THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNCLOS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN REGION: THE CASE OF MADAGASCAR

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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNCLOS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN REGION: THE CASE OF MADAGASCAR

in African Yearbook of International Law Online / Annuaire Africain de droit international Online

References

1 The Law of the Sea: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea - Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea with Index and excerpts from the Final Act of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations, New York (1997), United Nations publication Sales No. E.97.V.10. 2 International Fisheries Instruments with Index, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations, New York (1998), United Nations publication, Sales No.E.98.V.ll.

3 UNCLOS, Articles 3 and 17. 4 Ibid., Article 33. 5 Ibid., Article 38 6 Ibid., Articles 49 and 52.

7 Ibid., Article 56 (1) (a). 8 Ibid., Articles 56 (1) (b) (i), 60. 9 Ibid. Articles 56 (1) (b) (ii), 246. Ibid., Article 56 (1) (b) (iii). Ibid. Article 58. Ibid. Article 79. Ibid., Article 62 (2). Ibid., Articles 69-70. Ibid., Articles 76-77 (1). Ibid., Article 76 (5) (6) (8). Ibid., Article 77 (2) (3). 18 bid., Article 78 (2) (3) (4).

Ibid., Article 82. 20 Ibid., Article 76 (8), Annex II. Ibid., Articles 245-246. 22 Ibid., Articles 8, 116. 23 Ibid., Articles 117-119. z4 Ibid. Articles 192, 194.

z5 Ibid., Articles .207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212. 26 Ibid., Articles .213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 220, 221, 222. lbid., Part XIV. 28 Ibid., Part XV, Sect. 1 ; Annex V. 29 Ibid., Part XV, Sect.2; Annexes VI, VII and VIII. 3o Ibid., Article 287. Ibid., Annex VIII. 32 Ibid., Article 187.

33Ibid., Article 297 (2) (i) (ii), (b); (3) (a) (b); 298 3a Ibid. Annex V, Sect.2. 35 United Nations General Assembly, Official Records: Twenty-fifth session (1970), Suppl. No. 28 (A/8028), Resolutions adopted by the General Assembly, pp.24-25.

36 Ibid., Res. 48/263, Forty-eighth session, Suppl. No.49 A (A/48/49/Add.l), Resolutions and Decisions, Vol. II. pp. 7-13. 37 Ibid.., Annex, Article 2(1). ).

38 Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-seventh Session, Suppl. No. 49 (A/47/49), Resolution 47/192. 39 International Fisheries Instruments, op. cit. For a study of UNFSA, see Tahindro A., "Conservation and Management of Transboundary Fish Stocks: Comments in Light of the Adoption of the 1995 Agreement for the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks", Ocean Development & International Law 28 (1997) 1, pp. 1-58; Hayashi M., "The 1995 Agreement on the Conservation and Management of Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks: Significance for the Law of the Sea Convention", Ocean and Coastal Management 29 (1995), pp. 51-69; Balton D., "Strengthening the Law of the Sea: The New Agreement on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks", Ocean Development & International Law 27 (1996) 1, pp. 125-152.

ao Ibid., Article 6, Annex II. Ibid., Article 5 (d) (e) (f) (g). aZ Ibid., Article 7. a3 Ibid., Articles 8 (3) (4) (5), 13 aa Ibid., Articles 10, 14, Annex 1 as Ibid., Articles 18 -19. as Ibid., Article 23. 47 Ibid., Article 21. a8 Ibid., Part VII. 49 Ibid., Article 30. 50 Ibid., Article 4.

FAO, "Les Pecheries maritimes malgaches: leurs principaux potentiels et leurs besoins pour le developpement", prepared by M. Giudicelli, RAF/79/065/WP/17/84, December 1984, paras. 46-47, 50, (http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/255101.htm), 28 September 2004. 52 "How to obtain an oil and gas exploration permit in France", (http://industrie.gouv.fr/energie/anglais/ang-guide-hydro.htm), 28 September 2004. s3 Coakley George J., "The Mineral Industry of Madagascar", 1997, (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1997/9223097.pdf), 28 September 2004. 54 Yager Thomas R., "The Mineral Industry of Madagascar", 2000; (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2000/9223000.pdf), 28 September 2004; see also, Africa Energy Intelligence, 2000. 55 Southern Africa and the Southern African Development Community, Energy Information Administration, November 2002, (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/sadc.html), 28 September 2004

56 "Extract from Act No. 99-28 of 3 February 2000 amending the Maritime Code", Law of the Sea Bulletin (2003) 51, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations. 57 Updated and consolidated laws and regulations include: Ordinance No. 74-010 of 7 March 1974 amending some provisions of Book III of the Maritime Code (Ordonnance No. 74-010 du 7 mars 1974 modifiant certaines dispositions du livre III du Code maritime); Ordinance No. 77-063 of 30 September 1977 supplementing the provisions of article 7.5.01 of the Maritime Code (Ordonnance No. 77-063 du 30 septembre 1977 complgtant les dispositions de l'article 7.5.01 du Code maritime); Ordinance No. 77-064 of 30 September 1977 amending article 7.7.07 of the Maritime Code (Ordonnance No. 77-064 du 30 septembre 1977 portant modification de ¡'article 7.7.07 du Code maritime); Ordinance No. 83-028 of 21 December 1983 superseding the provisions of Act No. 66-007 of 5 July 1966, as amended, concerning the Maritime Code and of Act No.77-005 of 22 December 1977, as amended, containing the General Tax Code (Ordonnance No. 83-028 du 21 decembre 1983 portant derogation aux dispositions de la

loi modifiee No. 66-007 du 5 juillet 1966 relative au Code maritime et de la loi modifiee No. 77-005 du 22 decembre 1977 portant Code geniral des impots); Ordinance No. 85- 013 of 16 September 1985 fixing the limits of the maritime zone (Ordonnance No. 85-013 du 16 septembre 1985 fxant les limites des zones maritimes); and Ordinance No. 92-032 of 17 July 1992 amending and supplementing some of the provisions of Book III of the Maritime Code (Ordonnance No. 92-032 du 17 juillet 1992 modifiant et complémentant certaines dispositions du livre III du Code maritime) 58 United Nations Legislative Series, ST/LEG/SER.B/15, April 1970, pp. 164-165, 248, 646. 59 I1NCLOS, Articles 5, 7, 13. 60 "Extract from Act No. 99-28 of 3 February 2000 amending the Maritime Code", op. cit., Article 1.1.03. 61 Madagascar Maritime Code, Law of the Sea Bulletin (2004) 56, Articles 1.1.09-1.1.10. 62 "Extract from Act No. 99-28 of 3 February 2000 amending the Maritime Code", op. cit., Article 1.1.11. 63 United Nations Legislative Series, ST/LEG/SER.B/15, p. 99 (French text).

The Law of the Sea: Baselines National Legislation with Illustrative Maps (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.89.V.10), p. 213. Available also on: (http://www.un.orglDepts/losILEGISLATI ONANDTREA TIESIPDFFILES/MDG _1963- Decree.pdf). bs Law of the Sea Bulletin (2003) 51, p. 93 (Footnote). 66 Madagascar Maritime Code, Articles 1.1.01 and 1.3.01. 67 UNCLOS, Article 19 (2). 68 Ibid., Article 1.04.01. 69 UNCLOS, Articles 20 and 23. Ibid., Article 1.4.02.

Maritime Code, op. cit., Articles 1.2.01, 1.4.03. L1NCLOS, Article 111. Ibid., Article 1.4.04. Ibid., Article 1.3.02. Ibid., Article 63 (2) Ibid., Articles 65, 66 and 67. Maritime Code, op. cit., Article 1.3.02.

Ibid., Article 56. Ibid., Part XV, Section 3, Article 297(3) (b); Annex V, section 2. 80 Ibid., Article 58. The Law of the Sea, Practice of States at the time of entry into force of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations, New York (1994), United Nations publication Sales No. E.94.V.13, pp. 36-37. 82 Maritime Code, op. cit., Article 1.2.03.

$3 UNCLOS, Article 76 (1). 84 This is subject to delimitation agreements with opposite States, where the distance between their respective coasts is less than 400 nm. $5 Ibid., Article 76 (4). eb Ibid., Article 76 (5).

87 Tahindro G., Les Iles du Sud - Ouest de l'océan Indien et la mise en ceuvre du Nouveau Droit de la Mer, These pour le Doctorat en Droit, Universite de Droit, d'Economie et des Sciences d'Aix - Marseille (1998), p. 119. 88 Ralison A., "Les Ressources halieutiques malgaches - Etat de la question", Communication a COLOCEAN - I, Colloque sur l'Oc6anologie malgache, Nosy Be, 25 - 30 novembre 1984. 89 Piton B. and others, Atlas hydrologique du Canal de Mozambique (Ocean Indien), Travaux et Documents de l'ORSTOM, No. 132, Paris, 1981, p. 4. 90 Ramanankasaina E., La position de Madagascar a l'egard du droit international de la mer, These de 3' Cycle, Paris X, 1983, p. 108. 91 Tahindro G., op. cit., p. 121. 92 Official Records of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, vol. IX, United Nations publication, Sales No.E.79.V.3, Documents of the Conference, doc. A/CONF.62/C.2/L.98/Add.l. The remaining States are as follows: Angola, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Ecuador, Fiji, France, Guinea, Guyana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Japan, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia (Federated States

of), Myanmar, Namibia, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Russian Federation, Seychelles, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America and Uruguay. 93 UNCLOS, Annex II, Article 4. 94 Ibid., Article 82 (3). 95 Maritime Code, op. cit., Article 1.3.03. 96 Ibid. 97 Weil P., The Law of Maritime Delimitation - Reflections, Grotius Publ. Ltd (1989), p. 48.

98 Jagota S.P., Maritime Boundary, Martinus Nijhoff Publ. (1985), p.4. 99 Yager Thomas R., "The Mineral Industry of Madagascar in 2000", (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2000/mamyb00.pdf), 26 May 2004. �oo FAO, "Les Pecheries maritimes malgaches: leurs principaux potentials et leurs besoins pour le developpement", op. cit., para. 54. 101 Southern Africa and the Southern African Development Community, Energy Information Administration, November 2002, (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/sadc.html), 26 May 2004. The statement was made by President Joaquim Chissano during an official visit in Antananarivo in June 2004, as a guest of the Malagasy President Marc Ravalomanana at the celebration of the 44`h anniversary of Madagascar independence, BBC Monday AFt AFEausaf 300604/cb, 28 June 2004, AFl-Mozambique-Madagascar; Source: Agencia Informacao Mocambique web site, Maputo, in English, 28 June 2004.

�03 Kittichaisare K., The Law of the Sea and Maritime Boundary Delimitation in South-East Asia, Oxford University Press (1987), p. 140. 104 Smith Robert W. & Thomas Bradford L., "Island Disputes and the Law of the Sea: An Examination of Sovereignty and Delimitation Disputes", Maritime Briefing, International Boundaries Research Unit 2 (1998) 4, p. 16. ios Ibid.

106 Tahindro G., op. cit., pp. 125-126; see also Kamga M.K., Nationalisme Maritime et Nouveau Droit de la Mer en Afrique, Memoire de DES/DEA en Droit international, Institut Universitaire de Hautes Etudes Internationales de Geneve, 1997, HEIDS 591, pp. 167-171. Oraison A., "A propos du differend franco-malgache sur les iles eparses du canal de Mozambique", in Revue Generale de Droit International Public (RGDIP) 85 (1981) 3, p. 480. 108 Ibid., p. 484. 109 Ibid., pp. 485-488. 110 Ibid., p. 489. 111 Ibid., pp. 488-491. 112 Ibid., p. 474; also J.O.R.F. of 18 July 1976, pp. 4299-4300. 113 3 Ibid., p. 487.

114 Tahindro G., op. cit., p. 137. "5 Ibid., citing a statement made by H.E Ambassador Blaise Rabetafika, in the Special Political Committee, Thirty-fourth session of the General Assembly, 27 November 1979. 116 Tahindro G., op. cit., p. 145. 117 Ibid., p. 135. 118 United Nations General Assembly, Thirty-third session, doc. A/33/235 and Corr.l and Thirty- fourth session, doc. A/34/552. "9 Ibid., Thirty-fourth session, doc. A/34/542, Annex, Sect. I, para. 100.

120 United Nations, General Assembly, Official Records, Thirty-fourth session, Resolutions and Decisions, Suppl. No. 46 (A/34/46), Res. 34/91, paras. 1, 3 , 4. Ibid., Thirty-fifth session, Resolutions and Decisions, Suppl. No. 48 (A/35/48), Res.35/123, para. 4. 122 United Nations, General Assembly, Official Records, Thirty-fifth session, Resolutions and Decisions, Suppl. No. 49 (A/45/49), Decision 45/402, para. (b). ��3 Ibid., Vol II.

124 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glorioso Islands), 7 March 2005. 125 ICJ Reports 1951, para. 132. izb UNCLOS, Articles 74 and 83. 127 UNCLOS, Articles 74 (2) (3); 83 (2) (3).

128 Jagota S.P., Maritime Boundarv, Publications on Ocean Development, Vol. 9, Martinus Nijhoff Publ. (1985), p. 270. 129 Maritime Code, op. cit., Article 1.2.02. 130 Platzoder, Vol. IX, Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea: Documents, Informal Suggestions relating to Articles 74 and 83 (NG/4) by Algeria, Bangladesh, France, Iraq, Ireland, Kenya, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New guinea, Poland, Romania, Senegal, Syrian Arab Republic, Somalia and Turkey; Oceana Publ., (1986), p. 397. Weil, op. cit., p. 211.

i3z Beazley P.B., "Technical Aspects of Maritime Boundary Delimitation", Maritime Briefing, International Boundaries Research Dnit 1 (1984) 2, p. 7. i33 Weil, op. cit., pp. 79-80. i34 UNCLOS, Article 15. i3s Weil, op. cit., pp. 207-208. i36 National Legislation and Treaties relating to the Territorial Sea, the Contiguous Zone, the Continental Shelf, the High Seas and to Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the Sea, United Nations Legislative Series (ST/LEG/SER.B/15), United Nations, New York, 1970, p. 769. 137 UNCLOS, Article 15. �3$ Ibid., p. 208. Kolb R., "Case Law on Equitable Maritime Delimitation/Jurisprudence sur les delimitations maritimes selon 1'6quit6", Digest and Commentaries / Repertoire et commentaires, Publications on Ocean Development, Vol. 38, Martinus Nijhoff Publ., p. 410.

140 Weil, op. cit., p. 208. 141 Ibid. �4z ICJ Reports 1969, para. 101. �a3 Weil, op. cit., p. 83. ��`' Ibid., p. 211. i45 ICJ Reports 1969, para. 85.

146 ICJReports 1982, para. 70. 147 Ibid., para. 72. 148 ICJ Reports 1984, para. 112. 149 ICJ Reports 1985, para. 45. 150 Weil, op.cit., p. 210. ' 151 Malcom D. Evans, "Relevant circumstances and maritime delimitation", Oxford Monographs in International law, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989, ISBN 0-19-825240-4, p. 87.

152 Weil, op.cit., pp. 211-212.. is3 P. Weil, The Law of Maritime Delimitation - Reflections, Grotius Publ., 1989, ISBN 0-949009-40-7, p. 208. 154 Platzoder, op. cit.

155 Proceedings of the Twentieth Anniversary Commemoration of the opening for signature of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Statement of Judge Raymond Ranjeva, on behalf of Judge Gilbert Guillaume, President of the International Court of Justice, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations, and International Seabed Authority, New York, 9-10 December 2002, United Nations (2003), p. 48. �sb lg ILM 60 (1979), para. 249. �s� ICJ Reports 1985, para. 68. �s8 ICJReports 1993, paras. 51; 55. is9 ICJReports 2001, paras. 230. 160 ICJReports 2002, paras. 288-306. 161 40/ZLM983 (2001), paras. 131-168. 162 Arbitration between Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia concerning Portions of the Limits of their Offshore Areas as Defined in the Canada - Nova Scotia Offshore Petrolium Resources Accord Implementation Act and the Canada - Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act - Award of the Tribunal in the Second Phase", at (http://www.boundary-dispute.ca/), 20 April 2005, paras. 5.2-5.15.

163 Kwiatkowska B., "Resource, Navigational and Environmental Factors in Equitable Maritime Boundary Delimitations", Colson D.A. and Smith R.W. (eds.), International Maritime Boundaries V (2005), p. 3227. 164 Arbitration between Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia, op. cit., para. 5.2. 165 Kwiatkowska B. "Resource, Navigational and Environmental Factors in Equitable Maritime Boundary Delimitations", op. cit. 166 ICJ Reports 1984, para. 196.

167 Reports of the Secretary-General, Oceans and the law of the sea (A/58/65), para. 21; (A/58/65/add.l), para. 29. �68 L'Express de Madagascar, 8 April 2004. The official signing of the boundary delimitation agreement took place on 14 April 2005, in St. Denis, Reunion Island, between the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Madagascar Marcel Ranjeva and the French Minister of Overseas Territories , Brigitte Girardin, in the presence of President Ravalomanana, of Madagascar, AFI - MADAGASCAR - FRANCE, BBC On /tf7 AFEau 150405/or. i 69 Ibid.

170 Kolb R., "Case Law on Equitable Maritime Delimitation/Jurisprudence sur les delimitations maritimes selon 1'equite", Digest and Commentaries / Repertoire et commentaires, Publications on Ocean Development, Vol. 38, Martinus Nijhoff Publ., p. 464. Malcom D. Evans, op. cit., pp. 119-120. 172 Weil P., op. cit., p. 235. 173 Kolb R., "Case Law on Equitable Maritime Delimitation / Jurisprudence sur les delimitations maritimes selon 1'6quit6", Digest and Commentaries / Repertoire et commentaire, Publications on Ocean Development, Vol. 38, Martinus Nijhoff Publ., p. 113. ��4 ICJ Reports 1969, para. 98. 18 ILM 60 (1979), para. 99.

��6 P. Weil, op. cit., p. 241. Gulf of Maine Case, op. cit., para. 222. ��8 ICJ, Reports 1985, para. 79B. ��9 ICJReports 1993, para. 65. �8° ICJReports 1969, para. 101. 401LM 983 (2001), para. 165.

isz18ILM 60 (1979), para. 101. �83 401LM 983 (2001), para. 168. Kolb R., "Case Law on Equitable Maritime Delimitation / Jurisprudence sur les delimitations maritimes selon 1'�quit�", op. cit., p. 524. �85 Maritime Code, op. cit., Article 1.10.01. 186 Ibid., Article 1.10.02.

]87Ibid., Article 1.10.03 188 Ibid., Article 1.1.10.05. 189 Ibid., Article 1.10.04. 190 Ibid. t9t Ibid., Article 1.10.06. i92 Ibid., Article 1.10.07.

'�3 Ibid., Article 1.10.08. '94 Ibid., Article 1.10.09. 195 Ibid., Article 1.10.10. 196 Ibid., Article 1.10.11. Ibid. '9' Ibid., Article 1.10.13

'99 Ibid., Article 1.10.14. z°° Ibid., Article 1.10.13. 201 UNCLOS, Art. 194 (2). 202 Yankov A., "The Law of the Sea Convention and Agenda 21: Marine Environmental Implications", Boyle A. and Freestone D. (eds.), International Law and Sustainable Development - Past Achievements and Future Challenges, p. 274.

zo3 Absence of such reference has not prevented Madagascar from cooperating actively with neighbouring States for the protection and preservation of the marine environment through the Indian Ocean Commission (COI) and the Nairobi Convention.

z°4 The Law of the Sea - Enforcement by Port States: Legislative History of Article 218 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations, New York, 2002, United Nations publication Sales No.E.02.V.ll.

205 Annual Report of the Indian Ocean Commission (2002), (http://www.coi- info.org/franr�aisecoi.asp?code=1), 26 February 2005. 206 Madagascar ratified the Nairobi Convention and its protocols on 26 June 1990.

207 Annual Report of the Indian Ocean Commission (1999), (http://www.coi-info.org), 26 February 2005. 208 Reunion Island participates in the project with its own funding.

209 Annual Report of the Indian Ocean Commission (2000). The Regional Oil Spill Response Coordinating Center is located in Madagascar. 210 Annual Report of the Indian Ocean Commission (2002). 211 Annual Report of the Indian Ocean Commission (2001 ). 212 Annual Report of the Indian Ocean Commission (2003). z�3 IOC-World Bank-SIDA/SAREC-ONE Workshop on Integrated Coastal Areas Management, Nosy-Be, Madagascar, 14-18 October 1996, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO, Workshop Report No. 128, para. 5.4 (ii).

214 2002 Regional Report, South West Indian Ocean Region (WIO), Present situation and 2000/2002 evolution, April 2002, (http://www.coi-info.org), 26 February 2005. 215 Regional Report, South West Indian Islands, IOC/GCRM Network (WIO node), 2003 Annual Report, September 2003, (http://www.coi-info.org), 26 February 2005. z�b Ibid. 217 Annual Reports of the Indian Ocean Commission (2003).

218 Regional Report (2003), op. cit. For information on AIMS Reef Monitoring Data Entry System, visit (http://www.dec.ctu.edu.vn/cdrom/cd5/ReefBase/ HTMLARM/armdes.htm), 26 February 2005. z'9 Ibid. 220 Report of the Third Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region (UNEP (DEC)/EAF/CP.3/9), Maputo, Mozambique, 5-7 December 2001, Annex VIII. 221 Nairobi Convention, Art. 2 (a). The Contracting Parties are as follows: Comoros, France, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa and United Republic of Tanzania.

222 Ibid., Introduction, para. 11. 223 UNEP EAF/6 project, (http://www.unep.org/eaf/eaf6/eaf6.htm), 26 February 2005. 224 Ibid. 225 Report of the Third Meeting of the Contracting Parties, op. cit., Annex VIII, Table 6.

`Z6 Ibid., Table 6, " Status of implementation of the biennial work plan 2000-2001 ". 22� Ibid., Annex XI, Biennial work programme 2002-2003 for the implementation of the Nairobi Convention. 228 IOC-World Bank-SIDA/SAREC-ONE Workshop on Integrated Coastal Areas Management, Nosy-Be, Madagascar, 14-18 October 1996, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Workshop Report No. 128, Speech of the Minister of the Environment of Madagascar, Annex II; Report of the First Conference of the Indian Ocean Global Ocean Observing System (IOGOOS), Mauritius 4-9 November 2002, Country Reports on Priority Phenomena in the Coastal Zone, paras. 6.2.1; (http://www.incois.gov.in/Incois/iogoos/Conference_Statement.jsp), 26 February 2005.

229 UNEP News Release, 6 July 2004, (http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/ Default.asp?DocumentID=402&ArticleID), 30 September 2004. z3o IMO, Marine Environment Protection Committee, Technical Cooperation Programme, MEPC 52/18, Annex. z3i IMO, Technical Cooperation Committee; The Integrated Technical Cooperation Programme: Final report for the 2002-2003 Biennium, TC 54/3, Tables 5 and 9. zsz Ordinance No. 93-022 of 4 May 1993, Journal Officiel de la Republique de Madagascar (JORM), No. 2199 of 9 August 1993, pp. 1870-1877.

233 Ordinance No. 93-022, op. cit., Article 5. 234 Ibid., Article 6. 235 Ibid., Article 7. 236 Ibid., Article 8. 237 Ibid., Article 9.

z38 Ibid., Article 10. z39 Ibid., Article 12. 24° Ibid. Article 13. z4i Ibid., Article 13. 242 Ibid., Article 19, para. 1. za3 Ibid., Article 19. 244 Ibid., Article 25. zas Ibid., Article 21.

`ab Ibid., Article 22 (g). Za' Ibid., Article 26. zaa Ibid., Article 28. za9 Ibid., Article 19, para. 2 (a) and Article 29. zso Ibid.., Article 29 (a)(b). 251 Decree No. 94-112 of 18 February 1994, JORM No. 2254, 11 July 1994, pp. 1551-1559. zsz Ibid., Articles 4-5.

zs3 Ibid., Articles 8-9. zsa Ibid., Articles 11-13. zss Ibid., Article 14. zsb Ibid., Article 15. zs� Ibid., Article 16 zss Ibid., Article 16.

259Ibid., Article 17. 260Ibid., Article 20. 261Ibid., Article 22. 262 Ibid., Article 23. 263 Ibid., Article 21.

264 Ibid., Article 24, paras. 1-3. z6s Ibid., Article 25. zbb Ibid., Article 27. zb� Ibid., Article 28. zb$ Ibid., Article 29.

269 Ibid., Article 30. 270 Madagascar has concluded access agreements with foreign countries in areas under its national jurisdiction even before it established an EEZ in 1985. Evaluation of the Relationship between Country Programmes and Fisheries Agreements, European Union, Final Report, ADE, PriceWaterhouseCoopers and EPU, 21 November 2002, p. 36, (http://europa.eu.indcomm/europeaid/evaluation/reports/sector/ 951637 _final.pdf), 26 May 2004. 272 Agreement between the European Economic Community and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar on fishing off Madagascar - the Democratic

Republic of Madagascar on fishing off Madagascar - Protocol 1 between the European Economic Community and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar on tuna fishing - Protocol 2 between the European Economic Community and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar on types of fishing other than those covered by Protocol I, Official Journal of the European Communities, L 073 , 18/03/1986 P. 0026 - 0032, (http://europa.eu.int/comm/fisheries/doc_et_publ/factsheets/ facts/en/pcp4 2sl l.htm), 26 May 2004. n3 Summary of Protocols to the EC/Madagascar Fisheries Agreement, (http://europa.eu.int/conmVflsheries/doc-et-publ/factsheets/facts/en/pcp4-2s I I.htm), 26 May 2004. 274 Agreement between the European Economic Community and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar, op. cit., Article 1. 275 Ibid., Annex, para. 8. z�b Ibid., Article 2. 277 Ibid., Article 3. z�8 Ibid. Article 4. z�9 Ibid., Article 10. z$° Ibid., Annex, para. 3. zs� Ibid., Article 7.

zsz Ibid., Annex, paras. 2-3(c). 283 Ibid., Article 6. z8° Ibid., Article 9. 285 Press release of 28 May 2001, (http://europa.eu.int/comm/fisheries/doc et_pubU factsheets/facts/en/pcp4-2s l.htm), 7 March 2005. 286 Renewal of Fisheries Protocol between the EU and Madagascar, Official Journal of the European Communities L 296/12, 14/01/2001, (http://europa.eu.intlcomm/fisheries/ doc et_publ/factsheets/facts/en/pcp4 2sl l.htm), 26 September 2004. z8� Ibid., Articles 1-2.

zaa Ibid., Articles 2-3. zav Ibid., Articles 4. z9o Ibid., Annex, para. 11. z9� Ibid., Annex, para. 7. z9z Ibid., Annex, para. 10.

z93 Ibid., Annex, para. 12. z9a Ibid., Press release of 19 September 2003, Press releases 2003. 295 ibid. 296 "Madagascar: Coastal State requirements for foreign fishing - Protocols of Agreements between Madagascar and foreign fishing companies, valid for 3 years renewable", in Costal State requirements for foreign fishing, Development Law Service, FAO Legal Office, FAO 1996, (http://www.fao.org/docrep/V9982E/v9982e21.htm), 30 April 2004.

See "Evaluation of the Relationship between Country Programmes and Fisheries Agreements'', op. cit., p. 61. z9$ Ibid., pp. 54-55. 299 Ibid., "Fisheries Agreements: Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS)", p.40. 3°° Ibid. 30� UNCLOS, Articles 61 and 118

soz "Evaluation of the Relationship between Country Programmes and Fisheries Agreements", op. cit., "Conclusion: The Reality of Achieving Sustainable Use of large migratory fish (LMF) ", p. 53. 303 Agreement for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Art. II and IV. The other IOTC member States in the South-west Indian Ocean are: France, Mauritius and Seychelles (http://www.fao.org/legal/treaties/013T-E.HTM).

3oa "Les Pecheries malgaches : leurs principaux potentiels et leurs besoins pour le developpement", FAO, (RAF/79/065/WP/17/84), Decembre 1984, para. 144, (http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/255101.htm), 26 April 2004. 305 bid., Article V (2) (b) (d). 306 FAO Fisheries Report No. 664, Rome, FAO, 2001. FAO Newsroom, (http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2005/102118/index.html), 16 May 2005

3oa (http://www.ifremer.fr/cofrepeche/referencestexten/oceanindien/peche.htm), 26 April 2004. 309 Annual Report of the Indian Ocean Commission (1999), (http://coi.intnet.mu/francais/ projet_pres.asp?entite_id=8), 26 April 2004. Ibid., Annual Report (2001), "Les Ressources marines:Le Projet Pilote regional de la COI sur la Surveillance, le Contr6le et le Suivi (SCS) des peches des grands migrateurs" (http://www.coi-info.org/francais/projet_pres.asp?entite id=8), 26 April 2004.

3�z Mission d'identification d'un projet Regional dans le Domaine de la Gestion Durable des Ressources cotieres, Programmation Regionale 96,e FED, Pays de l'Oc6an Indien, No. Identification REG/7501/001, No. Comptable 8. ACP.RIN.002, EOS.D2C- RAPPORT, Annexe no.2, Profil de Madagascar - juin 2003, "Madagascar : Aperqu economiques", Indian Ocean Commission documents, (http://www.coi-info.org/docscoi/ f00220.pdf), 26 April 2004. 313 far, "Profil de la Peche par Pays: La Republique de Madagascar -Donnees sur les Peches, Structure et Caracteristique de l'Industrie", FAO, FID/CP/MDG Rev.5, November 1999 ; 3�° Indian Ocean Commission, "Madagascar : Aperçu economiques", op. cit. 3is S. Goedefroit, "Strategie d'acces et conflit d'usage de la ressource crevettiere chez les pecheurs traditionnels a Madagascar", (http://www.madagascar-contacts.com/gapcm/ download/La%20ruee%20vers%201'or%20ros), 26 April 2004. mission d'identification d'un projet Regional dans le Domaine de la Gestion Durable des Ressources cotieres, op. cit., Rapport Provisoire, mai-juin 2003, para. 11. 1. 3�� FAO Fishery Country Profile, "La Republique de Madagascar", FID/CP/MDG Rev.5, 1999, (http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MDG/profile.htm), 26 April 2004.

3'8 "Les Pecheries maritimes malgaches : leurs principaux potentiels et leurs besoins pour le developpement", op. cit., Annexe 13: Proposition de Projet (http://www.fao.org/docrep/ field/255101.htm), 26 April 2004. ;'9 Ibid., Ministere de t'Etevage et des Ressources Halieutiques, Direction des Ressources Halieutiques, "P�ches et Aquaculture à Madagascar", Tome II, Plan Directeur (Resume des Programmes), Projet PNUD/FAO/MAG/85/014, Organisation des Nations Unies pour 1'Alimentation et la Peche et Programme des Nations Unies pour le Developpement, Madagascar, Mai 1993. 320 The United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement, op. cit., Article 2. 32i Ibid., Article 24 (2) (b) (c). 322 Ibid., Articles 25 and 26.

3z3 ICSP2/UNFSA/REP/INF.1, Annex II, August 2003, (http://www.un.org/Depts/ los/index.htm), 26 April 2004. sza See the website of the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs, (http://www.un.org/Depts/los/), 2 February 2005. szs Proceedings of the Twentieth Anniversary Commemoration of the opening for signature of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, op. cit., Statement of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, p. 4. 326 Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth session, Suppl. No. 21 (A/8021 ), Resolution 2749 (XXV), "Declaration of Principles Governing the Sea-Bed and the Ocean

Floor, and the Subsoil Thereof, beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction", para. 7, Official Records of the General Assembly, Twenty-fifth session, Suppl. No. 21 (A/8021). 3z� Declaration of Santo Domingo, approved on 9 June 1972 at the Specialized Conference of the Caribbean Countries on Problems of the Sea, Santo Domingo, 31 May - 9 June 1972, United Nations Legislative Series, National Legislation and Treaties relating to the Law of the Sea (ST/LEG/SER.B/16) (United Nations publication, Sales No. E/F.74.V.2), pp. 599-600. sza The Law of the Sea: Practice of States at the time of entry into force of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Part II, African States, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations, 1994, United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.V.13, p. 30.

3z9 Official Records, Fifty-fifth session, Suppl. No. 49 (A/55/49), Res.55/7, Annex II, para. 6. 33o UNCLOS, Article 76 and Annex II. 331 Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, "Scientific and Technical Guidelines of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf' (CLCS/11), 13 May 1999, para. 1.2. 33z Official Records of the General Assembly , Suppl. No. 49 (A/44/49), Res. 44/26, paras. 11-12; Suppl. No. 49 (A/49/49), Res. 49/28, paras. 15(a), 20; Suppl. No. 49 (A/52/49), Res. 52/26, paras. 10, 11(f), 12; Suppl. No. 49 (A/54/49), Res. 54/31, paras. 25, 27 ; Suppl. No. 49 (A/55/49), Res. 55/7, paras. 22, 23, 29; Suppl. No. 49 (A/57/49), Res. 57/141, paras. 36, 37, 38, 40; Res. 58/240, paras. 20, 21, 22, 44, 74, 75.

333 Document A/AC.259/L.3, United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process established by the General Assembly in its resolution 54/33 in order to facilitate the annual review by the Assembly of developments in ocean affairs, Third meeting, 8-15 April 2002, Draft format and annotated provisional agenda, Appendix II, para. 6. 33a Reports of the Secretary-General (A/45/712), Law of the Sea - Realization of benefits under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Needs of States in regard to development and management of ocean resources; A/46/722, Law of the Sea - Realization of benefits under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Measures undertaken in response to needs of States in regard to development and management of ocean resources, and approaches for further action. 335 Report of the Secretary-General, op. cit., A/45/712, para. 7. ;36 Report of the Secretary-General, op. cit., A/46/722, pp. 4-47.

33� A/46/724, paras. 187-207. 33$ A/54/429, para. 595. 339 Official records of the General Assembly, Suppl. No. 48, (A/35/48), Thirty-fifth session, Res. 35/116.

34° Report of the Secretary-General (A/54/429), Oceans and the law of the sea: law of the sea; results of the review by the Commission on Sustainable Development of the sectoral theme of "oceans and seas'', para. 593. 3ai Ibid., "Oceans and the law of the sea", A/59/62/Add.l, paras 143-147. saz Ibid.. 3a3 Official Records, Fifty-fifth session, Suppl. No.49 (A/55/49), Res.55/7.

3°4 Ibid., para. 20. sas Ibid., Annex II, para.2. 3a6 Ibid., Annex I, paras. 4 and 5.

Selected Decisions and Documents of the Ninth Session, Report of the Secretary-General of the International Seabed Authority under article 166, para. 4, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, (ISBA/9/A/3), para. 24. Report of the fourteenth Meeting of States Parties (SPLOS/119), New York, 14-18 June 2004, para. 29.

3a9 Report of the Second Informal Consultations of the States Parties to the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (New York, 23-25 July 2003), ICSP2/L1NFSA/REP/INF.1, Annex II: Terms of Reference of the Assistance Fund, (http://www.un.org/Depts/los/index.htm).

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