Population genetic structure of golden pheasant Chrysolophus pictus in the Qinling Mountains, China

in Animal Biology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) is an endemic pheasant of central China and is protected under national legislation. The Qinling Mountains form a natural barrier between northern and southern China. We investigated the population genetic structure using 1123 nucleotides of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region from 55 individuals sampled from five populations of gold pheasant in the Qinling Mountains. We found sixteen haplotypes defined by fourteen polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the haplotypes sampled from the five putative populations did not cluster into separate geographic branches. There was an insignificant genetic differentiation among the putative populations (except GSTS population), probably due to high levels of gene flow. Results from the mismatch distribution and neutrality test analyses indicated the populations did not experience a range expansion over the course of their histories. They also suggested there was no geographical isolation shaped by the Qingling Mountains for Chrysolophus pictus.

Population genetic structure of golden pheasant Chrysolophus pictus in the Qinling Mountains, China

in Animal Biology

Sections

References

AviseJ.C. (1994) Molecular Markers Natural History and Evolution . Chapman & HallNew York.

AviseJ.C. (2000) Phylogeography . Harvard University PressCambridge, Massachusetts.

BarrettS.C.H.KohnJ.R. (1991) Genetic and evolutionary consequences of small population size in plants: implications for conservation. In: FalkD.A.HolsingerK.E. (Eds.) Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants pp.  3- 30. Oxford University PressOxford.

BohonakA.J. (2002) IBD (ISOLATION, B. DISTANCE): a program for analysis of isolation by distance. J. Hered.93153- 154.

ChenF.G.YangX.Z.LiuS.F.LiB.G. (1992) Studies on the variations of population density of the three species pheasants in the western part of the Qinling Mountains Shaanxi. J. Northwest Univ.2271- 77.

ChenY.Q.YuS.Y.ZhangH.L.ZhangJ.ShangJ.K.XieM.R. (2008) Histological structure and expression of EGFR, TGF-β, AQP-2 in Chrysolophus pictus kidney. Acta Zool. Sin.54322- 331.

ChengT.H. (1978) Fauna Sinica Aves Vol. 4: Galliformes . Science PressBeijing.

ClementM.PosadaD.CrandallK.A. (2000) TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies. Mol. Ecol.91657- 1660.

CrandallK.A.TempletonA.R. (1993) Empirical tests of some predictions from coalescent theory with applications to intraspecific phylogeny reconstruction. Genetics134959- 969.

DingC.Q.GongH.S.ZhaoL.G.XiangD.Q.YuanC.H.ZhengS.F. (2000) The breeding density of the golden pheasant in Qinling Mountains. Studies on Chinese Ornithology 34-37.

DongL.ZhangJ.SunY.LiuY.ZhangY.Y.ZhengG.M. (2010) Phylogeographic patterns and conservation units of a vulnerable species, Cabot’s tragopan (Tragopan caboti), endemic to southeast China. Conserv Genet. DOI 10.1007/s10592-010-0108-6.

FelsensteinJ. (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution39783- 791.

FuY.X. (1994) A phylogenetic estimator of effective population size or mutation rate. Genetics136685- 692.

FuY.X. (1997) Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations against population growth, hitchhiking and background selection. Genetics147915- 925.

FuY.X.LiW.H. (1993) Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations. Genetics133693- 709.

GlennT.C.StephanW.BraunM.J. (1999) Effects of a population bottleneck on whooping crane mitochondrial DNA variation. Conserv Biol.131097- 1107.

HeK.ZhangP.FangS.G.WanQ.H. (2009) Development and characterization of 14 novel microstatellite markers from the golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus). Conserv Genet. DOI 10.1007/s10592-008-9552-y.

HeS.W.GongH.S. (1994) Wintering ecology of Chrysolophus pictus. Chinese J. Zool.2947- 48.

HolderK.MontgomerieR.FriesenV.L. (2004) Genetic diversity and management of Nearctic rock ptarmigan Lagopus mutus. Can. J. Zool.82564- 575.

HuangZ.H.LiuN.F.LiangW.ZhangY.Y.LiaoX.J.RuanL.Z.YangZ.S. (2010) Phylogeography of Chinese bamboo partridge, Bambusicola thoracica thoracica (Aves: Galliformes) in south China: inference from mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Mol. Phylogen. Evol.56273- 280.

JiangS.R.DingP.LiJ.H.ZhugeY. (1996) The sound spectrographic analyses on the call of golden pheasant Chrysolophus pictus. Zool. Res.17403- 409.

JohnsgardP.A. (1999) The Pheasants of the World . 2nd ed. Oxford University PressOxford.

KozyrenkoM.M.FisenkoP.V.ZhuravlevY.N. (2009) Genetic variation of Manchurian pheasant (Phasianus colchicus pallasi Rotshild, 1903), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Russ. J. Genet.45( 4) 460- 468.

LeiL.F.LuT.C. (2006) China Endemic Birds . Science PressBeijing.

LiS.H.YeungC.K.L.FeinsteinJ.HanL.X.LeM.H.WangC.X.DingP. (2009) Sailing through the Late Pleistocene: unusual historical demography of an East Asian endemic, the Chinese Hwamei (Leucodioptron canorum canorum), during the last glacial period. Mol. Ecol.18622633.

LiangW.ZhengG.M.ZhangZ.W.DingC.Q. (2003) Habitat use by golden pheasants (Chrysolophus pictus) based on radio-tracking locations. Acta Zool. Sin.49179- 184.

LibradoP.RozasJ. (2009) DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics251451- 1452.

LiuY.ZhanX.J.WangN.ChangJ.ZhangZ.W. (2010) Effect of geological vicariance on mitochondrial DNA differentiation in common pheasant populations of the Loess Plateau and eastern China. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.55( 2) 409- 417.

MantelN. (1967) The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Research27209- 220.

MoritzC. (1995) Uses of molecular phylogenies for conservation. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci.349113- 118.

MoritzT.DowlingT.E.BrownW.M. (1987) Evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA: relevance for population biology and systematics. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst.18269- 292.

NielsonM.LohmanK.SullivanJ. (2001) Phylogeography of the tailed frog (Ascaphus truei): implications for the biogeography of the Pacific Northwest. Evolution55147- 160.

PosadaD.CrandallK.A. (1998) Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics14817- 818.

PosadaD.BuckleyT.R. (2004) Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of akaike information criterion and Bayesianapproaches over likelihood ratio tests. Syst. Biol.53793- 808.

RandiE.LucchiniV. (1998) Organization and evolution of the mitochondrial DNA control region in the avian genus Alectoris. J. Mol. Evol.47449- 462.

RandiE.LucchiniV.Armijo-PrewittT.KimballR.T.BraunE.L.LigonJ.D. (2000) Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and speciation in the Tragopans. Auk.1171003- 1015.

RandiE.TabarroniC.RimondS.LucchiniV.SfougarisA. (2003) Phylogeography of the rock partridge Alectoris gracea. Mol. Ecol.122201- 2214.

RogersA.R.HarpendingH. (1992) Population growth makes waves in the distribution of pairwise genetic differences. Mol. Biol. Evol.9552- 569.

RoussetF. (1997) Genetic differentiation and estimation of gene flow from F-statistics under isolation by distance. Genetics1451219- 1228.

ShaoC. (1997) Study on winter ecology of golden pheasant. J. Zhejiang Agri. Univ.231- 6.

ShaoC. (1998) Winter habitat of Chrysolophus pictus. Chinese J. Zool.3338- 41.

ShiQ.H.ShiL.M.MaK. (1992) Comparative studies on, SC karyotypes of Chrysolophus amherstiae, C. pictus, Phasianus colchicus. Zool. Res.1366- 71.

SlatkinM.HudsonR.R. (1991) Pairwise comparisons of mitochondrial DNA sequences in stable and exponential growing populations. Genetics129555- 562.

StrimmerK.HaeselerA.V. (1996) Quartet puzzling: a quartet maximum likelihood method for reconstructing tree topologies. Mol. Biol. Evol.13964- 969.

SuH.L.XiaoW.F.MaQ.WuQ.F.NieB.H.WangJ.X.HouK.L.YangQ. (2008) Population dynamics of the golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) in the three gorges reservoir area after the snow calamity in 2008. Scientla Silvae Sinicae4475- 81.

SwoffordD. (2002) PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (and Other Methods) . Sinauer AssociatesSunderland, MA.

TajimaF. (1989) Statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism. Genetics123585- 595.

TamuraK.DudleyJ.NeiM.KumarS. (2007) MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol. Biol. Evol.241596- 1599.

ThompsonJ.D.GibsonT.J.PlewniakF.JeanmouginF.HigginsD.G. (1997) The Clustal, X windows interface flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tool. Nucleic. Acids Res.244876- 4882.

XianF.H.YuX.G. (2008) Biological characteristics and reproductive behavior of Chrysolophus pictus in Tangjiahe Nature Reserve. Sichuan J. Zool.271175- 1178.

YanJ.WangQ.X.ChangQ.JiX.ZhouK.Y. (2010) The divergence of two independent lineages of an endemic Chinese gecko, Gekko swinhonis, launched by the Qinling orogenic belt. Mol. Ecol.192490- 2500.

YangJ.Y. (1996). Quantity and distribution of pheasants in Zhouzhi National Nature Reserve of Shaanxi. Acta Zool. Sin.42 (suppl.)163- 164.

YuS.Y.XiaB.Z.ChenY.Q.ZhangJ.JiaZ.P.WeiZ.M.SiK.Y.WangF.C. (2006) The pulmonary tissue structure and microvascular architecture of Chrysolophus pictus. Chinese J. Zool.4198- 102.

YuY.Q.ZhangS.N.GongH.S. (1990) Pheasant distribution and density in Foping Nature Reserve. Chinese Wildlife ( 5) 16- 18.

YuZ.G.JiangH.LiangW. (1997) Reproductive ecology of Chrysolophus pictus. Chinese J. Zool.3241- 44.

ZhangG.W.MengQ.R.YuZ.P.SunY.ZhouD.W.GuoA.L. (1996) Orogenesis and dymaics of the Qinling orogen. Science in China (Series D)39225- 234.

ZhangL.Q.YangZ.C.SunR.Y. (2001) A primary report on inducing golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) reproducation in winter by artificial photo-periods. Acta Zool. Sin.47709- 712.

ZhangY.QuY.WuS.HeF.ShiJ. (2004) The research introduction of engineering geology in Qinling orogenic belt. J. Engin. Geol.1244- 49.

ZhengG.M.WangQ.S. (1998) China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Aves . Science PressBeijing.

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Sampling localities in this study. This figure is published in colour in the online version.

  • View in gallery

    Maximum likelihood tree based on HKY + I + G model of golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus, 16 haplotypes). Numbers at internodes represent the bootstrap percentage values (≥50%, 10 000 replications). The variable positions of each haplotype are shown in table 1. Chrysolophus amherstiae (Cam) was used as outgroup.

  • View in gallery

    Haplotype network using the number of different mutations among 16 mtDNA haplotpyes of golden pheasant. White circles indicated missing haplotypes that were not observed. The variable positions of each haplotype are shown in table 1. This figure is published in colour in the online version.

  • View in gallery

    Mismatch distributions for Chrysolophus pictus.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 23 23 9
Full Text Views 7 7 5
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
EPUB Downloads 2 2 2