1 1Edwin B. Parker professor of law at Columbia Law School, NY; University of Neuchatel and CEPR. For many helpful discussions, I would like to thank Bernard Hoekman, Henrik Horn, Nuno Limao, Patrick Messerlin and Alan Sykes. Julia Roberts provided excellent secretarial assistance.
1 This term has indeed been very often abused. To avoid any misunderstandings, let me add a few words on the way I understand it: the rationale behind the Doha round must be that previous rounds have not done enough (or, even worse, have done nothing) to address the needs of developing countries participating in the world trading system. Then comes the political will of the trading partners to move to a new equilibrium where in the context of a trade round, the wish-list of developing countries will be treated on a priority basis. If this had indeed been the case before as well, there would, arguably, be no need to name this round the 'development' round. 2 Doha Work Programme - Decision Adopted by the General Council on 1 August 2004, WTO Doc. WT/L/579 of 2 August 2004 (1 August Decision).
3 In oral comments, T.N. Srinivasan has time and again made this point, adding that such criticism is probably often misguided since it obfuscates the objective function of the WTO, which is that of a trade institution and not a development agency.
4 See on this issue Watal (2005).
5 On this issue, see Schwarz and Sykes (2002). 6 For a brief but remarkably comprehensive history of the emergence of the GSP, see Grossman and Sykes (2005).
7 See Appellate Body Report, European Communities - Conditions for the Granting of Tariff Preferences to Developing Countries, WTO Doc. WT/DS246/AB/R of 7 April 2004. 8 Id. 9 Id., para. 190.
This point was first orally made by Patrick Messerlin.
One can of course legitimately ask the question, as Bagwell and Staiger (2005) have to what extent there is a correlation between a tightening of the screws in the subsidies area (where less recourse will be permissible) and the willingness to commit lower tariffs.
Bagwell Kyle and Staiger Robert W. 2003. The Economics of the World Trading System, MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass.
Bagwell Kyle and Staiger Robert W. 2005. "Will international rules on subsidies disrupt the world trading system?" Mimeo.
Charlton Andrew. 2004. "Adjustment to the Doha trade regime." Mimeo.
Charlton Andrew. 2005. "A proposal for special treatment in market access for developing countries in the Doha round." Mimeo.
Grossman Gene M. and Sykes Alan O. 2005. "A Preference for Development: The Law and Economics of GSP." Mimeo.
Hoekman Bernard M. 2005. "Operationalizing the concept of policy space in the WTO: beyond specials and differential treatment," Journal of International Economic Law (forthcoming).
Hoekman Bernard M. and Prowse Susan. 2005. "Development and the WTO: beyond business as usual", Bridges, 2-3: 3 et seq.
Limao Nuno. 2001. "The strategic use of trade policy for non-trade purposes in the multilateral and regional agreements." Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University, New York.
Limao Nuno and Olarreaga Marcello. 2005. "David vs. Goliath: Can Trade Preferences to Small Countries Stop Multilateral Liberalization?" Mimeo.
Pack Howard and Saggi Kamal. 2005. "The case for industrial policy: a critical survey," WBRO (forthcoming).
Rodrik Dani. 2001. "The Global Governance of Trade as if Development Really Mattered." Mimeo.
Schwarz Warren and Sykes Alan O. 2002. "The Economic Structure of Renegotiation and Dispute Resolution in the WTO/GATT System," Journal of Legal Studies 31 (2002), pp. 179-229.
Watal Jayashree. 2005. "Developing Countries and the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights ― Current Issues in the WTO, 2004." Mimeo.