Alinda biplicata is capable of uniparental reproduction (selfing). The snails need 18 to 24 weeks to reach their ultimate size, and the first reproduction takes place 26 to 39 weeks after shell growth completion. Besides giving birth to juveniles, which is typical of A. biplicata (39% of litters), the uniparentally reproducing individuals laid egg batches (38%) as well as mixed batches (eggs and juveniles; 23%). Within a few days the eggs decomposed, and in mixed batches they were often consumed by the accompanying neonates. In the next season, 70% of the remaining 20 snails reproduced (all of which had reproduced in the previous season). In the first season the neonate:egg proportion was 54:46, in the second 74:26. The egg-laying should be regarded as an anomaly – getting rid of eggs which were not fertilised or in which embryos died at early cleavage stages. The combination of selfing and brooding may explain the wide distribution and wide range of habitats occupied by A. biplicata.
Patterns of mating-system evolution in hermaphroditic animals: correlations among selfing rate, imbreeding depression, and the timing of reproduction.
Molecular trails from hitch-hiking snails. Migrating birds may have transported the Balea land snail across vast distances to remote islands.
An RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) analysis of genetic population structure of Balea biplicata (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) in fragmented floodplain forests of the Elster/Saale riparian system.
Spatial patterns of litter-dwelling taxa in relation to the amounts of coarse woody debris in European temperate deciduous forests.
Forest Ecol. Manag.,
Diversity of Central European urban biota: effects of human-made habitat types on plants and land snails.
Charpentieria (Itala) ornata (Rossmässler, 1836) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Clausiliidae) on the northern fringes of its range – a nationally endangered species surviving due to human activities.
Life history of the land snail Habroconus semenlini (Stylommatophora: Euconulidae) under laboratory conditions.
Rev. Biol. Trop.,
Mating system and genetic variability in the simultaneously hermaphroditic terrestrial gastropod Balea perversa on the Baltic island of Öland, Sweden.