The author’s interest in Africa’s relations with India goes back to his doctoral thesis at Oxford University, published under the title of Towards a Pax Africana. The impact of India upon twentieth century Africa has a special place for Gandhi’s strategies of civil disobedience and Nehru’s principle of nonalignment. Gandhi’s satyagraha (soul force) inspired African political figures as diverse as Nobel laureate Albert Luthuli of South Africa and Ivorian president Houphouet-Boigny. Nehru’s ideas about what used to be called “positive neutralism” helped to shape African approaches to foreign policy in the entire post-colonial era. The essay, published almost two decades ago, explored these historical dimensions in this prescient analysis.
On the Goa operation see P.N. KheraOperation Vijay: The Liberation of Goa and Other Portuguese Colonies in India (New Delhi: Ministry of Defence1974) and Arthur G. Rubinoff India’s Use of Force In Goa (Bombay: Popular Prakashan 1971).