Hellenistic Court Imagery in the Early Buddhist Art of Gandhara

in Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

The focus of the paper is on the relationship between Gandharan artistic culture and the presence of a Hellenistic court milieu during the 1st cent. before and after CE in the territories of Ancient Uḍḍīyāna. What emerges from new literary and archaeological evidences are significant interactions between artistic production and the evergetism made by the princes of Apraca and Oḍi: many evidences demonstrate the substantial involvement as donors of these local dynasties in the construction of the sacred landscape. What influence did these local dynasties have in the structuring of religious communication? How was this local power and his Hellenistic background reflected in the images and complex decorative Buddhist monuments? In order to understand the dynamics between power and religious communication in the sacred space of Early Gandharan society not only some well-known iconographic themes are now interpreted as self-representations of an aristocratic habitus, but also the presence of a ‘beholder in the image’ is detected as powerful visual strategy to stage the religious experience as a suggestive ritual performance.

Hellenistic Court Imagery in the Early Buddhist Art of Gandhara

in Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia

Sections

References

AckermannH. Ch. Narrative Stone Reliefs from Gandhāra in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London (IsMEO Reports and Memoirs 17) 1975 Rome

AllchinR. Gandharan Art in Context. East-West Exchanges at the Crossroads of Asia 1997 New Delhi

AndersonG. Philostratus. Biography and Belles Lettres in the Third Century A.D 1986 London

AndersonG. Sage Saint and Sophist. Holy Man and their Associates in the Roman Empire 1994 London

AshrafM. Buddhist Shrines in Swat 1993 Saidu Sharif

AshrafM.HasanM.LoneA. G. A Catalogue of the Gandhara Stone Sculptures in the Taxila Museum 2005 2 vols. Islamabad

BallW. Rome in the East. The Transformation of an Empire 2000 London, New York

BanerjeeG. N. Hellenism in Ancient India 1981 New Delhi

BareauA. La construction et le culte des stupa d’après les Vinayapitaka Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient 1962 50 229 274

BehrendtK. A. The Buddhist’Architecture of Gandhāra (Handbook of Oriental Studies 17) 2004 Leiden, Boston

BehrendtK. A. The Art of Gandhara in the Metropolitan Museum of Art 2007 New Heaven, London

BellC. TaylorM. C. Performance Critical Terms for Religious Studies 1998 Chicago 205 224

BendlinB. CancikH.RüpkeJ. Peripheral Centers-Central Peripheries. Religious Communication in the Roman Empire Römische Reichsreligion und Provinzialreligion 1997 Tübingen 35 68

BernardP.JullienCh.-P. Haltères votives de lutteurs dans le Gandhara Studia Iranica 11 (Mélanges offerts à Raoul Curiel) 1982 33 47

BernardP.GrenetF.RapinC. De Bactres à Taxila. Nouvelles données de géographie historique, Monarchies hellénistiques. Recherches sur les monarchies hellénistiques, l’Arabie et l’Inde Topoi 1996 6 457 530.

BichlerR. „Hellenismus“. Geschichte und Problematik eines Epochenbegriffs (Impulse der Forschung 41) 1983 Darmstadt

BinderG.EhlichK. Religiöse Kommunikation. Formen und Praxis vor der Neuzeit (Stätten und Formen der Kommunikation im Altertum 6; Bochumer Altertumswissenschaftliches Colloquium 26) 1997 Trier

BivarA. D. H. TarziZ.VaillancourtD. Cosmopolitan Allusions in the Art of Gandhāra Art et archéologie des monastères gréco-bouddhisques du Nord-Ouest de l’Inde et de l’Asie centrale. Actes du colloque international du CRPOGA (Strasbourg 17-18 mars 2000) 2005 Paris 11 27

BoardmanJ. The Diffusion of Classical Art in the Antiquity 1994 London, Princeton

BoardmanJ. AllchinR. Classical Figures in an Indian Landscape Gandharan Art in Context. East-West Exchanges at the Crossroads of Asia 1997 New Delhi 1 16

BourdieuP. La distinction. Critique sociale du jugement 1979 1984 Paris (English translation R. Nice Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste (Cambridge Mass.) 1984)

BourdieuP. Language and Symbolic Power 1991 Cambridge

BrancaccioP.BehrendtK. A. Gandhāran Buddhism. Archaeology Art Texts 2006 Vancouver, Toronto

BrancaccioP.XinruL. Dionysus and Drama in the Buddhist art of Gandhara Journal of Global History 2009 4 219 244

BurkertW. Creation of the Sacred. Tracks of Biology in Early Religions 1996 Cambridge Mass.

BuscheJ. Der Begriff Hellenismus als Epochenname 1984 Frankfurt

BussagliM. Osservazioni sulla persistenza delle forme ellenistiche nell’arte del Gandhara Rivista dell’Istituto nazionale d’archeologia e storia dell’arte 1956-57 5-6 149 247

CallieriP. InvernizziA. The North-West of the Indian subcontinent in the Indo-Greek period. The archaeological evidence In the Land of the Gryphons. Papers on Central Asian Archaeology in Antiquity (Monografie di Mesopotamia 5) 1995 Florence 293 308

CallieriP. Architetti capomastri artigiani. L’organizzazione dei cantieri e della produzione artistica nell’Asia ellenisica. Studi offerti a Domenico Faccenna nel suo ottantesimo compleanno (Serie Orientale Roma 100) 2006 Rome

CarterM. L. Dionysiac Aspects of Kushān Art Ars Orientalis 1968 7 121 146

CarterM. L. Bacchants of Mathura: New Evidence of Dionysiac Yaksha Imagery from Kushan Mathura The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 1982 69 247 257

CarterM. L. Dionysiac Festivals and Gandharan Imagery. Res Orientales 1992 4 51 60

Cat. Bonn-Berlin-Zürich LuczanitsCh. Gandhara. Das buddhistische Erbe Pakistans. Legenden Klöster und Paradiese. Ausstellungskatalog 2008-2010 Bonn Berlin Zürich 2008 Mainz

Cat. Roma CallieriP.FiligenziA. Il Maestro di Saidu Sharif. Alle origini dell’arte del Gandhara. Roma Museo Nazionale d’Arte Orientale 2002 Rome

Cat. Roma La RoccaE.Parisi PresicceC. I giorni di Roma. L’età della conquista. Roma Musei Capitolini marzo 2010-settembre 2010 2010 Rome

Cat. Tokyo Alexander The Great. East-West Cultural Contacts from Greece to Japan Tokyo National Museum August 5-October 5 2003 Tokyo

ClementeG.CoarelliF.GabbaE. Storia di Roma 1990 II 1 Turin

DaniA. H. Excavation at Andandheri Ancient Pakistan 1968-1969 4 33 64

DarS. R. The Question of Roman Influence in Gandhara Art: Numismatic Evidence Rivista Italiana di Numismatica 1977 79 61 89

DarS. R. Toilet Trays from Gandhara and the Beginning of Hellenism in Pakistan Journal of Central Asia 1979 2 141 84

De MarcoG. I “Kuṣāṇa” nella vita del Buddha (Annali. Istituto Orientale di Napoli Suppl. 34) 1983 Naples

Di CastroA. A. Of Handles and Names: Remarks on Wrestlers’ Weights East & West 2007 57 367 375

EliasN. Die höfische Gesellschaft 1969 Darmstadt (English transl. E. Jephcott The Court Society 1983)

ErringtonE.CribbJ. The Crossroads of Asia. Transformation in image and symbol. An Exhibition at the Fitzwilliam Museum Cambridge 6 October-13 December 1992 1992 Cambridge

FaccennaD. Sculptures from the Sacred Area of Butkara I. Swat Pakistan 1962 vol. II Rome 2 3

FaccennaD. SrinivasanD. M. The Artistic Centre of Butkara I and Saidu Sharif I in the Pre-Kuṣāṇa Period On the Cusp of an Era: Art in the Pre- Kuṣāṇa World (Inner Asian Library 18) 2007 Leiden, Boston 165 199

FalkH. BopearachchiO.BoussacM.-F. The introduction of the stupa-worship in Bajaur. Actes du colloque international au Musée archéologique Henri Prades Lattes du 5 au 7 mai 2004 (Indicopleustoi Archaeologies of the Indian Ocean 3) 2005 Turnhout 347 358

FiligenziA. L’arte narrativa del Gandhara Cat. Roma 2002 93 106

FiligenziA. Narrative Art in Gandhara Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia 2003 9 350 380

FiligenziA. CallieriP. From Mind to Eye: Two-dimensional Illusions and Pictorial suggestions at Saidu Sharif Architetti capomastri artigiani. L’organizzazione dei cantieri e della produzione artistica nell’Asia ellenisica. Studi offerti a Domenico Faccenna nel suo ottantesimo compleanno (Serie Orientale Roma 100) 2006 Rome 17 40

FischerK. SchotsmansJ.TaddeiM. How Were the Love-Scenes on Gandharan Stupas Interpreted by Contemporary Worshippers? South Asian Archaeology 1983 1985 2 vols. Naples 629 639

FoucherA. L’art gréco-bouddhique du Gandhâra 1905-1951 2 vols. Paris

FrancfortH.-P. Les palettes du Gandhāra (MDAFA 23) 1979 Paris

FussmanG. Nouvelles inscriptions śaka: Ère d’Eucratide, ère d’Azès, ère Vikrama, ère de Kaniṣka Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient 1980 67 1 43

FussmanG. FukuiF.FussmanG. Upa̱ya-kaus̱alya L’implantation du bouddhism au Gandhara Bouddhism et cultures locales : quelques cas de réciproques adaptions. Actes du colloque franco-japonaise Septembre 1991 2 vols. (Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient Études Thématiques 2) 1994 Paris 217 252

GalliM. ElsnerJ.RutherfordI. Pilgrimage as Élite Habitus: Educated Pilgrims in the Sacred Landscape During the Second Sophistic Pilgrimage in Graeco-Roman & Early Christian Antiquity. Seeing the Gods 2005 Oxford 253 290

GalliM. RüpkeJ. Asian Empires (Gandhara, Buddhist India) A Companion to the Archaeology of Religion in the Ancient World in preparation (forthcoming 2012).

GoetzH. Imperial Rome and the Genesis of Classical Indian Art East & West 1959 10 153 182 261 268

HahnJ. Alexander in Indien 327-325 v.Chr 2000 Sigmaringen

HesbergH. von SettisS. Riti e produzione artistica delle corti ellenistiche I Greci Una storia greca. Trasformazioni 1998 II Turin 177 214

IngholtH. Gandharan Art in Pakistan 1957 New York

JohnstonE. H. The Buddhacarita or Acts of the Buddha 1935-1936 2 vols. Calcutta

KarttunenK. India and the Hellenistic World (Studia Orientalia 83) 1997 Helsinki

KempW. BeltingH. Kunstwerk und Betrachter: Der rezeptionsästhetische Ansatz Kunstgeschichte. Eine Einführung 2008 Berlin 247 264 7

KempW. Der Betrachter ist im Bild. Kunstwissenschaft und Rezeptionsästhetik 1992 Berlin

KonowS. Das indische Drama 1920 Leipzig, Berlin

KuritaI. Gandhāran Art. I. The Buddha’s Life Story 1988 Tokyo (English transl. 2003).

KuritaI. Gandhāran Art. II. The World of the Buddha 1990 Tokyo (English transl. 2003).

LéviS. Le théâtre indien 1890 Paris reprint 2006 Elibron Classics

Lo MuzioC. Classificazione degli strumenti musicali raffigurati nell’arte gandhārica Rivista di Studi Orientali 1990 63 257 284

Lo MuzioC. A Rare Idiophone in Gandharan Art Monumentum Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin. (Acta Iranica 34. Textes et mémoires XIX) 1999 Leuven 587 604

Lo MuzioC. L’artigianato di lusso nel Nord-Ovest di epoca indo-greca, Saka e partica: i “piattelli per cosmetici” Cat. Roma 2002 77 83

LoeshkoJ. Sacred Traces. British Explorations of Buddhism in South Asia. History of Vision 2003 Hants

Lohuizen-de LeeuwJ. E. The ‘Scythian’ Period. An Approach to the History Art Epigraphy and Paleography of North India from the 1st cent. B.C. to the 3rd cent. A.D. (Orientalia Rheno-Traiectina 2) 1949 Leiden

LüdersR. Bruchstücke Buddhistischer Dramen (Königlich Preussische Turfan-Expeditionen. Kleinere Sanskrit-Texte 1) 1911 Berlin

MarshallJ. The Buddhist Art of Gandhara (Memoirs of the Department of Archaeology in Pakistan 1) 1960 Cambridge

MylonopoulosJ. StavrianopoulouE. Greek Sanctuaries as Places of Communication through Rituals. An Archaeological Perspective Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World (Kernos suppléments 16) 2006 Liege 69 110

MylonopoulosJ.RoederH. Archäologie und Ritual. Auf der Suche nach der rituellen Handlung in den antiken Kulturen Ägyptens und Griechenlands 2006 Vienna

NehruL. Origins of the Gandharan Style. A study of contributory influences 1989 New Delhi

OlivieriL. M. Notes on the Problematic Sequence of Alexander’s Itinerary in Swat. A Geo-Historical Approach East & West 1996 46 45 78

OlivieriL. M.VidaleM. Archaeology and Settlement History in a Test Area of the Swat Valley. Preliminary Report on the AMSV Project (1st Phase) East & West 2006 56 1-3 73 150 et alii

PassiA. Aśvaghoṣa. Le gesta del Buddha (Buddhacarita canti I-XIV) 1979 Milan

RosenfieldJ. M. The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans 1967 Berkeley, Los Angeles

RowlandB. Gandhara, Rome, and Mathura: the Early Relief Style Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America 1956 10 6 17

RowlandB. Rome and Gandhara East & West 1958 9 199 208

SalomonR. The Inscription of Senavarma, King of Odi Indo-Iranian Journal 1986 29 261 293

SalomonR. The Reliquary Inscription of Utara: A New Source of the History of the Kings of Apraca Indo-Iranian Journal 1988 31 169 177

SalomonR. An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman Journal of the American Oriental Society 1996 116 418 452

SalomonR. Another Reliquary Inscription of the Apraca Princess Uttarā Bulletin of the Asia Institute 1997 11 183 191

SalomonR. Ancient Buddhist Scrolls from Gandhāra. The British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragments 1999 Seattle, London

SalomonR. BopearachchiO.BoussacM.-F. The Indo-Greek Era of 186/6 B.C. in a Buddhist Reliquary Inscription Actes du colloque international au Musée archéologique Henri Prades Lattes du 5 au 7 mai 2004 (Indicopleustoi Archaeologies of the Indian Ocean 3) 2005 Turnhout 359 401

SalomonR. SrinivasanD. M. Dynastic and Institutional Connections in the Pre- and Early Kuṣānā Period: New Manuscript and Epigraphic Evidence On the Cusp of an Era. Art in the Pre-Kuṣānā Word 2007 Leiden, Boston 267 283

SalomonR.SchopenG. The Indravarman (Avaca) Casket Inscription Reconsidered: Further Evidence for Canonical Passages in Buddhist Inscriptions The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 1984 7 107 123

SantoroA. Note di iconografia gandharica V. Appunti sul Vajrapāṇi-Eracle Rivista degli Studi Orientali 1991 65 269 309

SartreM. L’Orient romain. Provinces et sociétés provinciales en Méditerranée orientale d’Auguste aux Sévères 31 avant J.C. – 235 après J.C 1991 Paris

SchopenG. Burial ad Sanctos and the Physical Presence of the Buddha in Early Indian Buddhism Bones Stones and Buddhist Monks. Collected Papers on the Archaeology Epigraphy and Texts of Monastic Buddhism in India 1997 Honolulu 115 147

SchopenG. TaylorM. C. Relic Critical Terms for Religious Studies 1998 Chicago 256 268

SedlarJ. W. India and the Greek World. A Study in the Transmission of Culture 1980 Totowa

SharfR. H. LopezD. S.Jr. Ritual Critical Terms for the Study of Buddhism 2005 Chicago 245 267

SrinivasanD. M. On the Cusp of an Era. Art in the Pre-Kuṣānā Word 2007 Leiden, Boston

StavrianopoulouE. Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World (Kernos suppléments 16) 2006 Liege

StoyeM. Der Dreifuss in gandhārischen Szenen vom ersten Bad des Siddhārtha Gautama – Überlegungen zu Herkunft und Bedeutung eines visuellen Zitats Artibus Asiae 2004 64 141 176

TaddeiM. Harpocrates-Brahmā-Maitreya: a Tentative Interpretation of a Gandharan Relief from Swāt Dialoghi di Archeologia 1969 3 364 390 (Repr. in Taddei 2003 I 131-157).

TaddeiM. OzolsJ.ThewaltV. Neue Forschungsbelege zur Gandhāra-Ikonographie Aus dem Osten des Alexanderreiches. Völker und Kulturen zwischen Orient und Okzident. Iran Afghanistan Pakistan Indien 1984 Cologne 154 175

TaddeiM. Arte narrativa tra India e mondo ellenistico (Conferenze IsMEO 5) 1993 Rome (Repr. in Taddei 2003 II 335-380).

TaddeiM. VerardiG.FiligenziA. On Gandhāra. Collected Articles 2003 2 vols Naples

TarziZ. Les représentations portraitistes des donateurs laïcs dans l’imagérie bouddhique Ktéma 2009 25 287 308

TissotF. Gandhâra 1985 Paris

TodiscoL. Nuove osservazioni sull’amazzonomachia della grande coppa del Pittore di Pentesilea Iconografia 2005. Immagini e immaginari dall’antichità classica al mondo moderno (Antenor Quaderni 5) 2006 Padua 105 118

TucciG. On Swat. Historical and Archaeological Notes 1997 Rome

TyrellH.KrechV.KnoblauchH. Religion als Kommunikation 1998 Wurzburg

Völcker-JanssenW. Kunst und Gesellschaft an den Höfen Alexander der Grosser und seiner Nachfolger (Quellen und Forschungen zur antiken Welt 15) 1993 Munich

WalkerS. F. The Invention of Theater: Recontextualizing the Vexing Question Comparative Literature 2004 56 1 22

WeberG. Herrscher, Hof und Dichter Historia 1995 44 285 288

WeberG. WinterlingA. Interaktion, Repräsentation und Herrschaft. Die Königshof im Hellenismus Zwischen “Haus” und “Stadt” 1997 Munich 27 71

WheelerR. E. M. Roman Buddhist Art: an Old Problem Restated Antiquity 1949 23 4 18

WheelerR. E. M. Rome Beyond the Imperial Frontiers 1954 London

WhitmarshT. BarchiesiA.ScheidelW. Hellenism The Oxford Handbook of Roman Studies 2010 Oxford 728 747

WidemannF. Les successeurs d’Alexandre en Asie centrale et leur héritage culturel. Essai 2009 Paris

ZwalfW. A Catalogue of the Gandhāra Sculpture in the British Museum 1996 2 vols. London

2

Salomon 1986; 1996; 1999; 2005; 2007.

3

The cases are discussed in Salomon 19861996.

4

Salomon 2007279; see also Widemann 2009. On the Saka-Parthian period see the new documentation collected in Lohuizen-de Leeuw 1949; Rosenfield 1967 121-137; Callieri 1995; Srinivasan 2007. On Buddhism in Gandhara see Ashraf 1993; Fussman 1994; Zwalf 1996 30-35.

6

Errington & Cribb 1992126-131; Zwalf 1996 234-236 nos. 301 302; Boardman 1997.

9

Hellenism in Central Asia: Widemann 2009. Hellenism in India: Banerjee 1981; Karttunen 1997. Greek world and India: Sedlar 1980.

10

Hesberg 1998.

13

Rome and the East: Sartre 1991; Ball 2000.

14

Boardman 1994109-153; Bivar 2005; Rosen Stone in Cat. Bonn-Berlin-Zürich 2008 80-85. Stylistic comparison between Gandharan and Roman art: Wheeler 1949 1954; Rowland 1956 1958; Bussagli 1956-57; Ingholt 1957 23-27; Goetz 1959; Marshall 1960; Ackermann 1975 7-15; Dar 1977. This discussion is by no means confined to the last century but it goes back to the nineteenth century see Taddei (1993) 2003 II 343-59. Nineteenth-century perception of Buddhist art was recently discussed by Loeshko 2003.

16

Taddei (1969) 2003I 156. See also Taddei (1963) 2003 I 57-87; (1964-65) 2003 I 89-96. On social context see Filigenzi in Cat. Bonn-Berlin-Zürich 2008 298-301.

17

For example Widemann 2009436: “L’art bouddhiste développé dans des sanctuaires riche en décoration sculptée fortement marquée de l’influence hellénistique” and Nehru 1989; see also the deep insights of Taddei (1993) 2003 II 364: “Credo che ormai sia tempo che l’arte del Gandhara non sia più riguardata come un fenomeno di influenze ma come prodotto di un maturo Ellenismo che si trovava ad avere rapporti diretti con il Buddhismo”.

21

Rosenfield 1967121-137; Errington & Cribb 1992 66 Nos. 34-36.

24

All references listed by Salomon 2005385.

25

Salomon 1986269: “1a.[Seṇavarma] bows at the feet of the assembly of the noble the assembly of austerity the assembly of chastity the double community all gathered together dear friend and protector of the good (?) stūpas”. On Buddhist ritual see Sharf 2005. For the stūpa cult in Bajaur see Falk 2005.

26

Salomon 19881997.

29

Salomon & Schopen 1984118: “our inscriptions prove beyond any real doubt that the idea that ‘brahmamerit’ results from establishing relics at previously unestablished sites was not simply a ‘canonical’ doctrine but was an important element in the actual practice of Buddhism in the Kharoṣṭhī area in the early centuries of the Christian era”.

30

Translation by Schopen 1997126.

31

Schopen 1997127; on veneration of relics see Schopen 1998.

32

Salomon 1999178 ff.

33

Salomon 2007270.

34

Salomon 2007278.

35

Lüders 1911; Passi 1979226; the use of theatrical performances in Buddhism as a form of ‘propaganda’ was discussed by Lévi 189 319: “Malgré la rigueur des interdictions pronuncées le Bouddhisme à son tour pactisa avec le théâtre et chercha à en tirer parti pour la propagande” quoting (320 ff. ) some intriguing cases of Buddhist dramas; see also Konow 1920 50. For a recent historiographical problematization of the relationship between Greek and Indian theatre see Walker 2004. The emphasis on the connection ‘Dionysus-drama-Buddhist art’ given by Brancaccio & Xinru 2009 is in my opinion misleading as we have no evidence for a cult of Dionysus in ancient Gandhara a but only the presence of Dionysiac patterns used in a different functional frame. I will return in an another place on the relationship between the performative character of the rituals and that of the images but for the first approach to this aspect see below the beholder in the image.

37

Passi 1979234. “La scelta di una particolare lingua e di una forma non usuale alla predicazione del dharma è determinata quindi da dei fattori nuovi in particolare dalle esigenze di un certo pubblico che possiamo immaginare come non buddhista [. . .] colto versato nella tradizione vedica ed epica amante di una poesia densa e per niente immediata. Si è pertanto indotti a credere che Aśvaghoṣa si rivolgesse ad un circolo (goṣṭhī) brahmanico o brahmanizzato [. . .] quale poteva facilmente crearsi in un ambiente urbano o meglio ancora di corte (my emphasis)” (Passi 1979 234).

39

Taddei 1984; 1993.

40

Anderson 1986; 1994; Bernard 1996.

47

Behrendt 200713 f. No. 8 ca. 26 × 35 cm with No. 22. On Herakles’ iconography in Gandharan art see Santoro 1991.

48

Bernard & Jullien 198236No. 2 36 × 24 cm with previous literature.

52

Ingholt 1957176-178Nos. 479-488; Dar 1979; Francfort 1979; Errington & Cribb 1992 152-158; Lo Muzio in Cat. Roma 2002 77-83; Lo Muzio this volume.

53

Discussed first by Francfort 19795; Lo Muzio in Cat. Roma 2002 78. On Butkara see recently Faccenna 2007 165-197.

54

Ingholt 1957176No. 484; Errington & Cribb 1992 156 No. 156; Cat. Tokyo 2003 124 No. 121; diam. 10.7 cm.

55

Errington & Cribb 1992154No. 154.

56

Ingholt 1957176No. 479.

57

Errington & Cribb 1992155No. 155 as Nymph and hero with previous literature.

58

Errington & Cribb 1992152 f. No. 153; Cat. Tokyo 2003 124 No. 120; diam. 11.9 cm.

62

Errington & Cribb 1992158No. 158.

67

Errington & Cribb 199291-94No. 97 x-xi; Brancaccio & Xinru 2009 240.

76

Errington & Cribb 1992127 f. No. 130.

77

See above note 64; Carter 1968; 1982; 1992.

79

Lo Muzio 1990.

81

Kurita 1990185No. 532.

82

Todisco 2006.

83

For this approach see Kemp 19922008; on the visual strategies in the Gandharan art see Galli in preparation.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Wrestler’s weight from Metropolitan Museum (New York). a. Averse side: Victorious Athlete as Herakles with lion honouring him; b. Reverse side with handles: Wrestling-match in front of spectators. From: Behrendt 2007, 14.
  • View in gallery
    Main panel: Bodhisattva and worshippers; lateral panels: Scenes with playing erotes. Lahore, Central Museum.
  • View in gallery
    Relief from the sacred area of Chatpat: Wrestlers watched by spectators from balconies. Dir Museum.
  • View in gallery
    Gandharan toilet-trays. a-b. Apollo and Daphne (?); c. Europa carried away by Zeus – the Bull holding thunder-bolts; d. Artemis bathing watched by Actaeon and the punishment of Actaeon. From: Errington & Cribb 1992, 151, 155 (a, d); Behrendt 2007, 9 (b); Cat. Tokyo 2003, 123 (c).
  • View in gallery
    Gandharan toilet-trays. a. Phaedra and Hippolytus / Aphrodite and Anchises (?); b. Aphrodite chastises Eros with a sandal; c. Dionysus and Ariadne with Pan and servants; d. Court scene with prince and attendants. From: Errington & Cribb 1992, 154, 158 (a, d); Cat. Tokyo 2003, 123, 124 (c, b).
  • View in gallery
    Fragment of a relief from Butkara I: A man holding a toilet-tray and a woman looking in a mirror. Rome, Museo Nazionale d’Arte Orientale. From: Faccenna 1962, II, 2, pl. 168 (inv. n. 2086).
  • View in gallery
    Relief with musicians and dancers. a. Many figures represented as Nagas; b. Detail of the performance. Lahore, Central Museum.
  • View in gallery
    Relief with ‘Dionysiac’ scene: Drunken Satyr and festive celebration of grape-pressing. Tokyo, National Museum. From: Cat. Tokyo 2003, 131.
  • View in gallery
    Gandharan silver cup: Ritual sequence of a ‘Dionysiac’ performance. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum. From: Errington & Cribb 1992, x-xi.
  • View in gallery
    Drawing of the entire ritual sequence on the silver cup from Fitzwilliam Museum. From: Errington & Cribb 1992, 92.
  • View in gallery
    Fragment of a vessel with scene of a performance: Actors in front of a parapetasma (stage curtain) dressed with Dionysiac attributes. New York, Metropolitan Museum. From: Behrendt 2007, 30.
  • View in gallery
    Andan Dheri, Malakand Division. Plan of the stupa area. From: Dani 1968-1969, fig. 2.
  • View in gallery
    Relief from Andan Dheri: Court performance with satyrs and elegant ladies. Dir Museum.
  • View in gallery
    Relief from Andan Dheri (detail): Satyr offering a drinking vessel to a lady wearing a garland-like crown.
  • View in gallery
    Relief from Andan Dheri (detail): Satyr with the animal-like ears and mask-like face and lady in ‘classical’ pose.
  • View in gallery
    Relief with satyrs and elegant ladies holding vessels and palm leaves. London, Victoria and Albert Museum.
  • View in gallery
    Relief from Victoria and Albert Museum (detail): Satyr holding a palm leaf as symbol of victory flanked by two rich ladies in classical pose.
  • View in gallery
    Relief from Victoria and Albert Museum (detail): Satyr holding a cup.
  • View in gallery
    Relief from Andan Dheri: Dance performance with male figures in Scythian-Parthian dress and female musicians. Dir Museum.
  • View in gallery
    Relief from Andan Dheri (detail): two female figures playing a long lute.
  • View in gallery
    Relief showing an elegant lady, satyrs as dancers and musicians. Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum.
  • View in gallery
    Relief from Royal Ontario Museum (detail): Satyr and an old man dressed in a long chiton, both with joined palms, performing the oklasmadance, on the right side another satyr playing cymbals.
  • View in gallery
    Relief from Royal Ontario Museum (detail): A ‘classical’ lady with drinking vessel and a satyr playing a xylophone.
  • View in gallery
    Fragment of a relief from Butkara I: Doorframe and balcony with four female figures. Swat, Saidu Sharif Museum (inv. n. MAI 422-1768).

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 56 56 30
Full Text Views 37 37 28
PDF Downloads 8 8 4
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0