On the Sound Change PGmc /hʷ/ > /f/, the Etymology of Du lijfeigen, and the Malberg Gloss leodardi

in Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



A well-known exception to Grimm’s Law, /kʷ/ > /f/ instead of /kʷ/ > /hʷ/, is taken as a starting point and its reflexes in Middle Dutch and Sal-Frankic are discussed. As to the PIE root *leikʷ-, MD and MLG līf- in the compounds līfeigen ‘owned by the fief’, līftuht ‘feudal law’, and līfcōp ‘feudal transaction fee’ is identified as derived from this root under a regular sound change, which is coined Uhlenbeck’s Law. Uhlenbeck’s Law acts as a resolution of a pansyllabic constraint, not a constraint on roots. As to Sal-Frankic, the new etymology of SF leo- ‘related to the tenements’’, and by extention ‘agricultural’, sheds new light on the structure of the Lex Salica. It is argued that the tripartite manorial system of land tenure has reflexes in juridical terminology of this archaic legal document.

  • AnghelescuAndrei (2012). Labial dissimilation in Huave. LING 510.

  • BackleyPhilip (2011). An Introduction to Element Theory. Edinburg University Press.

  • BombardAllan (1986). “The aspirated stops of Proto-Indo-European” in: Diachronica. 36779.

  • BooijGeert (1995). The Phonology of Dutch. Oxford University Press.

  • BrauneWilhelm (1886 [2004]). Althochdeutsche Grammatik. Halle.

  • BuckCarl Darling (1904). A grammar of Oscan and Umbrian: with a collection of inscriptions and a glossary. Ginn.

  • CairnsCharles E. & Eric Raimy (2010). Handbook of the Syllable. Brill. Leiden.

  • CyranEugeniusz (2010). Complexity Scales and Licensing in Phonology. Walter de Gruyter.

  • Dalevan (1984). Groot Woordenboek der Nederlandse Taal. Utrecht, Antwerpen.

  • FrommholdG. (1938). “Der altfrankische Erbhof, ein Beitrag zur Erklarung des Begriffes der terra salica” in: Untersuchungen zur deutschen Staats- und Rechtsgeschichte 148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FudgeEric 1969). Syllable. Journal of Linguistics 5. 253286.

  • FulkR.D. (2018). Comparative Grammar of Early Germanic Languages. Benjamins.

  • Grimm J. (1850). Preface to Merkel & Grimm (1850).

  • HeltenW.L. van (1900). “Zu den malbergischen Glossen und den salfränkischen Formeln und Lehnwörtern in der Lex Salica” in: Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 25225542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeirbautDirk. (2018). “The danger of using Latin text for customary law: the case of Flemish feudal law” in: Jenny Benhamet al. (eds). Law and Language in the Middle Ages. Brill. Leiden.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerkhoff P.A. (2018). Language Law and Loanwords in Early Medieval Gaul. PhD Dissertation Leiden University.

  • KernH. (1869). Die Glossen in der Lex Salica. Martinus Nijhoff.

  • KernH. (1870). “Feodum” in: De taal- en letterbode 1189201.

  • Kim Yuni (2008). Topics in the Phonology and Morphology of San Francisco del Mar Huave. PhD Dissertation Berkley University.

  • KöblerGerhard (2014). Mittelniederdeutsches Wörterbuch. http://www.koeblergerhard.de/mndwbhin.html

  • KroonenGuus. (2013). Etymological dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Brill. Leiden.

  • LaschA. & C. Borchling (2004). Mittelniederdeutsches Handwörterbuch. Wachholtz.

  • MeilletAntoine. (1937). Introduction a l’étude comparative des langues indo-européennes. Hachett.

  • MerkelPaul Johannes & J. Grimm (1850). Lex Salica. Berlin.

  • NoskeR. (2012). “The Grimm-Verner push chain and Contrast Preservation Theory” in: Bert Botma & Roland Noske. Phonological Explorations: Empirical Theoretical and Diachronic Issues. Walter de Gruyter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OlbergGabriele von (1991). Die Bezeichnungen für soziale Stände Schichten und Gruppen in den Leges barbarorum. Walter de Gruyter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PhilippaM.et al. (2003–2009). Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands. Amsterdam.

  • PicardMarc (1995). “Issues in the glottalic theory of Indo-European: The comparative method, typology and naturalness” in: Word 46:2225235DOI:10.1080/00437956. 1995.11435943

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PostmaGertjan (2017). Reduplicative Lexemes in Dutch 2nd/5th Binyan Erasure in Arabic and the Phonological Reality of Deleted Copies. Ms. Meertens Institute Amsterdam.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PostmaGertjan (2019). “The competetive tier model – Element subtraction in German and Pomeranian” in: Glossa 3. 147.

  • QuakArend (2008). “Archaische Wörter in den malbergischen Glossen” in: Alexander Lubotskyet al (eds). Evidence and Counter-Evidence – Essays in Honour of Frederik Kortlandt. Amsterdam. Rodopi469487.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RösenerWerner (1985). Bauer in Mittelalter. Beck.

  • RuttenAuguste (1890). Bijdrage tot een Haspengouwsch Idioticon. Antwerpen.

  • SchrijverPeter (2014). Language Contact and the Origins of the Germanic Languages. Routledge.

  • SeeboldE. (1967). Die Vertretung von idg. gʷʰ im Germanischen. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 81104133.

  • SeeboldE. (2006). “Die malbergischen Glossen: Untersuchungen zu den malbergischen Glossen; Einführung” in: Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 12917.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShuerenGherardus de (1477). Vocabularius qui intitulatur Teutonista vulgariter dicendo der Duytschlender. ColonieArn. ter Hornen.

  • SweetHenry (1879). An Anglo-Saxon Reader. Oxford. Clarendon Press.

  • ThomsenV.L.P. & E. Sievers (1870). Über den Einfluss der germanischen Sprachen auf die finnisch-lappischen. Eine sprachgeschichtliche Untersuchung. Halle.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tits-DieuaideMarie-Jeanne (1985). “Grands domaines, grandes et petites exploitations en Gaule mérovingienne” in: A. Verhulst (ed.) La grande domaine aux époques mérovingienne et carolingienne. Ghent.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TuerlinckxJan Ferdinand (1886). Bijdrage tot een Hagelandsch idioticon. Gent.

  • UhlenbeckC.C. 1905. “Bemerkungen zum gotischen Wortschatz” in: Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 30252327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VaanMichiel de (2008). Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages. Brill. Leiden.

  • Verdam Jacob. (1885–1952). Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek.

  • VerhulstA. (1985). La grande domaine aux époques mérovingienne et carolingienne. Ghent.

  • VerhulstAdriaan (2002). The Carolingian Economy. Cambridge University Press.

  • VernerKarl. (1876). “Eine ausnahme der ersten lautverschiebung” in: Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen 2397130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 40 40 5
Full Text Views 8 8 0
PDF Downloads 6 6 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0