Life-history theory predicts that organisms inhabiting harsh environments such as high altitudes should invest less in reproduction and more in survival. Testis size is associated with the intensity of male-male competition for mating and thus may be treated as an indicator of male reproductive investment. Hence, it may be expected that organisms will reduce their testis size with increasingly harsh environments. Here we test this prediction in a toad species, Scutiger boulengeri, endemic to the Tibetan plateau using data from three populations located at altitudes of 4078, 4276, and 4387 m. Consistent with the prediction, male toads exhibited smaller testes at higher altitudes, despite the relatively narrow altitudinal span. It is likely that cold climates and strong seasonality constrain the ability of high-altitude male toads to allocate more energy into reproduction, thereby leading to small testis size. In addition, the left testis was significantly heavier than the right one and the degree of size asymmetry was unrelated to either altitude or body condition.
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