Finds of tumuli in the Northern Caucasus show the permanent presence of Scythians in these parts. Tumuli excavated in the Stavropol' region (at Krasnoye Znamya and Novozavedennoe) and in Kabardino-Balkariya (near Nartan) show the influence of the Near East on early Scythian culture (7th-6th c. B.C.). The great Kuban' barrows excavated in the 1980's reveal sacred platforms or sanctuaries of the 4th c. B.C. Scythian graves have also been found in Checheno-Ingushetiya (near Achkhoi-Martan). About 300 Sarmatian complexes have been studied, largely in the NW Caucasus, revealing the penetration of Sarmatian peoples in this area.