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In these concluding observations, the editors reflect on the challenges the international trade and investment regimes are currently facing in the context of energy, and which have emerged from the chapters of this book: accounting for the specificities of the energy sector and for the environmental and human rights impact of energy trade and investment activities. To address these challenges, this final chapter relies on the different chapters in the volume to set out three main approaches to bridge the gap between economic and non-economic considerations in the treatment of international energy trade and investment.