Factors affecting the milk urea nitrogen concentration in Chinese Holstein cows

in Animal Biology
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Abstract

In order to investigate the factors affecting milk urea nitrogen in Chinese Holstein cows, a large commercial dairy farm participated in a 30-month study. In this study, the mean milk urea nitrogen concentration was 11.75 mg/dl. The milk urea nitrogen reached its maximum value on day 90 of lactation for the first parity and the third or higher parities, but it peaked at the end of lactation for the second parity. The milk urea nitrogen of the first parity was lower than that of other parities. The milk urea nitrogen showed its minimum level in January, and reached its maximum in July. The milk urea nitrogen at the first month of lactation in cows calving in summer was higher than other seasons, while at the fourth month of lactation, the milk urea nitrogen of cows calving in autumn was significantly lower than in cows calving in other seasons. Positive correlations were observed between daily milk yield, net energy for lactation, crude protein and milk urea nitrogen for the first and third parities, but negative correlations were observed in the second parity. The milk urea nitrogen showed significantly positive correlations with fat content, total solid content and daily matter intake for all parities. A negative correlation was observed between milk urea nitrogen and protein content, with the exception of the second parity. For all data, as milk urea nitrogen concentration increased, milk protein content decreased. It has been recommended that milk urea nitrogen concentration should be evaluated in combination with parity, days in milk, season (or month), daily matter intake and dietary nutritional components, in order to improve the management and economic benefits of dairy farm.

Factors affecting the milk urea nitrogen concentration in Chinese Holstein cows

in Animal Biology

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References

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Figures

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    The mean and SD of DHI variables for Chinese Holstein cows.

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    MUN concentration by DIM and parity for Chinese Holstein cows (mg/dl).

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    The MUN concentration of different DIM categories in different years. Values are shown as mean ± error. Abbreviations: DIM, day in milk; MUN, milk urea nitrogen.

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    The DMY and MUN concentration in different months. Values are shown as mean ± error. Abbreviations: DMY, daily milk yield; MUN, milk urea nitrogen.

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    The MUN concentration in different months grouped by parity. Values are shown as mean ± error. Abbreviations: MUN, milk urea nitrogen.

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    The MUN concentration in different DIM categories grouped by calving season. Values are shown as mean ± error. Abbreviations: DIM, day in milk; MUN, milk urea nitrogen.

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    NEL, CP and DMI in different DIM categories grouped by parity. Values are shown as mean ± error. Abbreviations: CP, crude protein;; DIM, day in milk DMI, dry matte intake; NEL, net energy for lactation.

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    NEL, CP, DMI and MUN concentration in different DIM categories. Values are shown as mean ± error. Abbreviations: CP, crude protein; DIM, day in milk; DMI, dry matte intake; NEL, net energy for lactation; MUN, milk urea nitrogen.

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    Pearson correlation coefficients among MUN, milk components, and dietary nutritional factors for the first and second parities of Chinese Holstein cows.

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    Pearson correlation coefficients among MUN, milk components, and dietary nutritional factors for the third and higher parities, and for all data of this study of Chinese Holstein cows.

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    DMY, fat, protein, FPR, lactose, and total solid contents by MUN concentration category for Chinese Holstein cows.

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    Pearson correlation coefficients between CP, DMY and MUN in different DIM categories.

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