Hellenistic Coins from Kampÿrtepa

in Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia
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The article is concerned with Seleucid and Graeco-Bactrian coins found in the excavations at Kampÿrtepa, carried out by the Tokharistan archaeological expedition of the Fine Arts Research Institute during the years 1979-1991 and 1999-2010. In all, 30 coins of interest have been found there: 2 coins of the Seleucid king Antiochus i and 28 of the Graeco-Bactrian rulers, including coins of Diodotus, Euthydemus i, Demetrius i, Euthydemus ii, and Eucratides i. Most of the coin finds were small-denomination bronzes. Two more unique coins of an unknown type were uncovered at Kampÿrtepa: the legend on one of them contains the name Heliocles [iii]. In addition, three rare imitations of Demetrius i and Eucratides coins are presented in this paper.

Hellenistic Coins from Kampÿrtepa

in Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia

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References

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ZeymalE. V. TanabeK.CribbJ.WangH. Coins from the excavations of Takhti-Sangin (1976-1991) Studies in Silk Road Coins Art and Culture. Papers in honour of Professor Ikuo Hirayma on his 65th birthday 1997 Kamakura 89 110

Zeïmal’E. V. LitvinskiïB. А. Greko-Baktriya. Parthiya (iii-ii vv. do n.é.). Politicheskaya istoriya. sotsial’nÿe otnosheniya Istoriya Tadzhikskogo naroda 1998 Dushanbe 339 376 Т. 1.

Zeïmal’E. V. LitvinskiïB. А.PichikyanI. R. Monetnÿe nakhodki Takhti-Sangina (reestr). Prilozhenie ii Raskopki. Arkhitektura. Religioznaya zhizn’ 2000 Moscow 393 404 Éllinisticheskiï khram Oksa v Baktrii (Yuzhnÿï Тadzhikistan). Т. 1.

Zeïmal’E. V.VafaevG. Tetradrakhma Demetriya iz dolinÿ Zeravshana ОNU 1982 5 38 42

1

Shagalina 2007; Alpatkina 2009.

4

Dvurechenskaya 2006110-136.

5

Rtveladze & Bolelov 200099-104; Bolelov 2001 15-30.

9

Newell 197863-68séries iii group A-D Nos. 161 164 168 173 pls. xiv13xv3-7 10-11; Houghton & Lorber 2002: Vol. i 142 No. 389; Vol. ii pl. 72.

11

Newell 1978239-240; Bernard 1985 14; Bopearachchi 1991 33; Bopearachchi 1999/2000 77-78.

12

Kritt 19962327-30 type iv 1-2 pl. 3 D; Houghton & Lorber 2002. Vol. i 103 114 115 157-158 Nos. 456 459; Vol. ii pl. 75-76. For an appraisal of this point of view see Bopearachchi 1999a 82-85; Markov & Naïmark 2012 10-12.

15

Naïmark & Yakovlev 2011a27-29; Naymark & Yakovlev 2011b 7 No. 1.

16

Atakhodjaev 2013Nos. 25-29.

17

Musakaeva 199018No. 6 pl. 1 4.

18

Zeïmal’ 1983a32note 22; Zeïmal’ 1983b 67 Nos. 18-20.

19

Newell 1978248pl. liii20.

20

Bopearachchi 199142-44; Kritt 2001 35 48-50; Smirnova 2005 143 note 23. On the identification of the Diodotus ii issue and the relative dates of his reign see for example Serditÿkh & Koshelenko 1987 238-239; Zeïmal’ 1998 346-348; Holt 1999.

22

Bopearachchi 1991150-151séries 8-9 pl. 1 15 F G 16; Kritt 2001 32 pl. 11 séries i1-3. Three series of coins of the Head of Zeus in a laurel wreath facing right / Artemis with a long torch facing right. On the coins of the first group in the field below the depiction of Artemis there is one of a dog (Holt 1999 167-168 séries i group 1); on the coins of the second group there is a depiction of a star (Holt 1999 168-169 séries i group 2); on coins of the third group there is a depiction of Zeus not in a laurel wreath but wearing a diadem (Holt 1999 169 séries i group 3; represented by one specimen). In view of the poor state of preservation of the coins from Kampÿrtepa it was only possible to identify one coin (Catalogue No. 5).

24

Bopearachchi 1991152séries 14 pl. 2 E; Holt 1999 165-167 séries H group 1; Kritt 2001 32 pl. 11 séries H.

25

Smirnova 1999256-257Nos. 6-7; Smirnova 2007 380 pl. 2 Nos. 3-5.

26

Abdullaev & Berdimuradov 201046.

27

Atakhodzhaev 2012Nos. 38 40.

28

Bernard 198555séries vi1 pl. 4.

29

Smirnova 2005144No. 13.

30

Gardner 18863No. 7 pl. i9.

32

Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman 199584No. 99.

35

Smirnova 1999256-257Nos. 4-5; Smirnova 2007 380 pl. 2 1-2.

36

Dovudi 2010338No. 40; 345 fig. 2 1 (W. – 6.42 g; D. – 23-24 mm; Axis – ?).

37

Rtveladze & Pidaev 198118; Pidaev 1998 51.

38

Baratova 2000131No. 1. For this coin the following description is provided: “the head facing right is show in profile / the standing figure of Zeus with a shield facing left” (Abdullaev 2006 108 Nos. 3 5). Yet among the known types of Diodotus ii copper coins not a single one fits in with this description. Cf. Bopearachchi 1991 150-153 pls. 1-2 séries 8-15. Possibly this specimen is a drachm of Diodotus i/ii (Bopearachchi 1991 150 séries 7 pl. 1). Despite the fact that an opportunity has already presented itself for drawing attention to this fact (Gorin 2010 31 note 10) in a recent publication by K. Abdullaev and A. É. Berdimuradov the same definition was repeated without any explanation for the presence of an iconographic type typical for silver on copper (Abdullaev & Berdimuradov 2010 45). The authors would like to express their gratitude to A. Kh. Atakhodzhaev – curator of the Coin Cabinet in the Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan for kindly enabling us to acquaint ourselves with this coin. See also Atakhodjaev 2013 No. 41.

39

Bernard 198556séries 6 ii Nos. 91-98 pl. 5.

40

Vaïnberg & Kruglikova 1976174fig. 106 120. There is no description of this specimen in the register of coin finds as pointed out by Paul Bernard (Bernard 1985 55 note 2).

45

Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman 199584No. 100.

46

Smirnova 2005144No. 12. The legend on this coin was ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ.

47

MacDowall & Ibrahim 197948Nos. 4-5 pl. i4.

48

Whitehead 191410Nos. 4-5 pl. i4. The total number of copper coins of the type Hermes in a petasos / standing Athena comes to 55 specimens and of these: dichalkous – 28 chalkous – 6 hemichalkous – 20 and one specimen is a ¼ of a chalkous (Bopearachchi 1991 45 note 5; Kovalenko 1995/96 51-52 Nos. 239-275; Holt 1999 165-167).

49

Bernard 198556.

50

Kritt 200151160.

51

Gardner 18865Nos. 15-18 pl. ii7-8; Bopearachchi 1991 160-161 séries 17-18 pls. 3-4 18-31.

54

Pugachenkova & Rtveladze 1978228No. 1 fig. 159 1; Rtveladze & Pidaev 1981 45 No. 1; Dal’varzintepa 42 No. 63 figs. 228-229; 242 No. 1.

55

Rtveladze & Pidaev 198145No. 6.

57

Huff Pidaev & Chaydoullaev 2001220; Abdullaev 2011 172-173 No. 1 fig. 3.5 1-2.

59

Abdullaev 2006108No. 8.

60

Smirnova 2005146No. 36.

61

Smirnova 2005145-146Nos. 29-35 pl. xi29-31 (of this number two other coins have also been classified as finds from the city-site of Zartepa with a question mark – Nos. 32 35).

62

Zeïmal’ 1983a52pl. iii47-52.

64

Zeymal 1997Nos. 129 354 368.

65

Zeymal 1997No. 357.

66

Zeymal 1997Nos. 327 330-335 341 346-348.

67

Zeymal 199793-94. Сf. With the date suggested for the pottery assemblage found in the temple (on the virgin soil): Drujinina & Boroffka 2006 57-69; Druzhinina Khudzhageldiev 2009 120-122; Druzhinina Khudzhageldiev Inagaki 2011 25-26; Kubavara 2011. In the opinion of B. A. Litvinskiï however the building of the temple was carried out in the reign of the Seleucid king Seleucis i (312-281 bc) in the period when he was ruling together with his son Antiochus (293-281 bc) in the East (Litvinskiï 2010a 14).

68

Smirnova 1999257Nos. 8-11 pl. i; Smirnova 2007 380 Nos. 6-9.

69

Bernard 198558-60Nos. 104-152; 55 specimens belong to the issues mentioned above: Bopearachchi 1991 160-161 séries 17-18 pl. 3-4 17-31.

70

Bernard 198560.

71

Kritt 2001108-109160-161.

72

Zeïmal’ 1983a52pl. iii53-58.

73

Smirnova 1996345Nos. 7-8.

74

Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman 199588Nos. 114 116.

75

Whitehead 191412Nos. 16-17 pl. i16.

77

Bopearachchi 1991165-166séries 3 pl. 5 7-9; Gardner 1886 6 Nos. 9-13 pl. ii11-12.

78

Baratova 2000131pl. i Nos. 2-3 (Trench 12 Room 3 1979).

79

Chance surface find (Naïmark 2005132No. 13).

80

Zeïmal’ 1983a52No. 59 pl. 6 59.

81

Smirnova 2005146No. 40 pl. xii.

83

Gardner 18867Nos. 13-14 pl. iii1; Bopearachchi 1991 166 séries 4 pl. 5 11-13.

84

Gardner 18867No. 16 pl. iii2; Bopearachchi 1991 167 séries 5 E pl. 5 15-17.

85

Khakimov Gyul’ & Yangos 200120No. 11.

86

Abdullaev 2006109No. 15.

88

Bernard 198561séries viii Nos. 153-157 pl. 7.

89

Smirnova 2007380pl. 2 Nos. 10-12.

90

Zeïmal’ 1987a195note 34.

91

Whitehead 191413Nos. 22-25 pl. i22.

92

Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman 199590No. 129.

96

Zeïmal’ 1983a52-53No. 60.

97

Abdullaev 199851-52No. 3; Abdullaev 2006 109 No. 13.

98

Abdullaev 2006108-109No. 12. It is probably this coin found near the village of Kurgancha which Leonid Sverchkov mentioned when he refers to information received from K. Abdullaev (Sverchkov 2007 9).

99

Zav’yalov 2008151273 Appendix 2 No. 23.

100

Abdullaev 2006109No. 14; Abdullaev 2011 173 No. 2 fig. 3.5 3-4. To judge from the description cited in the last of his articles this coin is of a previously unknown type: “A diademed bust of the king to the right wearing an elephant’s scalp / A frontally standing figure of Artemis (?) indistinct; to the left a vertical line not clear”. The depiction of the king wearing an elephant’s scalp on the obverse is only typical for northern coins (Bopearachchi 1991 164-166 séries 1-3 pls. 4-5). The depiction of a standing Artemis en face on the other hand is only found on the reverse of Demetrius copper coins in conjunction with the head of Heracles on the obverse (Bopearachchi 1991 166 séries 4 pl. 5 11-13).

104

Smirnova 2005146No. 41 pl. xii.

105

Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman 199590No. 130.

107

Gardner 18868No. 4 pl. iii5; Bopearachchi 1991 170 séries 6 pl. 6 10-14. The authors are of the opinion that there were two rulers with the name Euthydemus (see recent works: Holt 2000; cf. Lerner 1999 111-113).

109

Smirnova 1999258No. 14; Smirnova 2007 380 pl. 2 No. 14.

110

Zeymal 1997106No. 350 fig. 17.

111

Whitehead 191415Nos. 29-31 pl. ii29.

114

Bopearachchi 1991200séries 2 pl. 16 7-12.

115

Zeïmal’ 1983a54Nos. 77-78. Another unpublished drachm was found in the excavations at Old Termez (Photograph provided by Sh. R. Pidaev).

116

Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman 1995104Nos. 235-237.

117

Whitehead 191420Nos. 61-63.

120

Naïmark 2005132-133No. 16. The current location of this coin is unknown and its attribution is dubious. A. Kh. Atakhodzhaev did not include it at all in the list of coins found in Afrasiab.

121

Naïmark 2005133No. 17; Atakhodzhaev 2012 No. 50.

122

Smirnova 1999258No. 16 pl. i; Smirnova 2007 380 pl. 2 No. 15.

123

Zeimal’ 1983a54No. 79.

125

Bernard 198567-68No. 172.

126

Smirnova 2005149Nos. 79-86 pl. xiii one of them (No. 86) is similar to the obol found at Kampÿrtepa (Catalogue No. 22).

127

Asavina Novikov & Nikitin 197981Nos. 23-24 pl. ii.

128

Smirnova 1995347No. 16 fig. 2.

131

Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman 1995106No. 238. This specimen is similar to one of the obols from Kampÿrtepa (Catalogue No. 22).

132

Whitehead 191421Nos. 77-80 pl. ii77.

135

Asavina Novikov & Nikitin 197981-82Nos. 25-29 pls. ii-iii; Smirnova 1996 348 Nos. 18-19 fig. 2.

136

Bopearachchi & Ur Rahman 1995108Nos. 256-260.

137

Whitehead 191421Nos. 71-76 pl. ii71.

140

MacDowall 2005b182-184pl. xxxi5.

142

Kurbanov 200055 (with reference to the opinion of E. V. Rtveladze); Abdullaev 2006 114. Cf. the distorted legend on the imitations: ΗΛΙΙΛΕΥΣ (Masson 1956 71).

144

Rtveladze & Pidaev 198129; Pidaev 1990 33 Nos. 4 7.

145

Zeïmal’ 1983111-112Group ii.

146

Bopearachchi 1991224séries 2 B pl. 26.

147

Druzhinina 2013160-161180 fig. 10.

148

Bopearachchi 1991152séries 15 pl. 2 F; SNG. ANS Nos. 115-119; Kritt 2001 32 pl. 11.

149

Masson 195671; Rtveladze & Pidaev 1981 28; Zeïmal’ 1983a 114-115 séries iii/5-6.

150

Bopearachchi 1997194-195group 3 Fig. 2 24; Bopearachchi 1998 392 group 3. The relative chronology for the issue of this group of imitations can be determined with reference to overstrikes. Coins of Spalirises / Azes have been overstruck to match an early type of imitation of Hermaios coins (Group 1 according to О. Bopearachchi’s classification: Bopearachchi 1998 397; Bopearachchi 1999b 126).

151

Wroth 1903lxxviii 99-100 Nos. 1-8; Sellwood 1980 type 53 legend i type 54 legends i-iii.

153

Bopearachchi 1991356-360séries 1 3 5 7 10-11 pls. 64-66; Bopearachchi 2003 159 No. 112. Hippostrates in the order of Indo-Greek kings and Indo-Scythian kings ruled during the interregnum of Azes [I] (Bopearachchi 2003 130; Fröhlich 2008 16 22).

154

Senior 2001: Vol. ii 2 issue 4.1T; Fröhlich 2008 86 séries 1.

155

Senior 2001: Vol. ii 29 issue 69.1; Vol. iii 11.

156

Fröhlich 200891séries 1.

157

Fröhlich 200892série 1. The earliest recorded use of the letter san “Þ” on the coins of Spalirises (initially written in such a way as clearly to resemble the letter ro “ρ”): later it was used regularly in the Bactrian written language: ΒΑΙΛΕШ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ РПΑΛΙРΙΟΥ / Maharajasa Mahatakasa Spalirishasa ΒΑΙΛΕШ ΒΑΙΛΕШΝ РПΑΛΙРΙΟΥ / Maharajasa Mahatakasa Spalirishasa (Senior 2001: Vol. ii 29-30 issue 72 (drachms) 73 (copper coins); Vol. iii 11).

158

Fröhlich 200893séries 1-3.

159

Senior 2001: Vol. ii 41-47 50-51 issue 85-90 95.10-40 (in the opinion of R. Senior there was only one king with the name Azes and not two as suggested by most scholars); Fröhlich 2008 101 séries 8.

160

Fröhlich 2008105-107110-121 séries 1-2 7 9-18 21 24-28.

161

See for example Salomon 2003369; Bopearachchi 1998; Bopearachchi 2003; Fröhlich 2008; Senior 2001.

162

Falk & Bennet 2009; Rapin 2010236; Falk 2012 136-137.

164

Rtveladze 199523-24pl. i6.

167

Bopearachchi 1991224série 11 pl. 8.

168

Zeymal 1997103No. 266.

169

Abdullaev 2006109No. 18; Abdullaev 2011 173 No. 3 fig. 3.5 5-6.

170

Bopearachchi 1991165séries 2 pl. 4.

171

Rtveladze 199523pl. i4; Rtveladze 2002 107-109 pl. ix1.

173

Smirnova 2005173No. 3 pl. xxix3 (W. – 3.18 g; D. – 17 mm; Axis – xii).

174

Senior 2001: Vol. ii 217 issue A18.9D (W. – 3.37 g).

177

Bopearachchi 19912079; Bopearachchi 1999/2000 52-56. For a similar rendering of the monogram see Bopearachchi 1991 450 No. 92. For more detail on this coin see Gorin 2013.

179

Rtveladze & Pidaev 198146Plate i3-5 (W. – 0.49 g.; D. – 0.91 cm; Axes – xii).

181

Zeïmal’ 1983a93-103.

182

Rtveladze & Pidaev 198121.

183

Zeymal 199793-94; Zeïmal’ 1998 364 note. 194.

184

Rusanov 2001.

185

Pugachenkova & Rtveladze 1978144-146176-177; Voskovskiï 2001 12-14.

186

Rtveladze & Bolelov 2000102; Bolelov 2001 15-30; Rtveladze 2006 5-6; Sverchkov & Voskovskiï 2006 26-28; Mkrtÿchev & Bolelov 2006 43 52-53; Haga Furusho & Naiki 2010 127.

187

Sverchkov 20075961.

188

Pugachenkova 196630-36241-243.

189

Sedov 1984171-172.

190

Drujinina & Boroffka 200657-69.

191

Zeïmal’ & Vafaev 198242.

192

Naïmark 2005135-137.

193

Baratova 2000132; Abdullaev 2006 111-112; Abdullaev & Berdimuradov 2010 46.

195

Serditÿkh & Koshelenko 1987240.

196

Zeïmal’ 1987b154; Zeïmal’ 1998 365. For a review of the conception put forward by E. V. Zeïmal’ see also Pugachenkova & Rtveladze 1983.

197

Rapin Bo Grenet & Rakhmanov 200691. In the Kushan period the early wall of the Greco-Bactrian era was made higher and thicker (Rtveladze 1986; Pugachenkova & Rtveladze 1990 57-58).

198

Rtveladze & Gorin 2011.

199

Atakhodjaev 2013.

200

Atakhodjaev 2013223No. 7.

201

Atakhodjaev 2013219Nos. 2-4. G. A. Koshelenko identifies these coins as belonging to an issue of Stasanor – a satrap of Bactria and Sogdiana (Koshelenko 2006 97-99; on Stasanor see also Koshelenko & Gaibov 2009 155-160).

202

Biryukov 201123; Atakhodjaev 2013 219 No. 1.

203

Atakhodzhaev 200533-34Nos. 1-2; Atakhodjaev 2013 224-225 Nos. 9-10.

204

Atakhodjaev 2013225Nos. 11-12.

205

Atakhodjaev 2013226-229Nos. 14-17 19-23 25-29.

206

Atakhodjaev 2013230-231Nos. 30 32-34 36-37.

207

Atakhodjaev 2013232-233Nos. 38 (this was the only coin found in the cultural layer) and 40.

208

Atakhodjaev 2013233-240Nos. 42-45. As already mentioned another coin was found during excavations at Boisarÿtepa (see above note 13) from the same Burial-mound No. 3 where the Seleucus i tetradrachm was found (Abdullaev 2006 106 No. 1) which is indirect indication of the date of the issue. In the spring of 2013 another coin of that type but of a smaller denomination was found at the city-site of Durmontepa (W. – 1.9 g D. – 12×13 mm Axes – V; oral report by A. Kh. Atakhodzhaev).

210

Bernard 198513-18.

211

Smirnova 1999253-254; Smirnova 2004 45.

212

Kritt 1996.

213

Le Rider 1965pl. ii8-12.

214

Holt 199927-28; Lerner 2010; Lyonnet 2012.

215

Koshelenko 1979150-153; Usmanova 1989 21-49; Zav’yalov 2005 90-91.

216

Lyonnet 2012167.

218

Litvinskiiï 2010a460-461; Litvinskii 2010b 37-38.

223

Abdullaev 2006108No. 4.

225

Rtveladze & Pidaev 198118; Pidaev 1998 51.

226

Rtveladze Pidaev 198145Nos. 2-5; Pidaev 1991 223; Pidaev 2003 14 fig. 9; Abdullaev 2006 107-108 Nos. 6-7. Photograph from the archive of S. R. Pidaev.

227

Huff Pidaev & Chaydoullaev 2001220; Abdullaev 2011 172-173 No. 1 fig. 3.5 1-2.

228

Pugachenkova & Rtveladze 1978228No. 1 fig. 159 1; Rtveladze & Pidaev 1981 45 No. 1; Dal’varzintepa 42 No. 63 figs. 228-229; 242 No. 1.

229

Abdullaev 2006108No. 8.

230

Rtveladze & Pidaev 198145No. 6.

231

Smirnova 2005146Nos. 32 (?) 35 (?) 36.

233

Abdullaev 199851-52No. 3; Abdullaev 2006 109 No. 13.

234

Abdullaev 2006108No. 10.

235

Abdullaev 2006109No. 15.

236

Abdullaev 2006109No. 14; Abdullaev 2011 173 No. 2 fig. 3.5 3-4.

237

Pugachenkova 1966109fig. 74 а.

238

Zav’yalov 2008151273 Appendix 2 No. 23.

239

Abdullaev 2006108-109No. 12.

240

Masson 1977141fig. 1 1.

241

Rusanov 200116fig. 1 2.

242

Abdullaev 2006109No. 18; Abdullaev 2011 173 No. 3 fig. 3.5 5-6.

243

Pidaev 200314fig. 10 and photo from the archive of Sh. R. Pidaev.

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