The article is concerned with Seleucid and Graeco-Bactrian coins found in the excavations at Kampÿrtepa, carried out by the Tokharistan archaeological expedition of the Fine Arts Research Institute during the years 1979-1991 and 1999-2010. In all, 30 coins of interest have been found there: 2 coins of the Seleucid king Antiochus i and 28 of the Graeco-Bactrian rulers, including coins of Diodotus, Euthydemus i, Demetrius i, Euthydemus ii, and Eucratides i. Most of the coin finds were small-denomination bronzes. Two more unique coins of an unknown type were uncovered at Kampÿrtepa: the legend on one of them contains the name Heliocles [iii]. In addition, three rare imitations of Demetrius i and Eucratides coins are presented in this paper.
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ZeymalE. V.TanabeK.CribbJ.WangH.Coins from the excavations of Takhti-Sangin (1976-1991)Studies in Silk Road Coins Art and Culture. Papers in honour of Professor Ikuo Hirayma on his 65th birthday1997Kamakura89110
Newell197863-68séries iii group A-D Nos. 161 164 168 173 pls. xiv13xv3-7 10-11; Houghton & Lorber 2002: Vol. i 142 No. 389; Vol. ii pl. 72.
Newell1978239-240; Bernard 1985 14; Bopearachchi 1991 33; Bopearachchi 1999/2000 77-78.
Kritt19962327-30 type iv 1-2 pl. 3 D; Houghton & Lorber 2002. Vol. i 103 114 115 157-158 Nos. 456 459; Vol. ii pl. 75-76. For an appraisal of this point of view see Bopearachchi 1999a 82-85; Markov & Naïmark 2012 10-12.
Bopearachchi199142-44; Kritt 2001 35 48-50; Smirnova 2005 143 note 23. On the identification of the Diodotus ii issue and the relative dates of his reign see for example Serditÿkh & Koshelenko 1987 238-239; Zeïmal’ 1998 346-348; Holt 1999.
Bopearachchi1991150-151séries 8-9 pl. 1 15 F G 16; Kritt 2001 32 pl. 11 séries i1-3. Three series of coins of the Head of Zeus in a laurel wreath facing right / Artemis with a long torch facing right. On the coins of the first group in the field below the depiction of Artemis there is one of a dog (Holt 1999 167-168 séries i group 1); on the coins of the second group there is a depiction of a star (Holt 1999 168-169 séries i group 2); on coins of the third group there is a depiction of Zeus not in a laurel wreath but wearing a diadem (Holt 1999 169 séries i group 3; represented by one specimen). In view of the poor state of preservation of the coins from Kampÿrtepa it was only possible to identify one coin (Catalogue No. 5).
Bopearachchi1991152séries 14 pl. 2 E; Holt 1999 165-167 séries H group 1; Kritt 2001 32 pl. 11 séries H.
Smirnova1999256-257Nos. 6-7; Smirnova 2007 380 pl. 2 Nos. 3-5.
Abdullaev & Berdimuradov201046.
Atakhodzhaev2012Nos. 38 40.
Bernard198555séries vi1 pl. 4.
Gardner18863No. 7 pl. i9.
Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman199584No. 99.
Smirnova1999256-257Nos. 4-5; Smirnova 2007 380 pl. 2 1-2.
Baratova2000131No. 1. For this coin the following description is provided: “the head facing right is show in profile / the standing figure of Zeus with a shield facing left” (Abdullaev 2006 108 Nos. 3 5). Yet among the known types of Diodotus ii copper coins not a single one fits in with this description. Cf. Bopearachchi 1991 150-153 pls. 1-2 séries 8-15. Possibly this specimen is a drachm of Diodotus i/ii (Bopearachchi 1991 150 séries 7 pl. 1). Despite the fact that an opportunity has already presented itself for drawing attention to this fact (Gorin 2010 31 note 10) in a recent publication by K. Abdullaev and A. É. Berdimuradov the same definition was repeated without any explanation for the presence of an iconographic type typical for silver on copper (Abdullaev & Berdimuradov 2010 45). The authors would like to express their gratitude to A. Kh. Atakhodzhaev – curator of the Coin Cabinet in the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan for kindly enabling us to acquaint ourselves with this coin. See also Atakhodjaev 2013 No. 41.
Bernard198556séries 6 ii Nos. 91-98 pl. 5.
Vaïnberg & Kruglikova1976174fig. 106 120. There is no description of this specimen in the register of coin finds as pointed out by Paul Bernard (Bernard 1985 55 note 2).
Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman199584No. 100.
Smirnova2005144No. 12. The legend on this coin was ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ.
MacDowall & Ibrahim197948Nos. 4-5 pl. i4.
Whitehead191410Nos. 4-5 pl. i4. The total number of copper coins of the type Hermes in a petasos / standing Athena comes to 55 specimens and of these: dichalkous – 28 chalkous – 6 hemichalkous – 20 and one specimen is a ¼ of a chalkous (Bopearachchi 1991 45 note 5; Kovalenko 1995/96 51-52 Nos. 239-275; Holt 1999 165-167).
Smirnova2005145-146Nos. 29-35 pl. xi29-31 (of this number two other coins have also been classified as finds from the city-site of Zartepa with a question mark – Nos. 32 35).
Zeymal1997Nos. 129 354 368.
Zeymal1997Nos. 327 330-335 341 346-348.
Zeymal199793-94. Сf. With the date suggested for the pottery assemblage found in the temple (on the virgin soil): Drujinina & Boroffka 2006 57-69; Druzhinina Khudzhageldiev 2009 120-122; Druzhinina Khudzhageldiev Inagaki 2011 25-26; Kubavara 2011. In the opinion of B. A. Litvinskiï however the building of the temple was carried out in the reign of the Seleucid king Seleucis i (312-281 bc) in the period when he was ruling together with his son Antiochus (293-281 bc) in the East (Litvinskiï 2010a 14).
Smirnova1999257Nos. 8-11 pl. i; Smirnova 2007 380 Nos. 6-9.
Bernard198558-60Nos. 104-152; 55 specimens belong to the issues mentioned above: Bopearachchi 1991 160-161 séries 17-18 pl. 3-4 17-31.
Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman199588Nos. 114 116.
Whitehead191412Nos. 16-17 pl. i16.
Bopearachchi1991165-166séries 3 pl. 5 7-9; Gardner 1886 6 Nos. 9-13 pl. ii11-12.
Baratova2000131pl. i Nos. 2-3 (Trench 12 Room 3 1979).
Chance surface find (Naïmark2005132No. 13).
Zeïmal’1983a52No. 59 pl. 6 59.
Smirnova2005146No. 40 pl. xii.
Gardner18867Nos. 13-14 pl. iii1; Bopearachchi 1991 166 séries 4 pl. 5 11-13.
Gardner18867No. 16 pl. iii2; Bopearachchi 1991 167 séries 5 E pl. 5 15-17.
Abdullaev2006108-109No. 12. It is probably this coin found near the village of Kurgancha which Leonid Sverchkov mentioned when he refers to information received from K. Abdullaev (Sverchkov 2007 9).
Zav’yalov2008151273 Appendix 2 No. 23.
Abdullaev2006109No. 14; Abdullaev 2011 173 No. 2 fig. 3.5 3-4. To judge from the description cited in the last of his articles this coin is of a previously unknown type: “A diademed bust of the king to the right wearing an elephant’s scalp / A frontally standing figure of Artemis (?) indistinct; to the left a vertical line not clear”. The depiction of the king wearing an elephant’s scalp on the obverse is only typical for northern coins (Bopearachchi 1991 164-166 séries 1-3 pls. 4-5). The depiction of a standing Artemis en face on the other hand is only found on the reverse of Demetrius copper coins in conjunction with the head of Heracles on the obverse (Bopearachchi 1991 166 séries 4 pl. 5 11-13).
Smirnova2005146No. 41 pl. xii.
Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman199590No. 130.
Gardner18868No. 4 pl. iii5; Bopearachchi 1991 170 séries 6 pl. 6 10-14. The authors are of the opinion that there were two rulers with the name Euthydemus (see recent works: Holt 2000; cf. Lerner 1999 111-113).
Smirnova1999258No. 14; Smirnova 2007 380 pl. 2 No. 14.
Zeymal1997106No. 350 fig. 17.
Whitehead191415Nos. 29-31 pl. ii29.
Bopearachchi1991200séries 2 pl. 16 7-12.
Zeïmal’1983a54Nos. 77-78. Another unpublished drachm was found in the excavations at Old Termez (Photograph provided by Sh. R. Pidaev).
Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman1995104Nos. 235-237.
Naïmark2005132-133No. 16. The current location of this coin is unknown and its attribution is dubious. A. Kh. Atakhodzhaev did not include it at all in the list of coins found in Afrasiab.
Naïmark2005133No. 17; Atakhodzhaev 2012 No. 50.
Smirnova1999258No. 16 pl. i; Smirnova 2007 380 pl. 2 No. 15.
Smirnova2005149Nos. 79-86 pl. xiii one of them (No. 86) is similar to the obol found at Kampÿrtepa (Catalogue No. 22).
Asavina Novikov & Nikitin197981Nos. 23-24 pl. ii.
Smirnova1995347No. 16 fig. 2.
Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman1995106No. 238. This specimen is similar to one of the obols from Kampÿrtepa (Catalogue No. 22).
Bopearachchi1997194-195group 3 Fig. 2 24; Bopearachchi 1998 392 group 3. The relative chronology for the issue of this group of imitations can be determined with reference to overstrikes. Coins of Spalirises / Azes have been overstruck to match an early type of imitation of Hermaios coins (Group 1 according to О. Bopearachchi’s classification: Bopearachchi 1998 397; Bopearachchi 1999b 126).
Wroth1903lxxviii 99-100 Nos. 1-8; Sellwood 1980 type 53 legend i type 54 legends i-iii.
Bopearachchi1991356-360séries 1 3 5 7 10-11 pls. 64-66; Bopearachchi 2003 159 No. 112. Hippostrates in the order of Indo-Greek kings and Indo-Scythian kings ruled during the interregnum of Azes [I] (Bopearachchi 2003 130; Fröhlich 2008 16 22).
Fröhlich200892série 1. The earliest recorded use of the letter san “Þ” on the coins of Spalirises (initially written in such a way as clearly to resemble the letter ro “ρ”): later it was used regularly in the Bactrian written language: ΒΑΙΛΕШ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ РПΑΛΙРΙΟΥ / Maharajasa Mahatakasa Spalirishasa ΒΑΙΛΕШ ΒΑΙΛΕШΝ РПΑΛΙРΙΟΥ / Maharajasa Mahatakasa Spalirishasa (Senior 2001: Vol. ii 29-30 issue 72 (drachms) 73 (copper coins); Vol. iii 11).
Senior2001: Vol. ii 41-47 50-51 issue 85-90 95.10-40 (in the opinion of R. Senior there was only one king with the name Azes and not two as suggested by most scholars); Fröhlich 2008 101 séries 8.
Zeïmal’1987b154; Zeïmal’ 1998 365. For a review of the conception put forward by E. V. Zeïmal’ see also Pugachenkova & Rtveladze 1983.
Rapin Bo Grenet & Rakhmanov200691. In the Kushan period the early wall of the Greco-Bactrian era was made higher and thicker (Rtveladze 1986; Pugachenkova & Rtveladze 1990 57-58).
Rtveladze & Gorin2011.
Atakhodjaev2013219Nos. 2-4. G. A. Koshelenko identifies these coins as belonging to an issue of Stasanor – a satrap of Bactria and Sogdiana (Koshelenko 2006 97-99; on Stasanor see also Koshelenko & Gaibov 2009 155-160).
Atakhodjaev2013232-233Nos. 38 (this was the only coin found in the cultural layer) and 40.
Atakhodjaev2013233-240Nos. 42-45. As already mentioned another coin was found during excavations at Boisarÿtepa (see above note 13) from the same Burial-mound No. 3 where the Seleucus i tetradrachm was found (Abdullaev 2006 106 No. 1) which is indirect indication of the date of the issue. In the spring of 2013 another coin of that type but of a smaller denomination was found at the city-site of Durmontepa (W. – 1.9 g D. – 12×13 mm Axes – V; oral report by A. Kh. Atakhodzhaev).