The Militarization of a Society: The Example of Transcaucasia in the Early Iron Age

An Archaeological Overview

in Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia
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The aim of the present paper is to analyze the particular political and social process which began in the lands south of the main Caucasus range at the end of the Late Bronze Age and continued and strengthened during the following Iron Age. This process was characterized by the marked militarization of the society, which involved many related aspects, not just the political system but also social life and organization. The following pages will be dedicated to an analysis of some well-defined aspects, such as the organization of the human landscape, architecture, funerary customs, arts, politics and economy. Emphasis will be placed on how these were affected by this process of militarization and the main features of the latter will be described.

The Militarization of a Society: The Example of Transcaucasia in the Early Iron Age

An Archaeological Overview

in Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia

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References

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  • 3

    Kushnareva 199783; Badalyan et alii 2009.

  • 5

    Kushnareva 19975574 75 225 227-228.

  • 7

    Özfırat 2006177182; 2007 114; Biscione & Khatib-Shahidi 2007 28-29; Biscione 2009 127-128.

  • 8

    Khanzadian 199529-37; Kushnareva 1997 81-149; Devedzhyan 2006 351-362; Badalyan et alii 2009 34 fig. 2 52-68.

  • 9

    Kushnareva 1997108. The Culture of Trialeti (Middle Bronze ii) is dated between 2200/2100-1700 bc (Badalyan et alii 2009 34 fig. 2; Smith 2009a 28). It is earlier than the Cultures of Kizilvank Karmir Berd/Tazakend and Sevan-Uzerlik (Middle Bronze iii) dated between 1700-1500 bc.

  • 10

    Smith 2009a27-28.

  • 11

    Kushnareva 1997124143 145; Özfırat 2005 148; 2006 186; Biscione 2009 129-131.

  • 12

    Kushnareva 1997230.

  • 16

    Biscione 2003170-171; Marro & Özfırat 2003 393; Özfırat 2006 186-194.

  • 17

    Khachatryan 1963; 1975; 1979.

  • 21

    Castelluccia 2015.

  • 23

    Diakonoff 198445-57; Yakar 2000 431; Klengel 1976-1980.

  • 27

    Kozenkova 1996fig. 26.

  • 28

    Piller 2013; Castelluccia 2017b.

  • 29

    Chernykh 1992.

  • 30

    Hellwag 2012.

  • 32

    Ivantchik 2001.

  • 41

    Biscione 2009123.

  • 43

    Biscione 2002352.

  • 44

    Biscione 2002353.

  • 45

    Shanshashvili & Narimanishvili 2013.

  • 46

    Reinhold 200332.

  • 47

    Biscione 2009125.

  • 49

    Biscione 2002358.

  • 51

    Salvini 200245-53.

  • 52

    Lamberg-Karlovsky 1994405; Arnold & Gibson 1995 2-3; Marcus & Feinman 1998 5-7.

  • 53

    Kleiss 1982.

  • 54

    Smith 1996186-188; 2009b 397-398; Biscione 2002 359; Gevorkyan 2002; Smith & Leon 2014.

  • 55

    Kuftin 194189; Kushnareva 1997 113 fig. 48; 215.

  • 56

    Castelluccia 2017a.

  • 57

    Esayan & Mnatsakanyan 1977.

  • 58

    Tumanyan 2009.

  • 60

    Khachatryan 1975138pl. 2.

  • 63

    Piliposyan & Mkrtchyan 2001.

  • 64

    Petrenko 2006.

  • 65

    Gummel 1992; Castelluccia 2017c.

  • 66

    Mnatsakanyan 1960; 1961.

  • 67

    Devedzhyan 198180-81.

  • 68

    Gevorkyan 200948.

  • 69

    Tekhov 1980a; 1981; 1985; 2002.

  • 71

    Kalantar 1994.

  • 72

    Masson 1997.

  • 73

    Masson 1997127-132.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Fortresses in the Lake Sevan area (after Biscione 2002, 335, fig. 1).
  • View in gallery
    Teghenik fortress, Cyclopean walls (photos of the author).
  • View in gallery
    Construction of fortification walls (after Sanamyan 2002, 349, fig. 9).
  • View in gallery
    Plans of fortresses of Sarnakhpyur and Gyamrez (after Smith & Kafadaryan 1996, figs. 2, 5).
  • View in gallery
    Plans of fortresses (after Biscione et alii 2002, 117).
  • View in gallery
    Urartian Fortress of Bastam (after Kleiss 1988, 33).
  • View in gallery
    Assyrian and Urartian representations of fortresses (after Botta & Flandin 1849, pl. 36; Kleiss 1982, fig. 8; Calmeyer 1979, fig. 4).
  • View in gallery
    Lchashen fortress (after Biscione 2004, fig. 1).
  • View in gallery
    Graves of the Late Bronze Age. A: Akhtala (after de Morgan 1889, 58, fig. 17); B: Mouçi-yéri (after de Morgan 1889, 70, fig. 27); C: Samtavro (after Sagona 2010, 327, fig. 3, 1).
  • View in gallery
    Decorations on bronze belts (after A: Esayan 1984, pl. 14, n. 47; B: Tekhov 1980, pl. 56; C: Chidašeli 1986, pl. 14, No. 20; D: Chidašeli 1986, pl. 1, No. 1; E: Tekhov 1980, pl. 53).
  • View in gallery
    Decorations on bronze belts (after A: Tekhov 1980, pl. 53; B: Chidašeli 1986, pl. 8, No. 13; C: Chidašeli 1986, pl. 12, No. 19).
  • View in gallery
    Decorations on bronze belts (after A: Chidašeli 1986, pl. 4, No. 8; B: Esayan 1984, pl. 15, No. 49; C: Esayan 1984, pl. 12, No. 40; D: Esayan 1984, pl. 13, No. 42).
  • View in gallery
    Decorations on bronze belts (after A: Esayan 1984, pl. 13, No. 42; B: Tekhov 2002, pl. 21; C: Esayan 1984, pl. 14, No. 48).
  • View in gallery
    Bronze belt from Stepanavan (after Esayan 1984, pl. 12, No. 38).
  • View in gallery
    Graves from Koban (after Chantre 1882, pl. 4 and fig. 3).
  • View in gallery
    Funerary set from Kalakent Paradiesfestung (after Nagel & Strommenger 1985, pls. 46-47).
  • View in gallery
    Sets of typical weapons of the Late Bronze-Early Iron Age (after A: Ivanovskiï 1911, pl. 3, n. 3; B, C, D: Nagel & Strommenger 1985, pls. 46, 47, 23; E: Tekhov 2006, figs. 3, 36).

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