Politics without Commerce? Explaining the Discontinuity in Soviet-Nigerian Relations, 1971-1979

in African and Asian Studies
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The paper set out to explain the discontinuity in Soviet-Nigerian relations between the periods 1967-1970 and 1971-1979. The explanation usually given for the poor relations between Nigeria and the Soviet Union between 1960 and 1966 is the anti-communism of the Nigerian political elite; and ideological incompatibility for the non-vibrant relations between 1971 and 1979. These explanations appear idealistic and hypothetical. A major source of the problem of explanation is the consideration of Soviet-Nigerian relations only within the context of the Soviet-American Cold War struggle, from a trilateral perspective. What if the Cold War did not exist, what would have been the nature of Soviet-Nigerian relations? Adopting a bilateral framework, the paper argues that it was the inchoate state of trade relations, which would have provided the basis for continuity across administrations, that retarded Soviet-Nigerian political relations between 1971 and 1979.

Politics without Commerce? Explaining the Discontinuity in Soviet-Nigerian Relations, 1971-1979

in African and Asian Studies

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References

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1

Kunle Amuwo“Resumption of Diplomatic Relations with Gabon, Cote d’Ivoire, Zambia and Tanzania after the 1967-70 Nigerian War” in The Structure and Processes of Foreign Policy Making and Implementation in Nigeria 1960-1990eds. G.O. Olusanya and R.A. Akindele (Lagos: niia 1990) 315.

2

A.B. Akinyemi“Mohammed/Obasanjo Foreign Policy” in Nigerian Government and Politics under Military Rule 1966-1979ed. O. Oyediran (London: Macmillan1979) 151.

4

A. Kirk-Greene“The Making of the Second Republic” in Nigeria since 1970: A Political and Economic Outlineeds. A. Kirk-Greene and D. Rimmer (London: Hodder & Stoughton1981) 48.

5

Susan Strange“International Economics and International Relations: A Case of Mutual Neglect”International Affairs 46 no. 2 (1970): 304.

7

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8

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12

John DonaldsonInternational Economic Relations: A Treatise on World Economy and World Politics (New York: Longmans, Green1928) xi.

13

Peter Wiles“The Necessity and Impossibility of Political Economy”History and Theory 11 no. 1 (1972): 11.

14

Mustafa Aydin and Damla Aras“Political Conditionality of Economic Relations between Paternalist States: Turkey’s Interaction with Iran, Iraq, and Syria”Arab Studies Quarterly 27 nos. 1&2 (2005): 21-22.

15

Ehimika A. Ifidon“The Rhetoric and Economics of Nigeria’s Diplomatic Reconstruction, 1970-1975”Benin Journal of Historical Studies 3 nos. 1&2 (2001): 14.

16

Ehimika A. Ifidon“The Resource-Market Linkage and the Growth Problem in Soviet-Nigerian Trade Relations, 1960-1979”Nigerian Journal of the Humanities 18 (2012): 41.

17

Ifidon“The Resource-Market Linkage”53.

18

Ifidon“The Resource-Market Linkage”56.

21

Suzanne CronjeThe World and Nigeria: The Diplomatic History of the Biafran War 1967-1970 (London: Sidgwick & Jackson1976) 53.

23

Stanley E. OrobatorDiplomacy and Conflict Resolution in International Relations: The Soviet Union and the Nigerian Crisis (Benin City: Uniben Press1997) 107-108.

24

Christopher StevensThe Soviet Union and Black Africa (London: Macmillan1976) 169.

25

Efraim Karsh“Influence through Arms Supply: The Soviet Experience in the Middle East”Conflict Quarterly 6 no. 1 (1986): 45.

26

Uri Ra’anan“Soviet Arms Transfers and the Problem of Political Leverage” in Arms Transfers to the Third World: The Military Buildup in Less Industrial Countriesed. Uri Ra’anan R.L. Pfaltgraff Jr. and G. Kemp (Boulder co: Westview Press 1978) 132.

27

Philip G. Roeder“The Ties that Bind: Aid, Trade, and Political Compliance in Soviet-Third World Relations”International Studies Quarterly 29 no. 2 (1985): 192-193. Although Roeder only found “a significant positive relationship between Soviet arms transfers and export dependence in the 1960s”: 204.

28

See StevensSoviet Union and Black Africa47-49; and Africa Diary: Weekly Record of Events in Africa (New Delhi: Africa Publications) 1965: 2313.

29

Colin Legum ed.Africa Contemporary Record 1974-1975 (New York: Africana Publishing1975) 8799.

31

Olatunji J.B. Ojo“The Soviet Union and Nigeria: The Quest for Influence, 1967-1983”Africa Spectrum 20 no. 2 (1985): 172.

34

W. Quandt“Influence through Arms Supply: The U.S. Experience in the Middle East” in Arms transfers to the Third Worldeds. Ra’anan Pfaltgraff Jr. and Kemp 122.

35

John Sislin“Arms as Influence: The Determinants of Successful Influence”Journal of Conflict Resolution 38 no. 4 (1994): 667.

36

Hugh Hanning“Lessons from the Arms Race”Africa Report 13 no. 2: (1968): 42.

38

StevensSoviet Union and Black Africa152-153.

40

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41

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42

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43

OrobatorThe Soviet Union and the Nigerian Crisis205.

44

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46

OrobatorThe Soviet Union and the Nigerian Crisis206.

49

O.J.B. Ojo“Nigerian-Soviet Relations: Retrospect and Prospect”African Studies Review 19 no. 3 (1976): 56.

50

Joe GarbaDiplomatic Soldiering: Nigerian Foreign Policy 1975-1979 (Ibadan: Spectrum Books1987) 163.

55

See Orobator“Sovietbloc and Nigeria” p. 397. It was similarly described as “a landmark in Soviet-Nigerian relations”: David Morison “The Soviet Union’s Year in Africa” in Africa Contemporary Record: Annual Survey and Documents 1974-75 ed. C. Legum (London: Africana Publishing 1975) A82.

57

Kirk-Greene“Making of the Second Republic”48.

59

Federal Office of StatisticsReview of External Trade (Lagos: Federal Office of Statistics1974) Table 14.

60

E.B. Uti“Socialist Programme by October 1?”Times InternationalSeptember 22 1975.

61

Martin J. Dent“Corrective Government: Military Rule in Perspective” in Soldiers and Oil: The Political Transformation of Nigeriaed. S.K. Panter-Brick (London: Frank Cass1978) 128.

65

See Brian Crozier ed.Annual of Power and Conflict 1978-79: A Survey of Political Violence and International Influence (London: Institute for the Study of Conflict1978) 288.

66

See Brian Crozier ed.Annual of Power and Conflict 1979-80: A Survey of Political Violence and International Influence (London: Institute for the Study of Conflict1980) 179.

67

Oye Ogunbadejo“Nigeria’s Foreign Policy under Military Rule, 1966-79”International Journal 35 no. 4 (1980): 755.

68

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69

Ogunbadejo“Impact of the Civil War”26.

70

Akinyemi“Mohammed/Obasanjo Foreign Policy”151.

71

Angela Stent“The Soviet Union and the Nigerian Civil War: A Triumph of Realism”Issue: A Journal of Opinion 3 no. 2 (1973): 46.

72

Ojo“The Soviet Union and Nigeria: The Quest for Influence”188.

73

Oye Ogunbadejo“Soviet Policies in Africa”African Affairs 79 nos. 316: (1980): 315.

74

Maxim Matusevich“Revisiting the Soviet Moment in Sub-Saharan Africa”History Compass 7 no. 5 (2009): 1263.

79

Arthur J. KlinghofferThe Soviet Union and International Oil Politics (New York: Columbia University Press1977) 238-239.

84

OrobatorThe Soviet Union and the Nigerian Crisis115.

85

A.J. Klinghoffer“Why the Soviets chose Sides”Africa Report xiii no. 2 (1968): 49. Also see Maxim Matusevich No Easy Row for a Russian Hoe: Ideology and Pragmatism in Nigerian-Soviet Relations 1960-1991 (Trenton nj: Africa World Press 2003) 107.

86

Maxim Matusevich“An Elusive Friendship: Nigerian-Soviet/Russian Relations, 1960-2000” in Focus on Politics and Economics of Russia and Eastern Europeed. Ulric R. Nichol (New York: Nova Science Publishers2007) 193.

88

GarbaDiplomatic Soldiering150.

89

GarbaDiplomatic Soldiering157.

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