Africa boils on account of intractable communal conflicts. Strategies adopted to manage the conflicts conform to western approaches of conflict management. Traditional forms of conflict resolution have been rarely applied. This has prompted emphasis on traditional tools of conflict management. Drawing from interviews and archival documents, this paper focuses on the deployment of iko mmee ritual by local civil society organizations in managing the Aguleri and Umuleri communal conflicts in Nigeria. It catalogues the failure of western models, explains the principles underlying iko mmee and how iko mmee was able to facilitate peace in the communities.
AgbesePita, '“Associations and Conflict Management: The Experience of the Agila Development Association”', in Honey Ray and Okafor Stanley(eds), Hometown associations: Indigenous knowledge and development in Nigeria, (Sam Bookman, Ibadan1999) 75-88.
AlbertOlawale, '“The Role and Process of Action Research in the Management of Violent Community Conflicts,”', in M. Smyth and G. Robinson(eds), Researching Violently Divided Societies: Ethnical and Methodical Issues, (United Nations University, Tokyo2001) 106-129.
MamdaniM., '“Critique of the State and Civil Society Paradigm in Africanist studies”', in Mamdani Mahmood and E Wamba-dia-Wamba(eds), African Studies in Social Movement and Democracy, (CODESRIA, Dakar1995) 603-615.
OnwuzuruigboIfeanyi, '“Women and Intra-ethnic Conflicts in Southeastern Nigeria: A Study of Aguleri/Umuleri Conflicts”', in Research Report submitted to the Centre for Research on Inequality Human Security and Ethnicity (CRISE), (University of Oxford, 2007).
Chapter two of Collier’s (2009) is devoted to analyzing global peacekeeping programmes and why they have failed to achieve peace. Apart from Sierra Leone Paul Collier argues that most post-conflict peacekeeping initiatives have largely failed.
In1900British colonial administration revoked the authority of the Royal Niger Company over its colony in the Niger. The Niger Lands Transfer Ordinance of February 25 1916 was made to facilitate the transfer of land titles of the Royal Niger Company to the colonial government. Section 2 of the Ordinance transferred the land Umuleri sold to the Royal Niger Company in 1898 to the Governor of Nigeria. This meant that the land registered as No. 110 in the Register of Deeds and mentioned in the First Schedule of the Ordinance became Crown Land. See Niger Lands Transfer Ordinance. ONPROF 11/1/1/. National Archives Enugu.
See chapter two of Achebe (1958) for more insight.
Otuocha Land Dispute File No.1181Vol. 1 ONDIST 20/1/322 National Archives Enugu.
Otuocha Land Dispute. File No.1181Vol. 1 ONDIST 20/1/322 National Archives Enugu.