Missionaries’ Rivalry in Kenya and the Establishment of St. Mary’s School Yala

in African and Asian Studies
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This article discusses the establishment of St. Mary School Yala, a school begun by the Mill Hill Missionaries as an incentive to attract potential African converts to Catholicism. The school was the outcome of fierce rivalry among missionary groups to spread their denominational faith. Provision of formal education became a popular method of enticing potential converts when colonialism took root as Africans then began flocking mission stations in search of this education to survive the colonial economy. Data for this study was collected from the Kenya National Archive, oral interviews, and from published works on missionary activity in their early years of settlement in Kenya. The study has applied Christian Apologetics theory in analysing the missionaries’ conflict which initiated the establishment of St. Mary’s School; and Dahrendorf’s Theory of Social Conflict in examining conflicts between missionaries, Africans and the colonial state which steered the later development of St. Mary’s School.

Missionaries’ Rivalry in Kenya and the Establishment of St. Mary’s School Yala

in African and Asian Studies

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References

AmatsimbiM. “Christian Missions, Government and Local Council’s Partnership in Educational Development: The Case of Western Kenya, 1911-1938” International Journal of Education and Research 2013 Vol. 1 No. 9

AndersonJ. The Struggle for the School: The Interaction of Missionary Colonial Government and Nationalist Enterprise in the Development of Formal Education in Kenya 1970 Nairobi Longman 1970

AndersonW. B. The Church in East Africa 1870-1974 1977 Dodoma Central Tanganyika Press

AwitiJ. St. Mary’s School Yala Principal

BasseyM. O. Missionary Rivalry and Educational Expansion in Nigeria 1885-1945 1999 New York Edwin Mellen Press

BaurJ.BurgmanH. The Catholic Church in Kenya: A Centenary History 1990 Nairobi St. Paul Publications-Africa

BoaK.BowmanR. Faith has its Reasons: Integrative Approaches to Defending the Christian Faith 2006 Authentic Publishing

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BurgmanH. The Way the Catholic Church Started in Western Kenya 1990 Nairobi Mission Book Service

Byaruhanga-AkiikiA. B. T. Religion in Bunyoro 1982 Nairobi Kenya Literature Bureau

ChuruF.MwauraP. The Catholic Church and Schools in Kenya: A Historical Perspective on Education for Holistic Development. Part I: From the Colonial period to Foundations of an Education dispensation for Independent Kenya 2012 20 November 2013 http://www.saintleo.edu/media/411879/catholic_education_in_kenya.pdf

Colony and Protectorate of Kenya African Education in Kenya “Beecher Report” 1949 Nairobi Government Printer

DahrendorfR. “Toward a Theory of Social Conflict” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 1958 Vol. 2 No. 2

DahrendorfR. Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society 1959 Stanford, CA Stanford University Press

DavidsonB. Guide to African History 1963 London George Allen and Unwin Limited

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KipkorirB. E. Biographical Essays on Imperialism and Collaboration in Colonial Kenya 1980 Nairobi Kenya Literature Bureau

Roman Catholic Mission Yala 1928 kna/av/12/256 File No. 676/23

Teachers Training School Eregi kna/av/12/97 Letter Ref. No. 395/28

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Government Correspondence 1936-1943 Letters from file kna/mss/61/1/76

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MoradS. D. History of the Africa Inland Mission in Kenya 1996 20 February 2014 http://www.wciu.edu/docs/resources/C11K_Morad_history_of_AIM_in_kenya.pdf

NjiroE. I. A History of Africa in the 19th Century 1985 Nairobi Kenya Literature Bureau

ObwarE. Long term resident and elder in Umiri village bordering St. Mary’s School Yala

OchiengN. A. O. Education and Culture Change in Kenya (1844-1925) 1965 Nairobi Equatorial Publishers Limited

OgotB. A. My Footprints in the Sands of Time: An Autobiography 2003 Victoria B. C. Trafford Publishers

OliverR. The Missionary Factor in East Africa 1952 Nairobi Longman

OsogoJ. N. B. OgotB. A.“Education developments in Kenya: 1911-1924” Hadith 3 1974 Nairobi East African Publishing House 104

RaymondR. L. The Justification of Knowledge: An Introductory Study in Christian Apologetics Methodology 1998 California Pacific Institute of Religious Studies

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1

E. I. Njiro (1985) A History of Africa in the 19th Century. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau p. 186.

2

J. Anderson (1970) The Struggle for the School: The Interaction of Missionary Colonial Government and Nationalist Enterprise in the Development of Formal Education in Kenya Nairobi: Longman p. 10.

5

R. Dahrendorf (1959) Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society Stanford ca: Stanford University Press pp. 241-248.

6

R. Dahrendorf (1958) “Toward a Theory of Social Conflict” The Journal of Conflict Resolution Vol. 2 No. 2 pp. 170-183.

7

W. B. Anderson (1977) The Church in East Africa: 1870-1974 Dodoma: Central Tanganyika Press.

8

R. Oliver (1952) The Missionary Factor in East Africa Nairobi: Longman.

9

H. Burgman (1990) The Way the Catholic Church Started in Western Kenya Nairobi: Mission Book Service; J. Baur and H. Burgman (1990) The Catholic Church in Kenya: A Centenary History Nairobi: St. Paul Publications-Africa.

11

S. Bogonko (1992) A History of Modern Education in Kenya 1895-1992 Nairobi: Evans Brothers.

12

Anderson (1970) The Struggle for the School.

13

B. A. Ogot (2003) My Footprints in the Sands of Time: An Autobiography Victoria B. C.: Trafford Publishers.

14

B. E. Kipkorir (1969) The Alliance High School and the Origins of Kenya African Elite 1926-1962phd Thesis: Cambridge University.

15

Anderson (1977) The Church in East Africa.

17

M. O. Bassey (1999) Missionary Rivalry and Educational Expansion in Nigeria 1885-1945. New York: Edwin Mellen Press p. 62.

18

AndersonThe Struggle for the School p. 13.

19

Byaruhanga-Akiiki (1982) Religion in Bunyoro Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau p. 103.

21

Anderson (1977) The Church in East Africa p. 54.

22

M. Amatsimbi (2013) “Christian Missions Government and Local Council’s Partnership in Educational Development: The Case of Western Kenya 1911-1938.” International Journal of Education and Research Vol. 1 No. 9 p. 1.

23

N. A. O. Ochieng (1965) Education and Culture Change in Kenya (1844-1925) Nairobi: Equatorial Publishers Limited p. 49.

24

Amatsimbi (2013) “Christian Missions Government and Local Councils Partnership in Educational Development” p. 2.

25

S. D. Morad (1996) History of the Africa Inland Mission in Kenya accessed on 20 February 2014 from http://www.wciu.edu/docs/resources/C11K_Morad_history_of_AIM_in_kenya.pdf.

26

Amatsimbi (2013) “Christian Missions Government and Local Councils Partnership in Educational Development” p. 4.

27

J. N. B. Osogo (1974) “Education developments in Kenya: 1911-1924” in B. A. Ogot (ed) Hadith 3. Nairobi: East African Publishing House p. 104.

28

Burgman (1990) The Way the Catholic Church Started in Western Kenya p. 139.

30

Burgman. (1990) The Way the Catholic Church Started in Western Kenya p. 139.

35

Awiti O. I. 25 September 2013.

36

D. N. Sifuna and J. E. Otiende (1994) An Introductory History of Education Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press p. 178.

43

Sifuna and Otiende (1994) An Introductory History of Education p. 187.

45

Burgman (1990) The Way the Catholic Church Started in Western Kenya p. 138.

46

Sifuna and Otiende (1994) An Introductory History of Education p. 180.

49

Burgman (1990) The Way the Catholic Church Started in Western Kenya p. 140.

50

Ibid. p. 193.

51

Ochieng (1965) Education and Culture Change in Kenya (1844-1945) Nairobi: Equatorial Publishers Limited p. 52.

55

B. Davidson (1963) Guide to African History. London: George Allen and Unwin Limited p. 82.

56

Colony and Protectorate of Kenya (1949) African Education in Kenya “Beecher Report” Nairobi: Government Printer.

57

B. Churu and P. Mwaura (2012) The Catholic Church and Schools in Kenya: A Historical Perspective on Education for Holistic Development. Accessed on 20 November 2013 from http://www.saintleo.edu/media/411879/catholic_education_in_kenya.pdf p. 12.

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