We argue in this article that the African continent has so far achieved less than it might have done because of three phases of technological constraint: a phase of Ecological Impediment, a phase of imperial impediment, and a phase of attitudinal impediment. Just as formal education (both colonial and post-colonial) has played a role in this process, it can be part of the solution, starting with educational policies seeking to overcome technological amnesia. Indeed, Africa needs to recover those aspects of its creativity (in medicine, technologies, etc.) which had flourished before, but were destroyed by the colonial regimes. The solution to the impediments includes also reconsidering the interrupted symphony of the Federal University of East Africa and mobilizing pan Africanism in pursuit of greater intellectual and academic cooperation.
ElmulthumN.A.MAdamN.A.“The Gap Between Women’s Education and Empowerment: The Case of Sudan,”2012February 5 2012presented at the 30th Triennial International Federation of University Women ConferenceAugust 2010Mexico Cityat the conference website http://www.ifuw.org/seminars/2010/elmuluthum.pdf