metonymy42, 62n135, 65, 70–71, 72, 76Midrash178Mishnah180n15, 192, 195n104, 196muʿallaq97n35mubālaġa48, 50n67mubdal minhu95–96 see also badalmubtadaʾ28–36, 158 see also ibtidāʾ; mabnī ʿalā (l-mubtadaʾ)muḍāf130n30, 213, 214, 217 see also ʾiḍāfamuḍāf ʾilayhi171–173, 211, 217muḍmar100n55 see also ḍamīr; ism muḍmarmujāwara42, 70 see also mujāwirmujāwir70 see also mujāwaramulġā16 see also ʾan laġwan; laġwmunādā213 see also nidāʾmuʿrab153–154, 164–165, 170–171, 172musammā21–23, 127 see also ismmusnad167mustaʿār19, 163 see also fiʿl ḥaqīqī; ḥaqīqa; istiʿāramustaqīm18muštaqq135n54muštarak14, 165mustaṯnā15, 94, 168 see also istiṯnāʾmustaṯnā minhu14, 15, 91, 93mustaṯnā mufarraġ14 see also fāriġ; istiṯnāʾ mufarraġ; tafrīġmustaṯnā munqaṭiʿ14, 163 see also istiṯnāʾ munqaṭiʿmustaṯnā muttaṣil14, 163 see also istiṯnāʾ muttaṣilmutakallim18, 193nāʾib al-fāʿil98n38 see also fāʿilnaʿt49n63, 168–169 see also ṣifa; waṣfnawʿ149–150, 151nawādir195nidāʾ130n30 see also munādānisba18parts of speech124, 125, 142, 156n78, 172poetic license (constraint)40, 45n46, 58, 64n144, 77, 128n20, 129n27, 130, 131 see also ḍarūraqabīḥ16qaḍiyya141, 157, 159qalb67qasīm150qirāʾa110qiyās64n147, 210rasm145, 165 see also ḥadd rasmīrasm nāqiṣ144n16rasm tāmm144n16ruwāt (al-šiʿr)42, 43, 44, 45, 72saʿasaʿat al-ʿarabiyya66n153saʿat al-kalām37–90 see also ittisāʿ; tawassuʿšāḏḏ80šāġil103n72 see also ištiġāl; šuġl; mašġūlšāhid38, 43, 47, 49n62, 73, 75 ff., 125, 199samāʿ210ṣifa49n63, 50n68, 149 see also naʿt; waṣfṣila109n14Stoicism143n15šuġl12, 91–106 see also ištiġāl; mašġūl; šāġilsupplication123 ff. see also duʿāʾŠuʿūbiyya180n13, 193syllogism141taʿaddī10, 18, 19, 60, 61, 62n131, 92, 98tābiʿ18, 166–169taḍādd192 see also ʾaḍdādtafrīġ12–15, 16, 91, 92, 98n40, 104 see also fāriġ; istiṯnāʾ mufarraġ; mustaṯnā mufarraġtafsīr111tafsīr al-maʿnā55n90 see also ʾan al-mufassirataḫaṭṭī10taḫfīf210, 212–213tajāwuz199tajnīs80taʾkīd / tawkīd59n110, 76, 115n46, 134 see also ʾan (al-)zāʾida li-l-taʾkīdTalmud192, 195, 199tamyīz154–156, 165n124, 166–167tanāzuʿ100taqdīr135, 171, 188, 189taqdīr al-ʾiʿrāb55n90taqsīm144ṭard157 see also iṭṭirādtarkīb164tarkīb mazjī214, 215n26, 219tasāmuḥ41n22taṣawwur141, 143tašbīh48n60taṣdīq141, 143taskīn210, 211–212, 214–215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220–222 see also ʾiskāntawassuʿ37, 40n15, 64, 73 see also ittisāʿ; saʿatawkīd, see taʾkīdtaysīr al-naḥw209tazjiya11–12, 17ṭibāq80n210ʿumda167waḍʿ146–149, 151–153, 155, 161n99waqf18, 219, 222waṣf49n63 see also naʿt; ṣifawaṣl217, 219, 222wāwwāw al-ʿatf188wāw / wa- in the sense of maʿa31–34, 35ẓāhir9zāʾid, see ʾan al-mazīda, ʾan al-zāʾida, ziyādaẓarf16, 29, 34, 35, 40, 47, 57n100, 58, 61, 63, 103 see also mafʿūl fīhiẓarfiyya171ẓurūf al-zamān18ẓarf majāzī / ẓarfiyya majāziyya68n169 see also majāzziḥāf64n144ziyāda115n46 see also ʾan al-mazīda; ʾan al-zāʾida