The Member States of the European Union (EU) maintain unofficial relations with the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan), in keeping with the One China Policy. The Commission, although not a state and principally concerned with trade, maintains diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China, represented by its Delegation in Beijing, while having unofficial relations with Taiwan, represented by the European Economic and Trade Office (EETO) in Taipei. However, the ‘unofficial’ nature of relations has not prevented the development of trade and investment ties between the EEC/EU and Taiwan. Nevertheless, the One China Policy has had its effects on trade matters between the EU and Taiwan. Politics has consequences for economics; the two cannot be separated. This chapter will look at these aspects from a historical perspective, with a specific eye on archival materials collected from the EU completed by the works of a number of Taiwan specialists. This chapter does not cover the area of Development Cooperation.