This paper explores the effects of written apologies in bad news and crisis communication. Two experiments were conducted in which participants evaluated messages with or without apologies. The result of both experiments indicate that apologies do not affect the evaluation of the texts nor do they affect the sender’s reputation. One probable explanation for the lack of effect is that participants are sceptical about the sincerity of written apologies due to the absence of indicators of sincerity in written communication modalities.

Public Apology between Ritual and Regret

Symbolic Excuses on False Pretenses or True Reconciliation out of Sincere Regret?

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