Rural Pension Politics in Taiwan: The Institutional Explanation and Implications for East Asian Agricultural Welfare Development

in Asian Journal of Social Science
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

In East Asia, until recently, pension demands emerging from the rural sector have been neglected by many governments. In order to further the nascent scholarship in this field, this paper selects Taiwan’s case for analysis. More specifically, after conducting an historical institutional study of policy evolution over the last two decades it is found that in spite of depeasantization the interplay between rural income deficiencies, electoral interests and the feedback impacts of introduced programs has led to rural pension expansion. However, clientelistic pension politics is now being challenged by the government chiefly because it is uneconomical and has constituted the major obstruction to more programmatic reform acts being contemplated by state pension bureaucrats. Finally, regarding further policy debates on this sector-specific welfare provision Taiwan’s case raises a series of theoretical implications concerning East Asian agricultural welfare during the post-agricultural era.

Rural Pension Politics in Taiwan: The Institutional Explanation and Implications for East Asian Agricultural Welfare Development

in Asian Journal of Social Science

Sections

References

Academia Sinica Proposal for Agricultural Policy and Technical Development 2013 Taipei Academia Sinica

AraghiF.A. “Global Depeasantization, 1945–1990” The Sociological Quarterly 1995 36 337 368

Asian Development Bank (ADB) Building Climate Resilience in the Agriculture Sector in Asia and the Pacific 2009 Manila ADB

AspalterC. Democratization and Welfare State Development in Taiwan 2002 Hampshire Ashgate

BaldwinP. The Politics of Social Solidarity: Class bases of the European welfare state 1875–1975 1990 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

BarrientosA. What is the Role of Social Pensions in Asia? 2012 Asian Development Bank Institute ADBI Working Paper 351

BattoN.F. “Change and Continuity in the Personal Vote after Electoral Reform in Taiwan” Issues and Studies 2009 45 2 99 123

BonoliG.ShinkawaT. BonoliGiulianoShinkawaToshimitsu “Population Ageing and the Logics of Pension Reform in Western Europe in East Asia and North America” Ageing and Pension Reform around the World: Evidence from Eleven Countries 2005 Cheltenham Edward Elgar 1 23

Bureau of Labour Insurance (BLI) Year of Labour Insurance Statistics 2011 Taipei BLI

Bureau of Labour Insurance (BLI) Introduction to the Entitlement of Aged Farmer Allowances 2012 Taipei BLI

ChaoY.M.HuangC.W. “The Characteristics Change of Farmer Association Faction in Taiwan — A case study of Sheilin Township (1970–1990)” Political Science Review 2000 13 165 200

ChenM.F. DPP’s Local Mayors Asking for the Governing Party for Financial Assistance to OAAs United Evening News 1994 May 14 2

ChenW.H. Protecting Both Interests of Young and Aged Farmers: The imperative to reform Aged Farmer Allowance system Agricultural Policy & Review 2011 223 33 35

ChengH.B. The Benefit Level of Other Eight Social Allowances Also Being Made Upward Adjustment as Rural Pension Does United News 2011 Nov 19 2

ChoiY.J. Pension Reforms in East Asia: A comparative study 2006 PhD thesis. University of Bath

Council for Economic Planning and Development (CEPD) Reducing Rural and Urban Gap with Effective Resource Allocation Policy 2006 Taipei CEPD

Council for Economic Planning and Development (CEPD) Urban and Regional Development Statistics 2011 2012 Taipei CEPD

DaiH.ChaoT.H. Land Reform and Politics: A comparative analysis 1974 Los Angeles University of California Press

DeyoF.C. DeyoFrederic C. State and Labour: Modes of political exclusion in East Asian development The Political Economy of New Asian Industrialism 1987 Ithaca Cornell University Press 182 202

Directorate-General of Budget Accounting and Statistics (DGBAS) Yearbook of Manpower Survey Statistics 2011 2011a Taipei DGBAS, Executive Yuan

Directorate-General of Budget Accounting and Statistics (DGBAS) 2010 Population and housing census: Preliminary summary report 2011b Taipei DGBAS, Executive Yuan

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) The Promise of Protection: Social protection and development in Asia and the Pacific 2011 Bangkok ESCAP

Estevez-AbeM. Welfare and Capitalism in Postwar Japan 2008 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

FrancksP.BoestelJ.KimC.H. Agriculture and Economic Development in East Asia: From growth to protectionism in Japan Korea and Taiwan 1999 London Routledge

FuL.Y. HsiaoH.W.LinK.M. Old-age Allowance, Party Competition and Elections Social Welfare Movements in Taiwan 2000 Taipei Great Wave Publication 232 256

GeorgeA.L.BennettA. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Science 2005 London MIT Press

GoldT.B. State and Society in the Taiwan Miracle 1986 New York ME Sharpe

GoughI. MarshallK.ButzbachO. Welfare Regimes in East Asia New Social Policy Agendas for Europe and Asia: Challenges experience and lesson 2003 Washington, D.C. World Bank 449 512

GulatiL. “Agricultural workers’ pension in Kerala: an experiment in social assistance” Economic and Political Weekly 1990 339 343

HaggardS.KaufmanR. Development Democracy and Welfare States: Latin America East Asia and Eastern Europe 2008 Woodstock Princeton University Press

HandayaniS.W.BabajanianB. Social Protection for Older Persons: Social pensions in Asia 2012 Manila Asian Development Bank Institute

HickenA.SelwayJ.S. “Forcing the Genie Back in the Bottle: Sociological Change, institutional reform, and health policy in Thailand” Journal of East Asian Studies 2012 12 57 88

HiranoS. “Electoral Institutions, Hometowns, and Favored Minorities: Evidence from Japan’s electoral reforms.” World Politics 2006 59 1 51 82

HollidayI. “East Asian Social Policy in the Wake of the Financial Crisis: Farewell to productivism?” Policy & Politics 2005 33 1 145 162

HoutzagerP.KurtzM.J. “The institutional roots of popular mobilization: State transformation and rural politics in Brazil and Chile, 1960–1995” Comparative Studies in Society and History 2000 42 394 424

HsiaoH.W.LinK.M. Social Welfare Movements in Taiwan 2000 Taipei Great Wave Publication

HuangS.T. DPP Asking for Issuing OAA but Denied by the Ruling Party United News 1994 May 15 3

HwangG.J. HwangG. J. New Global Challenges and Welfare State Restructuring in East Asia: Continuity and change New Welfare States in East Asia: Global Challenges and Restructuring 2011 Cheltenham Edward Elgar 1 14

JianS.J. No Regret: The true voice of a political actor in a changing era 2003 Taipei Prophet Publication

JiangF.F.TungA.C.LiuK.C. “The Trend and the Mode of Legislative Interpellation Sessions Held on Issues Concerning the Elderly” Taiwan Economic Forecast and Policy 2004 34 2 1 29

KaC.SeldenM. “Original Accumulation, Equity and Late Industrialization: The cases of socialist China and capitalist Taiwan” World Development 1986 14 1293 1310

KassimH.Le GalèsP. “Exploring Governance in a Multi-level Polity: A policy instruments approach” West European Politics 2010 33 1 1 21

KayC. “Reflections on Rural Violence in Latin America” Third World Quarterly 2001 22 741 775

KimY.M. “Beyond East Asian Welfare Productivism in South Korea” Policy & Politics 2008 36 109 125

KuY.W. Welfare Capitalism in Taiwan: State economy and social policy 1997 London Palgrave Macmillan

KwonH.J. GoodmanR.WhiteG.KwonH-J. “Democracy and the Politics of Social Welfare: A comparative analysis of welfare system in East Asia” The East Asian Welfare Model: Welfare orientalism and the state 1998 New York Routledge 106 119

LeeM.T. State Machine Political Transition and Social Welfare — A study of the “Old-Age Pension” campaign in Taiwan (1992–95) 1996 Hsinchu Graduate of Social Anthropology. Tsing-Hua University

LeeY.J.ParishW.L.WillsR.J. “Sons, Daughters, and Intergenerational Support in Taiwan” American journal of sociology 1994 99 1010 1041

Legislative Yuan (LY) Legislative Yuan Gazette 1995 Vol 84 No 12 Taipei LY 150 151

Legislative Yuan (LY) Legislative Yuan Gazette 1997 Vol. 86 No. 52 Taipei LY 225 227

Legislative Yuan (LY) Legislative Yuan Gazette 2005 Vol. 94 No. 75 Taipei LY 40 41

LinC.W. BonoliG.ShinkawaT. “Pension Reform in Taiwan: The old and the new politics of welfare” Ageing and Pension Reform around the World: evidence from eleven countries 2005 Cheltenham Edward Elgar 1 23

LinH.P.KaoS.Q. Intergenerational Solidarity between the Rural Elder and their Adult Children — From elder’s perspective 1999 Taipei Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica

LinH.Y. “Agricultural Financial Reform and Social Movement in Taiwan: The Case of coexist with the peasant on Nov. 23” Public Administration & Policy 2005 40 99 136

LiuF.C. “Is It Still Effective to Buy Votes with Pension Entitlements?” Global Views Monthly 1997 137 170 180

Lloyd-SherlockP. “Simple Transfers, Complex Outcomes: The impacts of pensions on poor households in Brazil” Development and Change 2006 37 5 969 995

LoQ.M. Building an Organic Rice Co-op under Contemporary Political-economic Structure of Meinung Township 2008 Taipei Graduate Institute for Social Transformation Studies, Shih-Hsin University

LuorC.J. “Distributive Politics in Small Districts under SNTV System in Taiwan: The expectation of constituencies of pork barrel” Taiwan Foundation for Democracy 2008 4 47 85

LuorC.J.LiaoC.L. “The Impact of Upcoming Change in the Electoral System on the Initiation Behavior of Pork Barrel-related Bills from Legislators” Taiwanese Political Science Review 2009 13 1 3 53

LynchJ. Age in the Welfare State: The origins of social spending on pensioners workers and children 2006 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

MulganA.G. “Where Tradition Meets Change: Japan’s agricultural politics in transition” The Journal of Japanese Studies 2005 31 261 298

NobleG.W. “The Decline of Particularism in Japanese Politics” Journal of East Asian Studies 2010 10 239 273

PengI. “Postindustrial Pressures, Political Regime Shifts, and Social Policy Reform in Japan and South Korea” Journal of East Asian Studies 2004 4 389 425

PengI.WongJ. “Institutions and Institutional Purpose: Continuity and change in East Asian social Policy” Policy & Politics 2008 36 1 61 88

RichT.S. “The Effects of Election Reform on Legislator Perceptions: The Case of Taiwan” Japanese Journal of Political Science 2012 13 3 317 336

RubinsteinM.A. RubinsteinM.A. “Taiwan’s Socioeconomic Modernization, 1971–1996” Taiwan: A new history 2007 New York M.E. Sharpe 366 402

SandoR.A. “Doing the Work of Two Generations: The impact of out-migration on the elderly in rural Taiwan” Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 1986 1 163 175

SelwayJ.S. “Electoral Reform and Public Policy Outcomes in Thailand: The politics of the 30–Baht health scheme” World Politics 2011 63 165 202

ShaoB.L. Keeping AFA the Same but Everyone Has to Pay this Heavy Expenditure United Evening News 2008 Jul 18 6

SheingateA.D. The Rise of the Agricultural Welfare State: Institutions and interest group power in the United States France and Japan 2001 New Jersey Princeton Press

ShenC.WilliamsonJ.B. “China’s New Rural Pension Scheme: Can it be improved?” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 2010 30 239 250

ShengY.S. The Dynamic Triangles among Constituencies, Parties and Legislators: A comparison before and after the reform of electoral system 2009 Paper given at American Political Science Association Meeting 3–6 Sep Toronto

ShihH.K.LoB. Electoral Impact? KMT lawmakers supporting proposal for rural pension expansion Liberty Times 2011 Feb 27 2

ShihS.J. “Left to Market and Family — Again? Ideas and the development of the rural pension policy in China” Social Policy and Administration 2006 40 7 791 806

ShihS.J.YehU.N. “Political Democratization and Social Policy: Exploring the impact of political institutions on the pension scheme-building in Taiwan” NTU Social Work Review 2010 23 49 72

SunC.J. “Evaluation of Social Allowance Programs in Taiwan: Old-age allowance pension in 1994” Journal of social Policy and Social Work 1997 1 2 73 98

SuW.X. A Study on Policy Process of Aged Farmer Allowance in Taiwan (1995–2008) 2008 Chaiyi Graduate of Social Welfare, National Chung Cheng University

Taiwan Family Income and Expenditure Survey (TFIES) Taiwan Family Income and Expenditure Survey 2004 Taipei Directorate-General of Budget Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan

The Control Yuan (CY) Report on the Policy Implementation of Aged Farmer Allowances 2012 Taipei The Control Yuan

ThompsonS.E. “Taiwan: Rural Society” The China Quarterly 1984 99 553 568

TsaiM.C. Poverty in Taiwan: structural analysis of underclass 1996 Taipei Great Wave Publication

TsaiP.I. Peasant Differentiation under the Agrarian Structural Transformation 2009 1980–2005 PhD Dissertation National Taiwan University

TsaiS.Y. The Imperative to Introduce Rural Pensions United News 1995 Feb 23 11

TsaiY.C. Ideas Interests and Institutions: The politics of national pension program in Taiwan 2008 Taipei Department of Sociology, National Taiwan University

WangW.C. “Towards Global Cities and Regional Governance? The uneven geographical development of the new five direct municipalities in Taiwan” Bulletin of the Geographical Society of China 2011 46 37 50

WangY.HuangH. Local Factions after Twin Transitions of Government in Taiwan: Decaying or transforming? 2010 Paper given at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association 2–5 September

WhiteG.GoodmanR. GoodmanR.WhiteG.KwonH-J. “Welfare Orientalism and the Search for an East Asian welfare model” The East Asian Welfare Model: Welfare orientalism and the state 1998 New York Routledge 3 25

WuS.C.ChenM.F.SungC. C. The Legislature About to Pass a Rural Pension Bill this Afternoon United Evening News 1995 Mar 2 1

YangC.L. “The Living Arrangements of Taiwanese Elderly: The relationship between the number of available children and coresident decision” The Demographic Journal 1999 20 167 183

1

In the early 1990sthis non-contributory scheme to the elderly without pension coverage was first proposed by rural-based opposition politicians and merely implemented in one off-shore agrarian county. Its further expansion mainly took place in the mid 1990s with ten independent schemes implemented by local governments six of which were of agrarian nature constituting 53% of the eligible recipient population (Fu 2000; Aspalter 2002). In relation to this paper only those schemes found in agrarian counties are defined as coming under rural pension schemes.

2

In 1995this non-contributory subsidy was introduced by the central government to cater for the pension needs of agricultural workers. Since its inception AFA recipients have been highly geographically concentrated in rural regions but the politically-induced administrative boundary changes of 2010 seemingly reduced this effect (i.e. there was a reduction in AFA recipients living outside metropolitan cities from 97% in 2010 to 66% in 2011) which has prompted some researchers to hold that many intermediate agrarian-based regions have been merged into metropolitan boundaries by the political elites for budget enhancement purposes rather than there having been a sudden drastic shift away from the local agrarian economy (Wang 2011).

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Employment change in Taiwan from 1952 to 2011 by sector
  • View in gallery
    Income composition of older people households in metropolitan cities and agrarian countries in: 1986, 1996 and 2004 (%)
  • View in gallery
    Relative poverty rates of households with old people according to geography in: 1986, 1996, 2000 and 2004 (%)
  • View in gallery
    Coverage and spending level of Aged Farmer Allowance (AFA) since 1995 to 2011

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 11 11 3
Full Text Views 11 11 11
PDF Downloads 5 5 5
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0