Temporal Cities: Commemoration at Manzanar, California and Cowra, Australia

in Asian Diasporic Visual Cultures and the Americas
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

This article compares two former Pacific War incarceration histories in the us and Australia, inquiring how their narratives of confinement and redress might be interpreted spatially and materially, and how these sensibilities are incorporated into contemporary heritage strategies including, in these examples, through Japanese garden designs. At the Manzanar Historic Site in California, the efforts of several generations advocating for civil rights and preservation of the Manzanar Relocation Center have overlapped with the National Park Service’s efforts to fulfil its federal mandates to preserve and restore the historic site. Conversely at Cowra, New South Wales, these histories are interwoven with post-war commemorative spaces, aimed at drawing visitors to former incarceration sites and encouraging contemplation of these difficult histories. This article analyses their complex creative processes and interpretive strategies as useful for drawing these isolated national stories into broader global interrogations of their significance.

Temporal Cities: Commemoration at Manzanar, California and Cowra, Australia

in Asian Diasporic Visual Cultures and the Americas

Sections

References

Agamben Giorgio . State of Exception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press2005.

Appleton William . Rikai Means Understanding: A Guide to the Japanese War Cemetery. Cowra nsw and Canberra: W.W. Appleton1998.

Apthorpe Graham . A Town at War: Stories from Cowra in World War ii. Cowra nsw: G. Apthorpe2008.

Australian Government Federal Register of Legislation. “National Security Act 1939.” 9 September 1939. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C1939A00015.

Australian War Memorial. “Enlistment Statistics, Second World War.” https://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/enlistment/ww2.

Australian War Memorial. “Second World War, 1939–45.” https://www.awm.gov.au/articles/second-world-war.

Australian War Memorial. “Stolen Years: Australian Prisoners of War.” https://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/stolenyears/ww2/japan.

Azuma Eiichiro. Between Two Empires: Race History and Transnationalism in Japanese America. New York: Oxford University Press 2005.

Bullard Steven . Blankets on the Wire: The Cowra Breakout and Its Aftermath. Canberra: Australian War Memorial2006.

Burton Jeffery . Garden Management Plan: Gardens and Gardeners at Manzanar Manzanar National Historic Site California. Independence ca: National Park Service us Department of the Interior Manzanar National Historic Site 2015.

Burton Jeffery F. Mary M. Farrell Florence B. Lord and Richard Lord . Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War ii Japanese American Relocation Sites. Tucson: Western Archaeological Center2000.

Cohen Jean-Louis . Architecture in Uniform: Designing and Building for the Second World War. Paris and Montreal: The Canadian Centre for Architecture2011.

Constant Caroline . The Modern Architectural Landscape. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press2012.

Crysler C. Greig Stephen Cairns and Hilde Heynen (eds). The sage Handbook of Architectural Theory. London: sage Publications Inc. 2012.

Daniels Roger . The Japanese American Cases: The Rule of Law in Time of War. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press2013.

Foucault Michel . Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan . New York: Pantheon Books1977.

Foucault Michel . Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977. Edited and translated by Colin Gordon . New York: Pantheon Books1980.

Fujitani Takashi Geoffrey M. White and Lisa Yoneyama (eds). Perilous Memories: The Asia-Pacific War(s). Durham: Duke University Press2001.

Gesensway Deborah and Mindy Roseman . Beyond Words: Images from America’s Concentration Camps. Ithaca: Cornell University Press1987.

Gudridge Patrick O. Remember Endo?Harvard Law Review 116 (2003): 19331970.

Hammond Joyce . Walls of Wire: Tatura Rushworth Murchison. Rushworth, Victoria: Joyce Hammond1990.

Helphand Kenneth I. Defiant Gardens: Making Gardens in Wartime . San Antonio: Trinity University Press2006.

Horiuchi Lynne . “Architects at War: Designing Prison Cities for Japanese American Communities.” In Diversity and Design: Understanding the Hidden Consequences edited by Beth Tauke Korydon Smith and Charles Davis 101117. New York: Routledge2016.

Horiuchi Lynne . “Dislocations and Relocations: The Built Environments of Japanese American Internment.” Ph.D dissertationUniversity of California, Santa Barbara2005.

Kashima Tetsuden . Judgment Without Trial: Japanese American Imprisonment During World War ii. Seattle: University of Washington Press2003.

Kibbler Don . “Cowra-Japan Conversations.” Interview with Terry Colhoun for the Australia-Japan Research Project. 27 February 2003. Accessed 6 December 2016. http://ajrp.awm.gov.au/ajrp/ajrp2.nsf/trans/3D3B83F45CF2C4B0CA256D56001F25E1?openDocument.

Kobayashi Ai and Bart Ziino . “Cowra Japanese War Cemetery.” In Places of Pain and Shame: Dealing with “Difficult Heritage edited by William Logan and Keir Reeves 100–112. London and New York: Routledge2009.

Leong Karen J. and Myla Vicenti Carpio . “Carceral States.” Special issue. Amerasia 42 no. 1 (2016).

Logan William and Keir Reeves . Places of Pain and Shame: Dealing with “Difficult Heritage. London and New York: Routledge2009.

Lu Duanfang (ed). Third World Modernism: Architecture Development and Identity. London and New York: Routledge2011.

Lye Colleen . America’s Asia: Racial Form and American Literature 1893–1945 . Princeton: Princeton University Press2005.

Manzanar Committee. Reflections: In Three Self-Guided Tours of Manzanar. Los Angeles: Manzanar Committee1998.

Missingham Gregory Kenneth . “Japan 10±, China 1: A First Attempt at Explaining the Numerical Discrepancy between Japanese-Style Gardens Outside Japan and Chinese-Style Gardens Outside China.” Landscape Research 32 no. 2 (2007): 117146.

Moran Dominique . Carceral Geography: Spaces and Practices of Incarceration. Farnham and Surrey: Ashgate Publishing2015.

Nagata Yuriko . Unwanted Aliens: Japanese Internment in Australia. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press1996.

National Archives of Australia. Canberra: A2671 157/1940 PART 1 War Cabinet Agendum—No. 157/1940—Prisoners of War and internees from abroad.

National Archives of Australia.“Wartime Internment Camps in Australia.” Database. http://naa.gov.au/collection/snapshots/internment-camps/index.aspx#section1.

National Archives of Australia. “World War i Internee, Alien and pow Records held in Adelaide—Fact sheet 106.” Database. http://naa.gov.au/collection/fact-sheets/fs106.aspx.

New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage. “Cowra Prisoner of War Camp Site.” Database number: 5045173. File number: S90/00661; S91/06355 & HC870813. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/heritageapp/ViewHeritageItemDetails.aspx?ID=5045173.

Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians.” United States Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (cwric). Seattle: University of Washington Press; Washington dc: Civil Liberties Public Education Fund 1997.

Rajagopalan Mrinalini and Madhuri Desai (eds). Colonial Frames Nationalist Histories: Imperial Legacies Architecture and Modernity. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing2012.

Robinson Greg . A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America. New York: Columbia University Press2009.

Robinson Greg and Toni Robinson . “‘Korematsu’ and Beyond: Japanese Americans and the Origins of Strict Scrutiny.” Law and Contemporary Problems 68 no. 2 (2005): 2955.

Sand Jordan . “Reconfiguring Pacific History: Reflections from the Pacific Empires Working Group.” Amerasia Journal 42 no. 3 (2016): 141.

Saunders Kay and Roger Daniels (eds). Alien Justice: Wartime Internment in Australia and North America. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press2000.

Sen Arijit and Jennifer Johung (eds). Landscapes of Mobility: Culture Politics and Placemaking. London and New York: Routledge2013.

Suggested Resettlement or Work Projects.” April 1942. Box 1Records of the Bureau of Agriculture Economics Record Group 83. National Archives and Records Administration at San Francisco San Bruno causa.

Summary Report on Center Requested by Dr. Carter 24 July 1942.” Japanese Evacuation and Resettlement Study from Bancroft Library Drawer Manz i FolderOfficial Documents.” Eastern California Museum Independence causa.

Takamura Kango . Saturday Afternoon Looking South from Block 8. May 1943. University of California Los Angeles Special CollectionsCollection 433 Box 1 Manzanar F.16. Los Angeles causa.

Tauke Beth Korydon Smith and Charles Davis (eds). Diversity in Design: Understanding Hidden Consequences. Abingdon and New York: Routledge2016.

Tracey Jennifer Lambert and Michael MacLellan Tracey . “Archaeological Assessment of the Site of Prisoner of War Camp 12 Cowra nsw. October 2003.” Canberra: Heritage Archaeology2003.

Unrau Harlan D. The Evacuation and Relocation of Persons of Japanese Ancestry During World War ii: A Historical Study of the Manzanar War Relocation Center. [Denver, Colo.?]: us Department of the Interior National Park Service 1996.

Upton Dell . Another City: Urban Life and Urban Spaces in the New American Republic. New Haven: Yale University Press2008.

Upton Dell and John Michael Vlach (eds). Common Places: Readings in American Vernacular Architecture. Athens: University of Georgia Press1986.

Wilkins Craig L. The Aesthetics of Equity: Notes on Race Space Architecture and Music. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press2007.

World War ii Prisoners of the Japanese.” National Archives and Records Administration Data Files2007 Update ca. 1941–1945. Series from Collection adbc: Records of the American Defenders of Bataan and Corregidor. https://aad.archives.gov/aad/series-description.jsp?s=4277.

Yamashita Wendi . “The Colonial and the Carceral: Building Relationships between Japanese Americans and Indigenous Groups in the Owens Valley.” Amerasia 42 no. 1 (2016): 121138.

Figures

  • View in gallery

    California, Manzanar, Camp Layout (Sheet 1 of 6). War Relocation Authority, 20 April 1946, National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 210, Cartography, College Park (public record).

  • View in gallery

    Kango Takamura, Saturday Afternoon Looking South from Block 8, May 1943, University of California Los Angeles Special Collections, Collection 433, Box 1 Manzanar, F.16. Los Angeles, ca, usa.

  • View in gallery

    Kango Takamura, Untitled Winter Landscape, May 1943, University of California Los Angeles Special Collections, Collection 433, Box 3, Manzanar, F.2. Los Angeles, ca, usa.

  • View in gallery

    Plan of Cowra Prisoner of War Camp No. 12. Provided by the Cowra Shire Council.

  • View in gallery

    Cowra Prisoner of War Camp No. 12. Australian War Memorial Negative Number po3160.002.

  • View in gallery

    Repainting of the I rei to, or “Soul Consoling Tower” at the first Manzanar Pilgrimage, 26 December 1969. Karl Yoneda Papers, ucla Collection 1592, Box 13.

  • View in gallery

    The annual Manzanar Pilgrimage (2016).

  • View in gallery

    The Block 34 Mess Hall Garden, Manzanar National Historic Site (formerly Manzanar War Relocation Center), 2016. Inyo County, California, usa.

  • View in gallery

    Cowra Japanese Garden at the former Cowra Prisoner of War Camp Site, 2014. Cowra, New South Wales, Australia.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 24 24 18
Full Text Views 4 4 4
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0