Biology and population growth parameters of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on five host plant species

in Animal Biology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an invasive pest of cotton, apart from several other important crops, and poses a serious threat to agricultural economy all over the world. Studies on the biology and population growth parameters of P. solenopsis on the five most preferred host plants, namely cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (Malvaceae), China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) (Malvaceae), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) (Solanaceae), congress grass (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) (Asteraceae) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) (Malvaceae) were undertaken in the laboratory under controlled temperature and relative humidity. The mean cumulative development time of females was 16.61 days on cotton, 14.16 days on China rose, 14.13 days on okra, 14.00 days on tomato and 13.57 days on congress grass. The longest oviposition period was recorded on cotton (15.20 ± 1.87 days), while it was in the range of 9-10 days in the remaining host plants. Females lived longer (27.40 ± 1.76 days) when reared on cotton, while their life was shortest on tomato (14.60 ± 0.96 days). The highest fecundity was observed on cotton (328.30 ± 23.42), whereas it was found to be in the range 178-212 on the other hosts. The survival frequency from crawler to adult in females was highest on cotton (27.53%), while it was the lowest on tomato (15.87%). The highest net reproductive rate (284.3 females/female/generation), mean length of a generation (31.24 days), and intrinsic rate of increase (0.19 day−1) were recorded on cotton. The finite rate of increase was in the range of 1.18-1.20 (females/female/day) for all the selected host plants. The weekly multiplication rate was highest on China rose and congress grass (3.78), while it was the least on tomato (3.28). The corrected generation time was dissimilar in all the selected host plants, being highest on cotton (31.39 days) and the least on congress grass (27.71 days). The doubling time was shortest on congress grass (3.61 days), while it was longest on tomato (4.11 days). Hence, the host plant species significantly affects population growth of P. solenopsis.

Biology and population growth parameters of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on five host plant species

in Animal Biology

Sections

References

AbbasG.ArifM.J. & SaeedS. (2005) Systematic status of a new species of the genus Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae), a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Pakistan. Pak. Entomol.2783-84.

AbbasG.ArifM.J.AshfaqM.AslamM. & SaeedS. (2010) Host plants, distribution and overwintering of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis); Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Int. J. Agric. Biol.12421-425.

AheerG.M.ShahZ. & SaeedM. (2009) Seasonal history and biology of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. J. Agric. Res.47423-431.

AkintolaA.J. & AndeA.T. (2008) First record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Nigeria. Medwell Agric. J.31-3.

AmarasekareK.G.MannionC.M.OsborneL.S. & EpskyN.D. (2008) Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four host plant species under laboratory conditions. Environ. Entomol.37630-635.

AmuthaM. & DharajothiB. (2015) Life table of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton. Indian J. Entomol.771-10.

AndrewarthaH.G. & BirchL.C. (1954) Distribution and Abundance of Animals. University of Chicago PressChicago, IL, USA.

ArifM.I.RafiqM. & GhaffarA. (2009) Host plants of Phenacoccus solenopsis: a new menace to cotton agro-ecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan. Int. J. Agric. Biol.11163-167.

ArifM.J.ShahidM.R.GogiM.D.ArshadM. & KhanM.A. (2013) Studies on biological parameters of an invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsely (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on different host plants under laboratory conditions. Acad. J. Entomol.655-60.

AwmackC.S. & LeatherS.R. (2002) Host plant quality and fecundity in herbivorous insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol.47817-844.

BadshahH.UllahF.FaridA.SaljoqiA.R. & AhmadS. (2015) Evaluation of selected host plants for basic life cycle parameters of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley under laboratory conditions. Sarhad J. Agric.3181-86.

BegonM.HarperJ.L. & TownsendC.R. (1996) Ecology: Individuals Populations and Communities. 3rd Edition. Blackwell Science LtdCambridge, MA, USA.

Ben-DovY. & MillerD.R. (2016) ScaleNet: systematic database of the scale insects of the world (version Dec. 2004). In: Y. RoskovL. AbucayT. OrrellD. NicolsonT. KunzeC. FlannN. BaillyP. KirkT. BourgoinR.E. DeWaltW. Decock & A. De Wever (Eds) Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life 27th June 2016 Species 2000. NaturalisLeiden, The Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858. Available at http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col. Accessed on 13 July 2016.

Ben-DovY. (1994) A Systematic Catalogue of the Mealybugs of the World (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) With Data on Geographical Distribution Host Plants Biology and Economic Importance. Intercept LimitedAndover, UK.

BenreyB. & DennoR.F. (1997) The slow-growth-high mortality hypothesis: a test using the cabbage butterfly. Ecology78987-999.

BirchL.C. (1948) The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. J. Animal Ecol.1715-26.

CABI (2016) Invasive Species Compendium. Available at http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/109097. Accessed on 13 July 2016.

CalatayudP.A. & LeR.B. (2006) Cassava-Mealybug Interactions. IRD editionsParis, France.

CaliskanA.F.KaydanM.B.MuştuM. & UlusoyM.R. (2016) Demographic parameters and biological features of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plants. Phytoparasitica4475-82.

CharlestonK. & MurrayD. (2010) Exotic Mealybug Species – A Major New Pest in Cotton. Published: February 12 2010. Available at http://thebeatsheet.com.au/exotic-mealybug-species-a-major-new-pest-in-cotton/. Accessed on 13 July 2016.

da SilvaC.A.D. (2012) Occurrence of new species of mealybug on cotton fields in the States of Bahia and Paraíba, Brazil. Bragantia Campinas71467-470.

DhawanA.K. & SainiS. (2009) Study on biology and management of Phenacoccus solenopsis on cotton in Punjab. In: Proceedings of National Symposium on IPM Strategies to Combat Emerging Pests in the Current Scenario of Climate Change January 28-30 2009 pp. 35-36. College of Horticulture and Forestry CAU Pashighat Arunachal Pradesh India.

EhrlichP.R. & MurphyD.D. (1988) Plant chemistry and host range in insect herbivores. Ecology69908-909.

El-ZahiE.ArefS. & KorishS.K.M. (2016) The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control. J. Plant Prot. Res.56111-115.

FandB.B.GautamR.D.ChanderS. & SurosheS.S. (2010) Life table analysis of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under laboratory conditions. J. Entomol. Res.34175-179.

FandB.B.TonnangH.E.Z.KumarM.KambleA.L. & BalS.K. (2014) A temperature-based phenology model for predicting development, survival and population growth potential of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Crop Prot.5598-108.

HameedA.AzizM.A. & AheerG.M. (2012) Impact of ecological contribution on biology of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in laboratory. Pak. J. Zool.44685-690.

HodgsonC.J.AbbasG.ArifM.J.SaeedS. & KararH. (2008) Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), an invasive mealybug damaging cotton in Pakistan and India, with a discussion on seasonal morphological variation. Zootaxa19131-35.

KedarS.C.SainiR.K. & RamP. (2010) Biology of solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton in Haryana. In: Proceedings of National Congress on Plant Protection in Agriculture-010 pp. 46-47. Department of Entomology, Agriculture Research StationJaipur, India.

KumarR.JatS.L.PalV. & ChauhanR. (2009) Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Psuedococcidae) on cotton in India. Entomon.34189-192.

KumarS. & KontodimasD.C. (2012) Temperature-dependent development of Phenacoccus solenopsis under laboratory conditions. Entomol. Hell.2125-38.

KumarS.SidhuJ.K.HammJ.C.KularJ.S. & MahalM.S. (2013a) Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the life table of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton. Fla. Entomol.9619-28.

KumarS.KularJ.S.MahalM.S. & DhawanA.K. (2013b) Life table of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on various phonological stages of cotton. Afr. J. Agric. Res.81669-1676.

LeeK.P.RaubenheimerD.BehmerS.T. & SimpsonS.J. (2003) A correlation between macronutrient balancing and insect host-plant range: evidence from the specialist caterpillar Spodoptera exempta (Walker). J. Insect Physiol.491161-1171.

LiuZ.D.LiD.M.GongP.Y. & WuK. (2004) Life table studies of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on different host plants. Environ Entomol.331570-1576.

Mamoon-ur-RashidM.KhattakM.K. & AbdullahK. (2012) Phenological response of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) to three prominent host plants. Pak. J. Zool.44341-343.

MandalD.BhowmikP. & ChatterjeeM.L. (2014) Cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus Solenopsis Tinsley, Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in West Bengal – host range and infestation. Ind. J. Entomol.7632-36.

MaruthaduraiR. & SinghN.P. (2015) First report of invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley infesting cashew from Goa, India. Phytoparasitica43121-124.

MuhammadA. (2007) Mealybug: Cotton Crop’s Worst Catastrophe. Centre for Agro-Informatics Research (CAIR)Pakistan. Available at http://agroict.org/pdf_news/Mealybug.pdf. Accessed July 2008 (verified 27 May 2009).

NagrareV.S.KranthiS.BiradarV.K.ZadeN.N.SangodeV.KakdeG.ShuklaR.M.ShivareD.KhadiB.M. & KranthiK.R. (2009) Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India. Bull. Entomol. Res.99537-541.

NagrareV.S.KranthiS.KumarR.DharajothiB.AmuthaM.DeshmukhA.J.BisaneK.D. & KranthiK.R. (2011) Compendium of Cotton Mealybugs. Technical Bulletin p. 42. Central Institute for Cotton Research Nagpur India.

NagrareV.S.KumarR.AmuthaM.DharajothiB.KranthiS.VennilaS.DeshmukhA.J.BisaneK.D.Manjula & KranthiK.R. (2012) A record of host plants of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley for devising ecofriendly management strategies. J. Entomol. Res.36327-344.

NakahiraK. & ArakawaR. (2006) Development and reproduction of an exotic pest mealybug, Phenacoccus solani (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) at three constant temperatures. Appl. Entomol. Zool.41573-575.

NeuenschwanderP. (2003) Biological control of cassava and mango mealybugs. In: P. NeuenschwanderC. Borgemeister & J. Langewald (Eds) Biological Control in IPM Systems in Africa pp. 45-59. CABI PublishingWallingford, UK.

PatelB.H.NikamN.D. & KoratD.M. (2010) Biology of cotton Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in laboratory. In: Proceedings of National Congress on Plant Protection in Agriculture – 2010 4-6 December. Department of Entomology, Agriculture Research StationJaipur, India.

PatilS.V.ChandrasekharD.P.RahulB.S.VijayL.M. & BipinchandraK.S. (2011) Studies on life cycle of mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on different hosts at different constant temperatures. J. Crop Prot.301553-1556.

PrasadY.G.PrabhakarM.SreedeviG.Ramachandra RaoG. & VenkateswarluB. (2012) Effect of temperature on development, survival and reproduction of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton. Crop Prot.3981-88.

PrishanthiniM. & VinobabaM. (2009) First record of new exotic Mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, 1898 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), its host range and abundance in the Eastern Sri Lanka. JSc-EUSL688-100.

QianM.HuQ.RenS.MandourN.S.QiuB. & StanslyP.A. (2012) Delayed development of the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and increased parasitism by Encarsia bimaculata in response to sublethal doses of piperonyl butoxide. Insect Sci.19403-411.

RashidM.M.KhattakM.K. & AbdullahK. (2012) Phenological response of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley to three prominent host plants. Pak. J. Zool.22341-346.

RaubenheimerD. & SimpsonS.J. (2003) Nutrient balancing in grasshoppers: behavioural and physiological correlates of diet breadth. J. Exp. Biol.2061669-1681.

RichardO.W. (1961) The theoretical and practical study of natural insect populations. Annu. Rev Entomol.6147-162.

RobinsonP. & TapimF. (2010) Mealybug ‘Turmoil’ Sparks Cotton Crop Fears. Available at http://www.abc.net.au/news/2010-0205/mealy-bug-turmoil-sparks-cotton-crop-fears/2590860. Accessed on 13 July 2016.

RosenthalG.A. & BerenbaumM.R. (Eds) (1992) Herbivores: Their Interaction With Secondary Plant Metabolites. 2nd Edition. Academic PressSan Diego, CA, USA.

SaeedR.SayyedA.H.ShadS.A. & ZakaS.M. (2010) Effect of different host plants on the fitness of diamond-back moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Crop Prot.29178-182.

SahitoH.A.AbroG.H.KhuroR.D.LanjarA.G. & MahmoodR. (2010) Biological and morphological studies of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) development under laboratory environment. Pak. J. Entomol. Karachi25131-141.

SahitoH.A. & AbroG.H. (2012) Biology of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae) on okra and China rose under laboratory conditions. Pak. Entomol.34121-124.

Sana-UllahM.ArifM.J.GogiM.D.ShahidM.R.AdidA.M.RazaA. & AliA. (2011) Influence of different plant genotypes on some biological parameters of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis and its predator, Coccinella septempunctata under laboratory conditions. Int. J. Agric. Biol.12125-129.

SequieraR. & DixonA.F.G. (1996) Life history responses to host quality changes and competition in the Turkey-oak aphid. Eur. J. Entomol.9353-58.

SimpsonS.J.RaubenheimerD.BehmerS.T.WhitworthA. & WrightG.A. (2002) A comparison of nutritional regulation in solitarious and gregarious phase nymphs of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. J. Exp. Biol.205121-129.

SinghV.SoodA.K.VermaK.S.MehtaP.K. & SoodS. (2016) Record of host plants and natural enemies of Solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley: A potential pest under protected cultivation in Himachal Pradesh. Bioscan11251-254.

SouthwoodT.R.E. & HandersonP.A. (2000) Ecological Methods With Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations. 3rd Edition. Blackwell ScienceOxford, UK.

SreedeviG.PrasadY.G.PrabhakarM.RaoG.R.VennilaS. & VenkateswarluB. (2013) Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in response to constant temperatures on Hibiscus. PLoS One8e75636. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075636.

SurosheS.S.GautamR.D. & FandB.B. (2013) Natural enemy complex associated with the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting different host plants in India. J. Biol. Control27204-210.

TanakaH. & UesatoT. (2012) New records of some potential pest mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) in Japan. Appl. Entomol. Zool.47413-419.

TinsleyJ.D. (1898) Notes on Coccidae, with descriptions of new species. Can. Entomol.30317-320.

van LenterenJ.C. & NoldusL.P.J.J. (1990) Whitefly-plant relationship: behavioral and biological aspects. In: D. Gerling (Ed.) Whiteflies: Their Bionomics Pest Status and Management pp. 47-89. InterceptAndover, UK.

VarleyG.C. & GradwellG.R. (1970) Recent advances in insect population dynamics. Annu. Rev. Entomol.151-24.

VennilaS.DeshmukhA.J.PinjarkarD.AgarwalM.RamamurthyV.V.JoshiS.KranthiK.R. & BambawaleO.M. (2010) Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley on cotton in the laboratory. J. Insect Sci.10(115) 1-9. DOI:10.1673/031.010.11501.

VennilaS.PrasadY.G.PrabhakarM.KumarR.NagrareV.S.AmuthaM.DharajyothiAgrawalM.SreedeviG.VenkateswarluB.KranthiK.R. & BambawaleO.M. (2011) Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Host Plants of Cotton Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in India. Technical Bulletin No. 26. National Centre for Integrated Pest ManagementNew Delhi, India.

VennilaS.PrasadY.G.PrabhakarM.AgarwalM.SreedeviG. & BambawaleO.M. (2013) Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). J. Environ. Biol.34153-158.

VijayS. & SureshS. (2013) Host plants of Phenacoccus spp. complex in Tamil Nadu. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci.26147-151.

WangY.P.WuS.A. & ZhangR.Z. (2009) Pest risk analysis of a new invasive pest, Phenacoccus solenopsis to China. Chin. Bull. Entomol.46101-106.

WangY.P.WatsonG.W. & ZhangR. (2010) The potential distribution of an invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis and its threat to cotton in Asia. Agric. For. Entomol.12403-416.

WilliamsD.J. (1989) The mealybug genus Rastrococcus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Syst. Entomol.14433-486.

WuS.A. & ZhangR.Z. (2009) A new invasive pest, Phenacoccus solenopsis threatening seriously to cotton production. Chin. Bull. Entomol.46159-162 (in Chinese; summary in English).

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Mean duration (days ± SEM) of immature stages and cumulative development of adult female and male of Phenacoccus solenopsis on different host plant species.

  • View in gallery

    Mean (days ± SEM) pre-oviposition, oviposition, and post oviposition periods, percentage oviposition during effective reproduction and adult female and male longevity of Phenacoccus solenopsis on different host plant species.

  • View in gallery

    Fecundity (mean ± SE) of Phenacoccus solenopsis females reared on five host plant species.

  • View in gallery

    Mean survival frequency (±SEM) of different life stages of Phenacoccus solenopsis on various host plant species.

  • View in gallery

    Population growth parameters of Phenacoccus solenopsis on various host plant species.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 115 115 58
Full Text Views 95 95 69
PDF Downloads 14 14 6
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0