The paper set out to explain the discontinuity in Soviet-Nigerian relations between the periods 1967-1970 and 1971-1979. The explanation usually given for the poor relations between Nigeria and the Soviet Union between 1960 and 1966 is the anti-communism of the Nigerian political elite; and ideological incompatibility for the non-vibrant relations between 1971 and 1979. These explanations appear idealistic and hypothetical. A major source of the problem of explanation is the consideration of Soviet-Nigerian relations only within the context of the Soviet-American Cold War struggle, from a trilateral perspective. What if the Cold War did not exist, what would have been the nature of Soviet-Nigerian relations? Adopting a bilateral framework, the paper argues that it was the inchoate state of trade relations, which would have provided the basis for continuity across administrations, that retarded Soviet-Nigerian political relations between 1971 and 1979.
AmuwoKunleOlusanyaG.O.AkindeleR.A.“Resumption of Diplomatic Relations with Gabon, Cote d’Ivoire, Zambia and Tanzania after the 1967-70 Nigerian War”The Structure and Processes of Foreign Policy Making and Implementation in Nigeria 1960-19901990LagosNIIA306321
FriedenJeffry A.LakeDavid A.FriedenJeffry A.LakeDavid A.“Introduction: International Politics and International Economics”International political economy: Perspectives on Global Power and Wealth20004th Ed.LondonRoutledge116
QuandtW.Ra’ananUriPfaltgraffR.L.Jr.KempG.“Influence through Arms Supply: The U.S. Experience in the Middle East”Arms Transfers to the Third World: The Military Buildup in Less Industrial Countries1978Boulder, COWestview Press121130
Ra’ananUriRa’ananUriPfaltgraffR.L.Jr.KempG.“Soviet Arms Transfers and the Problem of Political Leverage”Arms Transfers to the Third World: The Military Buildup in Less Industrial Countries1978Boulder, COWestview Press131156
Research Memorandum from Thomas L. Hughes to the Secretary on “ussr-Nigeria: Bilateral Tensions increase as War drags on”rse-24August 13 2013April 2 1969 Foreign Relations of the United States 1969-1976 Volume E-5 Part 1 Doc. 53 http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1969-76ve05p1/d53.
Kunle Amuwo“Resumption of Diplomatic Relations with Gabon, Cote d’Ivoire, Zambia and Tanzania after the 1967-70 Nigerian War” in The Structure and Processes of Foreign Policy Making and Implementation in Nigeria 1960-1990eds. G.O. Olusanya and R.A. Akindele (Lagos: niia 1990) 315.
Jeffry A. Frieden and David A. Lake“Introduction: International Politics and International Economics” in International Political Economy: Perspectives on Global Power and Wealth4th Ed. eds. Jeffry A. Frieden and David A. Lake (London: Routledge2000) 1.
Uri Ra’anan“Soviet Arms Transfers and the Problem of Political Leverage” in Arms Transfers to the Third World: The Military Buildup in Less Industrial Countriesed. Uri Ra’anan R.L. Pfaltgraff Jr. and G. Kemp (Boulder co: Westview Press 1978) 132.
Philip G. Roeder“The Ties that Bind: Aid, Trade, and Political Compliance in Soviet-Third World Relations”International Studies Quarterly29 no. 2 (1985): 192-193. Although Roeder only found “a significant positive relationship between Soviet arms transfers and export dependence in the 1960s”: 204.
See Orobator“Sovietbloc and Nigeria” p. 397. It was similarly described as “a landmark in Soviet-Nigerian relations”: David Morison “The Soviet Union’s Year in Africa” in Africa Contemporary Record: Annual Survey and Documents 1974-75 ed. C. Legum (London: Africana Publishing 1975) A82.
A.J. Klinghoffer“Why the Soviets chose Sides”Africa Reportxiii no. 2 (1968): 49. Also see Maxim Matusevich No Easy Row for a Russian Hoe: Ideology and Pragmatism in Nigerian-Soviet Relations 1960-1991 (Trenton nj: Africa World Press 2003) 107.
Maxim Matusevich“An Elusive Friendship: Nigerian-Soviet/Russian Relations, 1960-2000” in Focus on Politics and Economics of Russia and Eastern Europeed. Ulric R. Nichol (New York: Nova Science Publishers2007) 193.