Effects of photoperiod on body mass, thermogenesis and serum leptin in Apodemus draco during cold exposure

in Animal Biology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In the present study, we examined the effect on body mass, resting metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated Apodemus draco by transferring them from a short to long day photoperiod. During the first 4 weeks of exposure to short days, A. draco’s body mass decreased. After the next 4 weeks of exposure to long days, body mass increased in the long day group compared to the short day group. This increase in body mass reflected significant increases in absolute amounts of body components, including wet carcass mass, dry carcass mass and body fat mass. Liver, kidney, and small intestine were enlarged due to longer photoperiod during cold exposure. A. draco increased its resting metabolic rate and energy intake after exposure to long days. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body mass, body fat mass, resting metabolic rate as well as energy intake. All of the results indicate that A. draco may provide an attractive novel animal model for investigation of the regulation of body mass and energy balance at the organismal levels. Leptin is potentially involved in the photoperiod-induced body mass regulation and thermogenesis of A. draco during cold exposure.

Effects of photoperiod on body mass, thermogenesis and serum leptin in Apodemus draco during cold exposure

in Animal Biology



AnetaK.JanC.MarekK. (2009) Phenotypic flexibility of traits related to energy acquisition in mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate (BMR). J. Exp. Biol.212808-814.

ArnoldW.RufT.Frey-RoosF.BrunsU. (2011) Diet-independent remodeling of cellular membranes precedes seasonally changing body temperature in a Hibernator. PLoS ONE618641.

BarbC.R.KraelingR.R. (2004) Role of leptin in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion in farm animals. Anim. Reprod. Sci.82-83155-167.

ConcannonP.LevacK.RawsonR.TennantB.BenadounA. (2001) Seasonal changes in serum leptin, food intake, and body weight in photo entrained woodchucks. Am. J. Physiol.281951-959.

DemasG.E.BowersR.R.BartnessT.J.GettysT.W. (2002) Photoperiodic regulation of gene expression in brown and white adipose tissue of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Am. J. Physiol.282114-121.

EblingF.J.P. (1994) Photoperiodic differences during development in the dwarf hamsters Phodopus sungorus and Phodopus campbelli. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.95475-482.

FriedmanJ.M.HallasJ.L. (1998) Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature395763-770.

GeiserF.McAllanB.M.KenagyG.J.HiebertS.M. (2007) Photoperiod affects 10 daily torpor and tissue fatty acid composition in deer mice. Naturwissenschaften94319-325.

HaimA.ShabtayA.AradZ. (1999) The thermoregulatory and metabolic responses to photoperiod manipulations of the Macedonian mouse (Mus macedonicus), a post-fire invader. J. Therm. Biol.24279-286.

HeldmaierG.S.SteinlechnerS.RafaelJ. (1982) Nonshivering thermogenesis and cold resistance during seasonal acclimation in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). J. Comp. Physiol. B1491-9.

HeldmaierG.S.SteinlecherT.RufT.WiesingerH.KliongensporM. (1989) Photoperiod and thermoregulation in vertebrate: body temperature rhyme and thermgenic acclimation. J. Biol. Rthym.4251-265.

HillR.W. (1972) Determination of oxygen consumption by use of the paramagnetic oxygen analyzer. J. Appl. Physiol.33261-263.

HunterH.L.NagyT.R. (2002) Body composition in a seasonal model of obesity: longitudinal measures and validation of DXA. Obes. Res.101180-1187.

KlingensporM.NiggemannH.HeldmaierG. (2000) Modulation of leptin sensitivity by short photoperiod acclimation in the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus. J. Comp. Physiol. B17037-43.

KristanD.M.HammondK.A. (2006) Effects of three simultaneous demands on glucose transport, resting metabolism and morphology of laboratory mice. J. Comp. Physiol. B176139-151.

KrólE.RedmanP.ThomosonP.J.WilliamsR.MayerC.MercerJ.G.SpeakmanJ.R. (2005) Effect of photoperiod on body mass, food intake and body composition in the field vole, Microtus agrestis. J. Exp. Biol.208571-584.

LiX.S.WangD.H. (2005) Regulation of body weight and thermogenesis in seasonally acclimatized Brandt’s voles (Microtus brandti). Horm. Behav.48321-328.

LiX.T.WangR.WangB.MengL.H.LiuC.Y.WangZ.K. (2009) Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in Apodemus draco from the Hengduan Mountains region. Acta Theriol. Sin.29302-309.

LiuJ.S.SunR.Y.WangD.H. (2007) Digestive tract morphology in three rodent species. Chin. J. Zool.428-13.

MercerJ.G.SpeakmanJ.R. (2001) Hypothalamic neuropeptide mechanisms for regulating energy balance: from rodent models to human obesity. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev.25101-116.

MichaelW.S.StephenC.W.DanlelP.Jr.RandyJ.S.DenlsG.B. (2000) Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature404661-671.

NayaD.E.EbenspergerL.A.SabatP.BozinovicF. (2008) Digestive and metabolic flexibility allows female Degus to cope with lactation costs. Physiol. Biochem. Zool.81(2) 186-194.

RosenmannM.MorrisonP. (1974) Maximum oxygen consumption and heat loss facilitation in small homeotherms by He-O2. Am. J. Physiol.226490-495.

SabatP.BozinovicF. (2000) Digestive plasticity and the cost of acclimation to dietary chemistry in the omnivorous leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini. J. Comp. Physiol. B170411-417.

SikesR.S.GannonW.L.the Animal Care and Use Committee of the American Society of Mammalogists (2011) Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research. J. Mammal.92235-253.

SilvaJ.E. (2006) Thermogenic mechanisms and their hormonal regulation. Physiol. Rev.86435-464.

SteinlechnerS.HeldmaierG.BeckerH. (1983) The seasonal cycle of body weight in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus): photoperiod control and the influence of starvation and melatonin. Oecol.60401-405.

VillarinJ.J.SchaefferP.J.MarkleR.A.LindstedtS.L. (2003) Chronic cold exposure increases liver oxidative capacity in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.136621-630.

ZhangX.Y.WangD.H. (2007) Thermogenesis, food intake and serum leptin in cold-exposed lactating Brandt’s voles Lasiopodomys brandtii. J. Exp. Biol.210512-521.

ZhaoZ.J.WangD.H. (2005) Short photoperiod enhances thermogenic capacity in Brandt’s voles (Microtus brandti). Physiol. Behav.85143-149.

ZhuW.L.JiaT.LianX.WangZ.K. (2010) Effects of cold acclimation on body mass, serum leptin level, energy metabolism and thermognesis in Eothenomys miletus in Hengduan Mountains region. J. Therm. Biol.3541-46.

ZhuW.L.WangB.CaiJ.H.LianX.WangZ.K. (2011) Thermogenesis, energy intake and serum leptin in Apodemus chevrieri in Hengduan Mountains region during cold acclimation. J. Therm. Biol.36181-186.

ZhuW.L.JiaT.WangZ.K. (2012) The effect of cold-acclimation on energy strategies of Apodemus draco in Hengduan Mountain region. J. Therm. Biol.3741-46.


  • View in gallery

    Effect of body mass exposed to short and long day photoperiods during cold exposure in A. draco. Displayed values are means ± SEM.

  • View in gallery

    Correlation of serum leptin levels with body fat mass (C) in A. draco.

  • View in gallery

    Effect of RMR exposed to short and long day photoperiods during cold exposure in A. draco. Displayed values are means ± SEM.

  • View in gallery

    Effect of energy intake exposed to short and long day photoperiods during cold exposure in A. draco. Displayed values are means ± SEM.

  • View in gallery

    Correlation of serum leptin levels with RMR in A. draco.

  • View in gallery

    Correlation of serum leptin levels with energy intake in A. draco.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 35 35 4
Full Text Views 10 10 5
PDF Downloads 6 6 6
EPUB Downloads 3 3 2