The paper documents Emphasis spread in the Djelfa dialect (DJ) of Algerian Arabic with a special examination of the emphatic segments /sˤ/, /tˤ/ and /ðˤ/. If a given word contains an underlying emphatic segment, the nearby segments are also realized with emphasis. The dialect, however, differentiates two types of emphasis spread: unbounded leftward spread that propagates from the emphatic segment till the beginning of the phonological word; and bounded rightward spread that is blocked by a set of segments /i/, /j/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/. Of particular interest in the current investigation is the behavior of emphasis spread (ES) with respect to morpheme boundaries. While the left morpheme edge is realized with ES, the right morpheme boundary is deemed resistant to ES unless an underlying emphatic segment falls prior to a -V(C) suffix. This is well captured by the interplay between the markedness constraints FAITH [RTR] SUFFIX and SHARE (RTR).
Al-Ani S. 1970. Arabic phonology. The Hague: Mouton.
Ali Latif and Daniloff R.G. 1972. A contrastive cinefluorographic investigation of the articulation of emphatic-non emphatic cognate consonants. Studia Linguistica 26:81–105.
Algryani Ali. 2014. Emphasis Spread in Libyan Arabic International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL) 2: 30–38.
Al-Nassir A.A. 1993. Sibawayh the Phonologist: A Critical Study of the Phonetic and Phonological Theory of Sibawayh as Presented in His Treatise Al-Kitab. London: Kegan Paul International.
Archangeli Diana and Douglas Pulleyblank. 1994. Grounded Phonology. Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press.
Bin-Muqbil Musaed. 2006. Phonetic and phonological aspects of Arabic emphatics and gutturals. Doctoral dissertation University of Wisconsin-Maddison.
Boukous A. 1990. Pharyngealisation et domaines prosodiques. Etudes et documents berberes 7: 68–91.
Broselow E. 1976. The Phonology of Egyptian Arabic. Doctoral dissertation. University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Broselow Ellen. 1979. Cairene Arabic Syllable Structure. Linguistic Analysis 5: 345–382.
Bukshaisha F.A.M. 1985. An Experimental Phonetic Study of some aspects of Qatari Arabic. Doctoral dissertation University of Edinburgh.
Card Elizabeth A. 1983. A Phonetic and Phonological Study of Arabic Emphasis. Doctoral dissertation Cornell University.
Chomsky N. and M. Halle. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper and Row.
Davis Stuart. 1995. Emphasis Spread in Arabic and Grounded Phonology. Linguistic Inquiry 26: 465–498.
Dickins J. 2007. Sudanese Arabic: Phonematics and syllable structure. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Dolgopolsky Aharon B. 1977. Emphatic consonants in Semitic. Israel Oriental Studies 7: 1–13.
Ferguson C. 1956. The emphatic l in Arabic. Language 32: 446–452.
Gafos Adamantios. 1991. The Articulatory Basis of Locality in Phonology. New York: Garland Publishing Inc.
Ghazeli Salem. 1977. Back consonants and backing coarticulation in Arabic. Doctoral dissertation University of Texas at Austin.
Giannini A. Pettorino M. 1982. The emphatic consonants in Arabic. Speech Laboratory Report IV Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli.
Gouma Taoufik. 2013. L’ emphase en arabe marocain: vers une analyse autosegmentale. Doctoral dissertation University of Paris 8.
Halle Morris Bert Vaux and Andrew Wolfe. 2000. On feature spreading and the representation of place of articulation. Linguistic Inquiry 31 (3): 387–444.
Heath Jeffrey. 1987. Ablaut and ambiguity: Phonology of a Moroccan Arabic dialect. Albany N.Y.: SUNY Press.
Herzallah R. 1990. Aspects of Palestinian Arabic Phonology: A Nonlinear Approach. Doctoral dissertation Cornell University Ithaca NY.
Hoberman Robert. 1995. Current Issues in Semitic Phonology. In A Handbook of Phonological Theory ed. by John Goldsmith 839–847. Oxford U.K. and Cambridge Mass.: Blackwell.
Jakobson R. 1957. Mufaxxama—the emphatic phonemes in Arabic: synchronic and diachronic aspects. In: Pulgram E. (ed) Studies Presented to Joshua Whatmough. The Hague: Mouton 105–115.
Janson T. 1986. Cross Linguistic Trends in the Frequency of CV sequences. Phonology Yearbook 3179–198.
Kabrah Rawiah S. 2004. Opacity and Transparency in the Lexical and Post-lexical Phonology of Makkan Arabic: A Stratal Optimality Theoretic Approach. Doctoral dissertation Boston University.
Kenstowicz Michael & Nabila Louriz. 2009. Reverse engineering: Emphatic consonants and the adaptation of vowels in French lowanwords into Moroccan Arabic. Brill’s Annual of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics 1: 41–74.
Lahrouchi Mohamed & Rachid Ridouane. 2016. On diminutives and plurals in Moroccan Arabic. Morphology 26: 453–475.
Laufer A. and T. Baer. 1988. The Emphatic and Pharyngeal Sounds in Hebrew and in Arabic. In Language and Speech vol. 31 Part2.
Lehn Walter. 1963. Emphasis in Cairo Arabic. Language 39:29–39.
McCarthy John J. 1994. The phonetics and phonology of Semitic pharyngeals. In Papers in laboratory phonology III: Phonological structure and phonetic form ed. Patricia Keating 191–233. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy John. 1997. Process-specific Constraints in Optimality Theory. Linguistic Inquiry 28: 231–251.
Morén Bruce. 2000. The puzzle of Kashmiri stress: implications for weight theory. Phonology 17: 365–396.
Nasr R.T. 1959a. ‘Velarization in Lebanese Arabic’ Phonetica 3: 203–209.
Obrecht D.H. 1968. Effects of the Second Formant on the Perception of Velarization Consonants in Arabic. The Hague: Mouton.
Royal Anne Marie. 1985. Male/female Pharyngealization Patterns in Cairo Arabic: A Sociolinguistic Study of Two Neighborhoods. Doctoral dissertation the University of Texas at Austin.
Sakarnah Ahmed. K. 1999. Phonological aspects of ʕabady Arabic a Bedouin Jordanian dialect. Doctoral dissertation University of Wisconsin.
Shahin K. 1997. Postvelar harmony: An examination of its bases and crosslinguistic variation. Doctoral dissertation University of British Columbia.
Walker Rachel. 1998. Nasalization Neutral Segments and Opacity Effects. Doctoral dissertation University of California Santa Cruz.
Watson Janet C.E. 1999. The Directionality of Emphasis Spread in Arabic. Linguistic Inquiry 30: 289–300.
Watson J.C.E. 2002. The phonology and morphology of Arabic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Younes Munther. 1982. Problems in the segmental phonology of Palestinian Arabic. Doctoral dissertation University of Texas Austin.
Younes Munther. 1991. Emphasis spread in three Arabic dialects. Ms. Cornell University Ithaca N.Y.
Younes Munther. 1993. Emphasis spread in two Arabic dialects. In Perspectives on Arabic linguistics V ed. Mushira Eid and Clive Holes 119–145. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Younes Munther. 1994. On Emphasis and /r/ in Arabic. In Eid M. V. Cantarino and K. Walters (eds). Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics VI: Papers from the sixth annual symposium on Arabic Linguistics. John Benjamins Publishing: Amsterdam. 215–235.
Youssef Islam. 2013. Place Assimilation in Arabic: Contrasts Features and Constraints Doctoral dissertation Tromsø University.
Zawaydeh Bushra. 1998. Gradient Uvularization Spread in Ammani Jordanian Arabic. Perspectives on Arabic linguistics XI ed. Elabbas Benmamoun Mushira Eid and Niloofar Haeri. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 117–141.
Zawaydeh Bushra. 1999. The phonetics and phonology of gutturals in Arabic. Doctoral dissertation Indiana University.