Dream of Unity: From the United States of Africa to the Federation of African States

In: African and Asian Studies
Author: Guy Martin 1
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Social Sciences, Winston-Salem State University

Abstract

The Pan-Africanists leaders’ dream of unity was deferred in favor of the gradualist/functionalist perspective embodied in a weak and loosely-structured Organization of African Unity (OAU) created on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). This article analyses the reasons for this failure, namely: the reluctance of newly-independent African leaders to abandon their newly-won sovereignty in favor of a broader political unity; suspicion on the part of many African leaders that Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana intended to become the super-president of a united Africa; and divide and rule strategies on the part of major Western powers (including the United States and France) meant to sabotage any attempt at African unity. The African Union which, on 26 May 2001, formally replaced the OAU, is also bound to fail because it is modeled on the European Union. The article then briefly surveys proposals for a re-configuration of the African states and a revision of the political map of Africa put forth by various authors, namely: Cheikh Anta Diop’s Federal African State; Marc-Louis Ropivia’s geopolitics of African regional integration; Makau wa Mutua’s and Arthur Gakwandi’s new political maps of Africa; Joseph Ki-Zerbo’s Federal African State; Daniel Osabu-Kle’s United States of Africa; Godfrey Mwakikagile’s African Federal Government; and Pelle Danabo’s pan-African Federal State. The article concludes with an overview of Mueni wa Muiu’s Fundi wa Afrika paradigm advocating the creation of a Federation of African States (FAS) based on five sub-regional states with a federal capital (Napata) and a rotating presidency, eventually leading to total political and economic integration.

  • Abdul-Raheem Tajudeen Pan Africanism: Politics, Economy and Social Change in the Twenty-First Century 1996 New York New York University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akokpari John, Ndinga-Muvumba A. & Murithi Tim The African Union and its Institutions 2008 Auckland Park, S.A. Fanele/Center for Conflict Resolution

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Benoist Joseph-Roger La Balkanisation de l’Afrique Occidentale Française 1979 Dakar Les Nouvelles Éditions Africaines

  • Cissoko Sékéné-Mody Un Combat pour l’Unité de l’Afrique de l’Ouest: La Fédération du Mali (1959-1960) 2005 Dakar Les Nouvelles Éditions Africaines du Senegal

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Danabo Pelle Darota From Africa of States to United Africa: Towards Africana Democracy 2008 Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas

  • Diop Cheikh Anta Les Fondements Économiques et Culturels d’un État Fédéral d’Afrique Noire 1974 2nd edition Paris Présence Africaine

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diop Cheikh Anta Nations Nègres et Culture 1979 3rd edition Paris Présence Africaine 2 volumes

  • Diop Cheikh Anta L’Unitè Culturelle de l’Afrique Noire 1982 2nd edition Paris Présence Africaine

  • Diop Cheikh Anta Black Africa: The Economic and Cultural Basis for a Federated State 1987 revised edition Chicago & Trenton Lawrence Hill Books/Africa World Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Esedebe P. Olisanwuche Pan-Africanism: The Idea and Movement, 1776-1991 1994 2nd edition Washington, D.C. Howard University Press

  • Foltz William J. From French West Africa to the Mali Federation 1965 New Haven Yale University Press

  • Francis David J. Uniting Africa: Building Regional Peace and Security Systems 2006 Burlington, VT Ashgate Publishing Company

  • Gakwandi Arthur S. Abdul-Raheem Tajudeen “Towards a New Political Map of Africa Pan-Africanims: Politics, Economy & Social Change in the Twenty-first Century 1996 New York New York University Press 181 190

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grant Colin Negro With A Hat: The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey 2008 New York Oxford University Press

  • Green Reginald H. & Seidman Ann Unity or Poverty? The Economics of Pan-Africanism 1968 Baltimore, MD Penguin Books

  • Kadhafi Mouammar Dans le Concert des Nations: Libres propos et entretiens avec Edmond Jouve 2004 Paris Éditions de l’Archipel

  • Ki-Zerbo Joseph Histoire de l’Afrique Noire, d’Hier à Demain 1978 Paris Hatier

  • Ki-Zerbo Joseph A Quand l’Afrique? Entretiens avec René Holenstein 2003 Paris La Tour d’Aigues Geneva: Éditions de l’Aube/Éditions d’en bas

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Legum Colin Pan-Africanism: A Short Political Guide 1962 London Pall Mall Press

  • Lewis Rupert Charles Marcus Garvey: Anti-Colonial Champion 1988 Trenton, NJ Africa World Press

  • Lumumba-Kasongo Tukumbi Political Re-Mapping of Africa: Transnational Ideology and the Re-Definition of Africa in World Politics 1994 New York University Press of America

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin Guy “Africa and the Ideology of Eurafrica: Neo-Colonialism or Pan-Africanism?” The Journal of Modern African Studies 1982 June 20 no. 2 221 238

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin Guy Africa in World Politics: A Pan-African Perspective 2002 Trenton, NJ Africa World Press

  • Martin Guy African Political Thought 2012 New York Palgrave Macmillan

  • Muiu Mueni wa & Martin Guy A New Paradigm of the African State: Fundi wa Afrika 2009 New York Palgrave Macmillan

  • Mutua Makau wa “Redrawing the map along African lines.” The Boston Globe 1994 September 22 17

  • Mutua Makau wa “Why Redraw the Map of Africa: A Moral and Legal Inquiry.” Michigan Journal of International Law 1995 vol. 16 1113 1176 (Summer)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mwakikagile Godfrey The Modern African State: Quest for Transformation 2001 Huntington, NY Nova Science Publishers

  • Ndiaye Guédel L’Échec de la Fédération du Mali 1980 Dakar Les Nouvelles Éditions Africaines

  • Nkrumah Kwame Neo-Colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism 1965 London Heinemann

  • Nkrumah Kwame Africa Must Unite 1970 New York International Publishers

  • Osabu-Kle Daniel Compatible Cultural Democracy: The Key to Development in Africa 2000 Peterborough, Ontario Broadview Press

  • Ropivia Marc-Louis Géopolitique de l’Intégration en Afrique Noire 1994 Paris L’Harmattan

  • Thompson Vincent Bakpetu Africa and Unity: The Evolution of Pan-Africanism 1969 London Longman

  • Van Walraven Klaas Dreams of Power: The Role of the Organization of African Unity in the Politics of Africa 1999 Aldershot, U.K. & Leiden Ashgate/African Studies Center

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallerstein Immanuel Africa: The Politics of Unity: An Analysis of a Contemporary Social Movement 1969 New York Vintage Books/Random House

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wauthier Claude L’Afrique des Africains: Inventaire de la Négritude 1964 Paris Éditions du Seuil

  • Wauthier Claude The Literature and Thought of Modern Africa 1979 2nd English language edition Washington, D.C. Three Continents Press

  • Young Kurt B. Africa Must Unite Revisited: Continuity and Change in the Case for Continental Unification,” Africa Today 2010 57 no. 1 43 63 (Fall)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zartman I. William International Relations in the New Africa 1987 Lanham, MD University Press of America

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 549 332 21
Full Text Views 285 59 6
PDF Downloads 55 40 5