The eu-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy

The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

in African and Asian Studies
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

Although energy supply security is an important long-term goal of the eu, member states are in control over external supplies and their domestic energy mix, and an overarching institutional structure is lacking. In this paper, we focus on the availability of oil and gas and the risks of supply disruptions for the eu. The last two decades have been marked by a decrease in fossil fuel production and increasing import dependence. Proven oil and gas reserves in the eu are very limited. Especially in the case of oil the outlook of both global and own eu reserves looks bleak. At the same time, global trends show an increasing demand for energy in the coming decades, concentrated mainly in developing countries, specifically in China. The Persian Gulf area and the Caspian Sea region hold some of the world’s largest oil and gas reserves, and these will make them increasingly significant in global markets. These factors create a setting for the eu of demand- and supply-induced and structural scarcity. The persistence of Arab patrimonial rentier states and societies are a domestic and geopolitical source of instability. These states’ Sovereign Wealth Funds are used by ruling elites to divert assets from socioeconomic development towards individual profit. Emerging Asian economies involved in the me and the cea, especially China, will influence the regions’ future geopolitical and geo-economic reality. China relies on resources for domestic development and the resource-rich Middle Eastern countries have long been a destination from which to acquire them.

The eu-Energy Security and Geopolitical Economy

The Persian Gulf, the Caspian Region and China

in African and Asian Studies

Sections

References

AminehM.P. & EisenstadtS.N. (2017). The Iranian Revolution. In N. Meer (Ed.) Islam and Modernity. The Routledge Critical Concepts in Sociology. (4 ed. pp. 104-131). (The Routledge Critical Concepts in Sociology; No. SE0572). London: Routledge.

AminehM.P. & GuangY. 2014. ‘Geopolitics of Transnationalization of Chinese National Oil Companies.’ Perspectives on Global Development and Technology Vol. 13 Issue 5-6 pp. 495-535.

AminehM.P. & Y. Guaang. 2012. Secure Oil and Alternative Energy: The Geopolitics of Energy Paths of China and the European Union. Leiden-Boston: Brill.

AminehM.P. & Y. Guaang. 2012. ‘“Introduction: China’s and the European Union’s Energy Security Challenges in the Twenty-First Century. In: M.P. Amineh & G. Yang (eds.) Secure Oil and Alternative Energy: The Geopolitics of Energy Paths of China and the European Union. Leiden-Boston: Brill. pp. 1-40.

AminehM.P. & H. Houweliing. 2010. ‘China and Transformation of the post-Cold War Geopolitical Order.’ In: M.P. Amineh (ed.) State Society and International Relations in Asia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. pp. 215-271.

AminehM.P. & Y. Guaang. 2010. The Globalization of Energy. China and the European Union. Leiden-Boston: Brill.

AminehM.P. 2010. ‘Authoritarian Persistence and Barriers to Democracy in the Muslim Middle East: Beyond Cultural Essentialism.’ In: E. Ben-Rafael & E. Sternberg (eds.) World Religions and Multilateralism – A Dialectic Relation. Leiden-Boston: Brill. pp. 152-192.

AminehM.P. (ed.) 2007. The Greater Middle East in Global Politics: Social Science Perspectives on the Changing Geography of the World Politics. Leiden: Brill.

AminehM.P. (2007). Introduction: Theoretical and Methodological approaches to the study of the Greater Middle East. Perspectives on Global Development and Technology6(1-3) 13-53.

AminehM.P. & H. Houweliing. 2005. Central Eurasia in Global Politics: Conflict Security and Development Second Edition. Leiden & Boston: Brill Academic Publishers.

AminehM.P. 2003. Globalisation Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. Den Haag: Clingendael International Energy Programme.

AminehM.P. & H. Houweliing. 2003. ‘Central Eurasia in Global Politics: Conflict, Security and Development.’ Journal Perspectives on Global Development and Technology. Special Issue 2(3-4).

AminehM.P. 1999a. Towards the Control of Oil Resources in the Caspian Region. New YorkPalgrave.

AminehM.P. 1999b. Die globale kapitalistische Expansion und Iran: Eine Studie der iranischen politischen Ökonomie (1500-1980). Minster-Hambug-Londen: LIT Verlag.

AndersonI. 1981. Aramco the United States and Saudi Arabia: A Study of the Dynamics of Foreign Oil Policy 1933-1950. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

ArmstrongK. 2014 ‘Wahhabism to ISIS: How Saudi Arabia exported the main source of global terrorismWorld Affairs27 November. .

BlanchardC. 2012. ‘Saudi Arabia: Background and US Relations.’ Congressional Research Service27 November 2012.

British Petroleeum. 2011. BP Energy Outlook 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from: \www.bp.com\en\global\corporate\about-bp\energy-economics\energy-outlook\energy-outlook-downloads.html.

British Petroleeum. 2012. BP Energy Outlook 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from: www.bp.com\en\global\corporate\about-bp\energy-economics\energy-outlook\energy-outlook-downloads.html.

British Petroleeum. 2013. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013 from: www.bp.com\en\global\corporate\about-bp\energy-economics\statistical-review-of-world-energy-2013.html.

British Petroleeum. 2016. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2017 from: http://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2016/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2016-full-report.pdf

BromleyS. 1991. American Hegemony and World Oil. Cambridge: Polity Press.

BromleyS. 2005. ‘The United States and the Control of World Oil.’ Government and Opposition 40: 225-255.

BromleyS. 2007. ‘Connecting Central Eurasia to the Middle East in American Foreign Policy towards Afghanistan and Pakistan: 1979-present.’ Perspectives on Global Development and Technology Vol. 6 Issue 1 pp. 87-108.

BymanD. 2012. ‘Regime Change in the Middle East: Problems and Prospects.’ Political Science Quarterly 127: 25-46.

ChenJ. 2011. ‘The Emergence of China in the Middle East.’ Strategic Forum National Defense University.

ColganJ. 2011. ‘Oil and Resource-Backed Aggression.’ Energy Policy 39: 1969-1676.

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (escwa). 2001. Economic Diversification in the Oil-Producing Countries: The Case of the Gulf Cooperation Council Economies. New York: United Nations.

El-KharoufF.S. Al-Qudsi & S. Obeeid. 2010. ‘The Gulf Corporation Council Sovereign Wealth Funds: Are They Instruments for Economic Diversification or Political Tools?’ Asian Economic Papers 9:1124-151.

European Commissiion. 2000. ‘Green Paper – Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply. COM (2000)769’ 29 November. Brussels: European Commissiion.

European Commissiion. 2006. ‘Green Paper – A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy. COM (2006)105.’ 8 March. Brussels: European Commissiion.

European Commissiion. 2008. ‘Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – 20 20 by 2020: Europe’s climate change opportunity.’ COM (2008)30 final. 23 January. Brussels: European Commissiion.

European Commissiion. 2010. ‘SET-plan: The European Strategic Energy Technology Plan Towards a Low-carbon future.’ Brussels: European Commissiion. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/publications/doc/2010_setplan_brochure.pdf.

European Commissiion. 2013d. EU Energy, Transport and GHG Emission Trends to 2050. Reference scenario 2013.’ 16 December. Brussels: European Commission.

European Environment Agenncy. 2008. Energy and Environment Report 2008. 20 November. Retrieved from: www.eea.europa.eu\publications\eea_report_2008_6.

European Union Institute for Security Studiies. 2013. ‘The Shale Gas “Revolution”: Challenges and Implications for the EU.’ 18 February. Brussels: EUISS. Retrieved from: www.iss.europa.eu\uploads\media\Brief_11.pdf.

Eurosttat. 2015. Statistics Database European Commission. Available from: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/ Accessed on 19 June 2015.

FazilovF. & Chen. Xiangming. 2013. ‘China and Central Asia: A Significant New Energy Nexus.’ The European Financial ReviewApril38-43.

HaassR. & M. Inddyk. 2009. ‘Beyond Iraq: A New U.S. Strategy for the Middle East.’ Foreign Affairs 88:41-58. HairiA.H. 1977. ‘Shi’ism and Constitutionalism in Iran’ Brill PublishersLeiden.

HarrisJerrry. 2009. ‘Statist Globalization in China, Russia and the Gulf States.’ Perspectives on Global Development and Technology 8: 139-163.

HertogS. 2010. Princes Borkers and Bureaucrats: Oil and the State in Saudi Arabia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Heritage Foundatiion. 2012. ‘China’s Global Investment Tracker.’ The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved June 2014 from: www.heritage.org\research\projects\china-global-investment-tracker-interactive-map.

HvidtM. 2014. ‘Economic Diversification in GCC Countries: Past Record and Future Trends.’ Kuwait Program on Development Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States. Retrieved 5 May 2014 from: www.lse.ac.uk\IDEAS\programmes\kuwait\documents\Economic-diversification-in-the-GCC-countries.pdf.

International Energy Agenncy. 2012. IEA World Energy Outlook 2012.’ Paris: International Energy Agency.

International Energy Agenncy. 2013. ‘Energy Balances of OECD and Non-OECD countries.’ Paris: International Energy Agenncy.

International Energy Agenncy. 2013b. World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2013. Paris: International Energy Agency.

International Energy Agency. 2016. ‘Extended Energy Balances. World Energy Balances 2016 edition.’ Paris: International Energy Agency.

Karshenas M. & H. Hakimiian. 2005. ‘Oil, Economic Diversification and the Democratic Process in Iran.’ Iranian Studies 38: pp. 67-90.

KeddieN.R. 1968. Pan-Islam as Proto-Nationalism.’ Oxford University PressLondon.

KedourieE. 1992. ‘Democracy and Arab Political Culture.’ Frank Cass & Co. LtdLondon.

KlareM.T. 2001. Resource Wars. The New Landscape of Global Conflict. New York: Metropolitan/Owl Book.

KlareM.T. 2002. ‘Global petro-politics: The foreign policy implications of the Bush administration’s energy plan.’ Current History March Issue pp. 99-104.

LeschD. & M. Haas (eds.) 2011. The Middle East and the United States: History Politics and Ideologies. Westview Press5th edition.

LooneyR.E. 1994. Industrial Development and Diversification of the Arabian Gulf Economies. GreenwichCT: JAI Press.

Mahdavy. H. 1970. ‘The Patterns and Problems of Economic Development in Rentier States: The Case of Iran.’ Studies in Economic History of the Middle East. Oxford University Press.

Market Observatory for Enerrgy. 2011. ‘Key Figures.’ Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/observatory/countries/doc/key_figures.pdf.

MeissnerH. 2010. ‘The Resource Curse and Rentier States in the Caspian Region: A Need for Context Analysis.’ giga Research Programme: Violence and Security. Working Paper: 133. Retrieved from: www.giga-hamburg.de\en\system\files\publications\wp133_meissner.pdf.

MercilleJ. 2008. ‘The Radical Geopolitics of US Foreign Policy: Geopolitical and Geo-economics Logics of Power,’ Political Geography 27: 570-586.

MichaelsJ. 2011. ‘Dysfunctional Doctrines? Eisenhower, Cater and US Military Intervention in the Middle East.’ Political Science Quarterly 126: 465-492.

NayyarD. 1998. ‘Globalization: The Past in our Present,’ TWN Trade & Development SeriesPenang: Third World Network. Retrieved from: www.twnside.org.sg\title2\t&d\tnd06.pdf.

RashidA. 2000. Taliban: Militant Islam Oil and Fundamentalism in the Central Asia. Yale Nota Bene Books.

RatnerM.P. BelkinJ. Nichol & S. Woehrrel. 2013. ‘Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification.’ 20 August. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from: www.fas.org\sgp\crs\row\R42405.pdf.

RossM. 2001. ‘Does Oil Hinder Democracy.’ World Politics: 53: 325-361.

RossM. 2011. ‘Will Oil Drown the Arab Spring: Democracy and the Resource Curse.’ Foreign Affairs September/October 2011 issue. Retrieved from: www.foreignaffairs.com\issues\2011\90\5.

RoyO. 2009. The Politics of Chaos in the Middle East. Columbia University PressNew York.

RoyO. 2011. ‘The Crisis in Syria is Leading the Middle East into Uncharted Territory.’ New Statesman. Retrieved 24 August from: www.newstatesman.com\middle-east\2011\08\syria-iran-turkey-regime-assad.

SaberiM. 2014. ‘Dubai Rolls Out Medical Tourism Strategy.’ Gulf News (Dubai). Retrieved 12 April 2014 http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/health/dubai-rolls-out-medical-tourism-strategy-1.1308139.

SalloukhBassel F. 2013. ‘The Arab Uprisings and the Geopolitics of the Middle East.’ The International Spectator 48: 32-46.

SchwartzHermman. 2012. ‘Political Capitalism and the Rise of Sovereign Wealth Funds.’ Globalizations 9: 517-530.

SchwartzR. 2008. ‘The Political Economy of State formation in the Arab Middle East: Rentier States, Economic Reform and Democratization.’ Review of International Political Economy 15: 599-621.

SenghaasD. 2002. The Clash within Civilizations: Coming to Terms with Cultural Conflicts. London and New York: Routledge.

ShochatS. 2008. ‘The Gulf Cooperation Council Economies. Diversification and Reform: An Introduction.’ London: London School of Economics, Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States.

Sovereign Wealth Fund Instituute. 2014. ‘Source on Sovereign Wealth Funds, Public Pensions, Central Banks and Public Funds.’ Retrieved 10 April 2014 from: www.swfinstitute.org\fund-rankings\.

StokesD. & S. Raphaael. 2010. Global Energy Security and American Hegemony. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.

UmbachF. 2010. ‘Global Energy Security and the Implications for the eu.’ Energy Policy 38:31229-1240.

United Nations Development Programmme. 2004. World Energy Assessment: Overview 2004 Update.

United Nations Development Programmme. 2011. ‘Arab Development Challenges Report 2011: Towards the Developmental State in the Arab region.’ United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved from: www.undp.org\content\dam\undp\library\corporate\HDR\UNDP-ADCR_En-2012.pdf.

United Nations Development Programmme. 2016. ‘Arab Human Development Report 2016. Youth and the Prospect for Human Development in a Changing Reality’. United Nations Development Programme.

us Energy Information Administration. 2012. EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2012 – With Projections to 2035 (EIA-AEO 2012). eia Washington us. Available from: www.eia.gov\forecasts\aeo\pdf\0383(2012).pdf. Last accessed 27 July 2013.

us Energy Information Agency. 2013a. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States. eia Washington us. Available from: www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/worldshalegas/pdf/overview.pdf?zscb=56492525.

us Energy Information Agency. 2013b. How much Shale Gas is Produced in the United States? eia Washington us. Retrieved from: www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=907&t=8.

us Energy Information Agency. 2013c. EIA Country Analysis Brief: Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Turkmenistan Iran Russia United Arab Emirates Iraq Kuwait Oman Saudi Arabia North Africa Algeria Egypt Libya Tunisia. eia Washington us.

us Energy Information Agency. 2013d. International Energy Outlook. Table A5 and A6 eia Washington us. 184-185.

us Energy Information Agency. 2013f. The Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013). us-Energy Information Administration Washington us. May 2014. Retrieved from: www.eia.gov\forecasts\aeo\pdf\0383(2013).pdf.

us Energy Information Agency. 2014. Annual Energy Outlook 2014. Early Release Overview. eia Washington us. Retrieved from: www.eia.gov\forecasts\aeo\er\pdf\0383er(2014).pdf.

Van der Linde C.M. P. AminehA. Correljeet al. 2004. ‘Study on Energy Supply Security and GeopoliticsEU-Tender

VictorD.G.D.R. Hults & M.C. Thurbber. 2012. Oil and Governance State-Owned Enterprises and the World Energy Supply. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

WalshDecllan. 2014. ‘WikiLeaks Cable Portray Saudi Arabia as a Cash Machine for Terrorists.’ The Guardian (London). Retrieved 11 April 2014 from: www.theguardian.com\world\2010\dec\05\wikileaks-cables-saudi-terrorist-funding.

WeberM. 1946. Bureaucracy.’ New York University PressOxford.

WeberMax. 1968. Economy and Society. Edited and translated by Guenther Roth & Claus Wittich3 vols. New York: Bedminster Press.

World Baank. 2013. World Development Indicators database. Available from: http://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/GNIPC.pdflast accessed on 26 July 2013.

World Baank. 2014. GDP Per Capita (Current US$).’ Retrieved 23 April 2014 from: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD.

Wood Mackenzzie. 2014. ‘China to Surpass US Crude Oil Imports by 2020.’ Retrieved from: http://public.woodmac.com/public/industry-views/content/11719066.

YerginD. 1991. The Prize. The Epic Quest for Oil Money and Power. New York, London, Toronto, Sydney: Free Press.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Total primary energy supply in EU28 by source (based on iea, 2016).
  • View in gallery
    Primary energy use in EU28 by source (based on iea, 2016).
  • View in gallery
    Natural gas supply in EU28 by country (based on Eurostat, 2015).
  • View in gallery
    Natural gas supply in EU28 by country as shares (based on Eurostat, 2015).
  • View in gallery
    Crude oil supply in EU28 by country of origin (based on Eurostat, 2015).
  • View in gallery
    Crude oil supply to EU28 by country of origin as shares (based on Eurostat, 2015).
  • View in gallery
    Coal supply in EU28 by country of origin (based on Eurostat, 2015).
  • View in gallery
    Coal supply in EU28 by country of origin as shares (based on Eurostat, 2015).
  • View in gallery
    Total primary energy use in EU28 by type of origin (based on Eurostat, 2015).
  • View in gallery
    Total primary energy use in EU28 by country of origin as shares (based on Eurostat, 2015).
  • View in gallery
    Fossil fuel production in EU28 by country in 2013 (based on Eurostat, 2015).
  • View in gallery
    Fossil fuel production in EU28 in period 1990 to 2013 (based on Eurostat, 2015).
  • View in gallery View in gallery
    Production and net imports in eu in period 1990-2050 in reference scenario (based on eu, 2013).
  • View in gallery
    Total Gulf Oil Trade Comparison (in usd millions).
  • View in gallery
    Trend in oil trade relations of Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Saudi-Arabia with China (2005-2014).
  • View in gallery
    Total Outward fdi from Chinese Companies in Kazakhstan, Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Qatar (billions of $usd).
  • View in gallery
    Chinese Outward fdi in Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Russia, Saudi Arabia and Turkmenistan.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 141 141 21
Full Text Views 79 79 73
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0