Urban Defenses at Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai, Swat (Pakistan)

New Data from the 2014 Excavation Campaign

in Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia
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This article reports on the latest data provided by the 2014 excavation campaign at the Early Historic urban site of Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai, Swat. The campaign, which followed an intensive 3-year excavation carried out inside the sw quarter of the ancient town, focused on the sw external area, and revealed a complex sequence of constructions, collapses and abandonment of the external defenses of the site. The new data are compared with others from previous excavation campaigns in the same site.

Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia

An International Journal of Comparative Studies in History and Archaeology

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References

CallieriP. SrinivasanD.M. Barikot, An Indo-Greek Urban Center in Gandhāra On the Cusp of an Era. Art in the Pre-Kuśāṇa World 2007 Leiden, Boston 133 164

CallieriP.FiligenziAStaculG. Bir-Kot-Ghwandai, Swat: 1987 Excavation Campaign Pakistan Archaeology 1990 25 183 192

CallieriP.BrocatoP.FiligenziA.OlivieriL.M.NascariM. Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai 1990-1992 Annali dell’Istituto Orientale di Napoli 1992 52 4 Suppl. 73 A Preliminary Report on the Excavations of the Italian Archaeological Mission, IsMEO

CollivaL. Ghani-ur-RahmanOlivieriL.M. The Excavation of the Archaeological Site of Barikot (Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai) and its Chronological Sequence Italian Archaeology and Anthropology in Northern Pakistan (1955-2011). Journal of Asian Civilizations 2011 34 1 157 191 Special Issue

MacDowallD.W.CallieriP. A Catalogue of Coins from the Excavations at Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai 1984-1992 Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai Interim Reports 2004 II Rome 27 90 (IsIAO Reports and Memoirs. New Seriesiii)

OlivieriL.M. The Survey of the Bir-kot Hill. Architectural Comparisons and Photographic Documentation. Bīr-koṭ-ghwaṇḍai Interim Reports 2003 I Rome (IsIAO Reports and Memoirs. Series Minoriv)

OlivieriL.M. When and why the ancient town of Barikot was abandoned? A preliminary note based on the last archaeological data Pakistan Heritage 2012 4 109 120

OlivieriL.M. The Last Phases of the Urban site of Bir-kot-ghwandai (Barikot) 2014 Lahore (with Afridi, A., Batool, A., Butt, A., Durrani, B.B., Colliva, L., Cupitò, M., Genchi, F., Ibrahim, M., Marati, I., Martore, F., Micheli, R., Misbah Ullah, Nawaz-ud-Din, Niaz Ali Shah, S., Qayyum, I., Quarta, G., Vidale, M. & Zahir, M.) (actReports and Memoirs 2)

StaculG. Prehistoric and Protohistoric Swat, Pakistan (c. 3000-1400 bc) 1987 Rome (IsMEO Reports and Memoirsxx)

1

See the general description in Olivieri 2003.

3

Data from McDowall & Callieri 2004, and Callieri 2007.

4

See Olivieri 2003, 36.

5

Callieri 2007, 141.

9

See Olivieri 2012, and Olivieri et alii 2014.

11

In Callieri, Filigenzi and Stacul 1990.

14

From Callieri, unpublished report, 1987, iam Archive.

15

See Olivieri 2012, and Olivieri et alii 2014.

Figures

  • Position of Trenches bkg 4-5, 11 and 12 (data processing by F. Genchi).
    View in gallery
  • Trench bkg 12, final plan (drawings by F. Martore).
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  • Phase C: Axonometric restitution of the SW corner of the Wall with external area (drawings by F. Martore).
    View in gallery
  • Phase D: Axonometric restitution of the SW corner of the Wall with external area (drawings by F. Martore).
    View in gallery
  • Phase E: Axonometric restitution of the SW corner of the Wall with external area (drawings by F. Martore).
    View in gallery
  • Phase F: Axonometric restitution of the sw corner of the Wall with external area (drawings by F. Martore).
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  • The phase A surface at the top of the slope exposed in the trial trench excavated between wall [6] and the Wall (photo by the author).
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  • The phase C surface at the top of the slope covering the earlier wall [6]. The coeval filling (68) is visible; in the background the phase D palaeo-traces of wheel tracks are visible (photo by the author).
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  • (a) The phase F partial stratigraphy with road [87] and wall [45]; (b) the phase D-E external surfaces with palaeo-traces of the passage of cart wheels; (c) restored phase E retaining wall of the sw bastion; (d) phase C external surface to the Wall supported by the earlier phase B wall [6]; (e) unexcavated portion of the phase E raised terrace or berm [12]; (f) filling layers of phase F; (g) portions of the S berm (phase 5, bkg 4-5) (photo by the author).
    View in gallery
  • The structural sequence of the urban defence in trench bkg 3 (photo by P. Callieri).
    View in gallery

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