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Elena Cima
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Makane Moïse Mbengue
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Index

Aarhus Convention 136
access to justice 138
actionable subsidies 25, 102, 174, 176, 188, 196, 202, 207209, 212
Africa 4647, 67, 135
African Charter of Human and People’s Rights 127129, 133135
Agreement on Anti-dumping (ada) 25, 34, 36, 3839
Agreement on Safeguards 31
Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (sps) 157
Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ascm)
discipline 7, 18, 28, 101103, 157, 174, 179, 191, 199210
reform 19, 3638, 40, 80, 104, 175176, 211213
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (tbt) 157, 168, 171
Agreement on Trade-related Investment Measures (trims) 2829, 36, 207209
American Convention on Human Rights 129, 139
anti-dumping duties 10, 18, 2324, 32, 34
Appellate Body (ab) 2728, 30, 7778, 168, 170173, 203, 206207, 209, 226, 242
Article xx, gatt exceptions see exceptions
benefit (subsidies discipline) 102, 204
definition 203
test 28, 203, 206207
biofuels 24, 81
bilateral investment treaties (bits) 47, 49, 62, 64, 66
(alleged) violations 62, 65, 227, 230
environmental provisions 49, 84
interpretation 87
see also international investment agreements
burden of proof 28, 169171, 176, 232
business and human rights 44, 48, 54, 142
carve-outs 158159, 167173, 175176, 195196, 210211
Clean Development Mechanism (cdm) 79
climate change
diversity of policies 108, 204
regime 72, 100, 106, 109, 185186
phenomenon 3, 71, 92, 106, 107
climate targets 72, 109, 185
compensation
for environmental damage 87
in case of expropriation 43, 48, 50, 5859
contracts
claims 57
clauses 43, 61
internationalization 5960
corporate social responsibility (csr) 84, 87
counterclaims
general 85
environmental 8889, 229231
human rights 86
countervailing duties 18, 24, 32, 34, 202
decarbonization 180, 185, 187, 200, 214
developing countries 11, 45, 7277, 79, 92, 107, 109111, 113, 163
dispute settlement body (dsb) 35, 70, 80, 86, 202, 207
domestic law 59, 143, 169, 227
domestic litigation 140
due process 64, 221, 228
eco-efficiency 6, 166, 237
eco-labelling 17, 166
electricity 7, 2021, 27, 7172, 81, 181183, 186187, 189191, 196199, 206
energy
access to 27, 7172, 7576, 141, 162, 206
cooperation 71, 7475, 7980, 126, 159160
efficiency 2, 7, 7172, 7475, 7980, 155, 166, 195
fossil see fossil fuels
investments 1, 45, 43, 7677, 126
market 1, 30, 180, 182183, 187, 206
renewable see renewable energy
trade 1, 4, 79, 149
transit 4, 126, 141, 181
security 3, 5, 126, 142, 154155, 179181
Energy Charter Treaty (ect) 56, 51, 7475
environmental differentiation 7, 13, 226, 234
environmental goods 3435, 78, 153, 162
Environmental Goods Agreement 39
environmental impact assessment (eia) 83
environmental protection 2, 44, 78, 82, 8990, 148, 150, 155, 161, 165, 167, 223227, 23239
environmental subsidies 174175, 211
environmental takings see expropriation
European Commission 24, 148, 182, 185, 188, 192, 195196, 199200, 213
European Community/Union 24, 39, 102, 149151, 154155, 179201
competition policy 180181, 194
energy legislation 179, 181185, 188, 191197, 213
internal energy market 180181, 183, 185, 188
international commitments 185
State Aid rules 194197
treaties 184, 193196
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 135
European Court of Justice (ecj) 194, 196200
exception clauses 7, 2930, 3638, 78, 82, 84, 156159, 166176, 197, 210213, 219, 224, 242
exemptions see carve-outs
exhaustible natural resources 78, 84, 158, 224, 242
exploitation of natural resources 12, 126, 143, 238
export subsidies 202204, 212
expropriation 43, 54, 5859, 6263, 139, 221
compensation for 43
environmental 89, 221, 225
indirect 86, 88, 222
lawful v. unlawful 63, 221, 225
Fair and Equitable Treatment (fet) 63, 65, 67, 86, 89
feed-in tariff (fit) 2022, 28, 3031, 81, 189190, 205210
financial contribution 102, 203204
foreign direct investment (fdi) 82
fossil fuels
as a resource 107
governance 95, 101
subsidies 73, 7677, 9294, 9697, 101107, 109, 113120, 162163
subsidies reform 73, 92, 9697, 101, 104, 108117, 121
fragmentation 9495, 97
free trade agreements (ftas) 3940, 105, 149150
and renewable energy 152153, 160
dispute settlement 164165
environmental provisions 7980, 105, 150, 154, 155, 157166, 175176, 235
investment chapter 158, 235
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (gatt) 3, 2830, 36, 7778, 84, 102103, 148, 156158, 167168, 171172, 175176, 199, 209, 212213
General Agreement on Trade in Services (gats) 157158, 167, 175
general exceptions see exceptions
government procurement 159, 173
greenhouse gas emissions 16, 71, 74, 77, 105109, 163, 206
green economy 6, 1617, 20, 236238
green industrial policy 9, 1720, 25, 27, 3536, 40, 238
green subsidies see environmental subsidies
human rights 6, 9, 44, 4849, 8388, 127136, 138, 140144
indigenous peoples 88, 128130, 136140, 143
industrial policy 10, 16, 17, 20, 27, 36, 181
see also green industrial policy
informal law-making 9596, 110, 113, 119, 121, 243
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 132, 139
International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (icsid) 87
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (iccpr) 127, 136, 138
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (icescr) 127, 129
International Energy Agency (iea) 93, 106, 115, 117, 119120
international investment agreements (iias) 47, 70, 8185, 87, 90, 219, 235, 239
see also bits (bilateral investment treaties), free trade agreements (ftas), investment treaties
International Labour Organization (ilo) 8788, 129, 137, 139141
International Monetary Fund (imf) 97, 116117, 120
International Renewable Energy Agency (irena) 74
international trade law
see also wto (World Trade Organization), ftas (free trade agreements)
investment contracts 45, 51, 55
investment treaties
see bilateral investment treaties (bits), free trade agreements (ftas), international investment agreements (iias)
investors
conduct 230
obligations 83, 85, 90
jurisdiction 5657, 86, 140141, 219, 231232, 235236, 242
Kyoto Protocol 7475, 107108, 155, 164, 186
legitimate expectations 63, 65, 86, 222, 228, 233
‘like circumstances’ 224, 226, 233234
likeness 224, 226, 233
local content requirement (lcr) 2122, 25, 2730, 193, 202, 204, 207211, 213
low-carbon
economy 8, 17, 72
fuel 105, 163
technology 75, 166
Millennium Development Goals 73, 76
most-favoured nation (mfn) 47, 103, 224, 233
Multilateral Environmental Agreements (meas) 155, 164
multinational corporations 3, 49, 142143
mutual supportiveness 1920, 2728, 3031, 36, 39, 78
nationally determined contributions (ndcs) 73, 109110, 121
nationalization see expropriation
national security 136
national sovereignty see sovereignty
national treatment 29, 36, 103, 157, 168, 224, 233
natural resources 128, 135, 137138, 224
non-actionable subsidies 36, 38, 102, 174, 202, 210211
non-discrimination standard 28, 5657, 89, 226, 242
See also mfn (most-favoured nation) and national treatment clause
non-governmental organizations (ngos) 50, 95, 115116, 119
non-market economies 25
non-state actors 141142
North American Free Trade Agreement (nafta) 153, 161, 165, 221, 224, 228229
oil
exploration/exploitation 43, 45, 53, 88, 139, 229230
pipeline 49, 51
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (oecd) 49, 93, 115117, 119120, 143, 220
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (opec) 107, 115
Paris Agreement 72, 7475, 107, 109110, 121, 185, 206, 213
Participation 130, 135138, 161
peoples, rights 127139
see also indigenous peoples
performance requirements 158, 224
permanent sovereignty over natural resources 127128, 130, 143
see also sovereignty
police powers doctrine 221, 223, 226, 233
process and production methods (ppms) 7, 226, 233234
precautionary principle 83
prior informed consent 136139
prohibited subsidies 28, 102, 105, 176, 188, 196, 199, 202, 204, 211212
renewable energy
definition 74
disputes 18, 27
electricity generation 20, 71, 81
subsidies 78, 2021, 27, 3638, 40, 81, 173, 189, 196200, 205210
technologies 17, 20, 22, 31, 3435, 39, 71, 81
transition 7, 71, 76, 186
right to regulate 52, 84, 156, 161
Rio Declaration 88
self-determination 127128, 130, 136
soft law 38, 85, 8788, 90, 113
solar
cells 2324, 2729, 32, 81
technologies 23, 31
sovereignty 5, 47, 50, 58, 154, 161, 184
specificity (of subsidies) 102103, 204, 207
stability 43, 5557, 61, 6566, 190, 193
stabilization clauses 4353, 5563, 65
State aid 13, 180, 188, 191, 193201, 210, 214
subsidies
see also actionable subsidies , green subsidies , non-actionable subsidies , prohibited subsidies
sustainable development goals (sdgs) 2, 6, 7071, 7680, 8590, 112113, 118121
tariffs 17, 23, 26, 32, 3435, 3940, 78
technology
environmentally friendly 163
transfer 74, 163
third party access 183
trade remedies 10, 19, 3132, 40
trade remedy cases 19, 2326, 31, 34, 39
transparency 38, 62, 75, 96, 100, 104, 109110, 114116, 119121
treaties/treaty law 242
conflicting provisions 154
interpretation 77, 87, 155, 164, 172173
preamble 65, 75, 7778, 82, 155
tribunals 57
avoidance of controversial issues 28, 54
bias towards own regime 7
failure to consider environmental issues 7, 89, 225226
introduction of environmental considerations 84, 8687, 8990, 197, 232, 234236
jurisdiction 56, 86, 231232, 235236
problems with scientific evidence 232233
use of external sources 8788, 232
umbrella clause 62, 64
United Nations (UN) 95, 112
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (unctad) 23, 77
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (unclos) 7475
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (undrip) 128, 137
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (unfccc) 72, 7475, 100, 106107, 109, 155, 164, 206
United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 6, 16, 71, 104, 112, 121, 237
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (udhr) 131
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (vclt) 77, 87, 90, 164, 172
wind
energy 74, 81, 198, 208
technologies 2324, 76
turbines 24, 31, 75
World Bank 97, 115116, 141
World Trade Organization (wto) 4, 17, 38, 40, 70, 77, 100, 104, 148, 179
Committee on Trade and Environment (cte) 78, 104
dispute settlement see Appellate Body (ab) and dispute settlement body (dsb)
disputes 81, 168, 170173, 203204, 206210
Doha Ministerial Declaration 78
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