The Human Development Index (HDI, 2005) ranked Yemen 151st out of 177 countries. Although it is one of the poorest countries in world, the population of 21.4 million people is the highest in all Arab countries and it is expected to double within the next 20 years. This makes it an interesting and growing market—and one in which international companies are presently investigating opportunities. The Yemeni legal system, although having improved in recent years, is still not capable of making and executing fair legal decisions, by international standards. In this environment, national and international trade requires alternatives for legal decision-making. In response to this, two arbitration centres are currently operating in Yemen and offer businesspeople an alternative to court based adjudication. As Yemen attempts to become a member of the WTO and tries to create a investment-friendly atmosphere, arbitration can be a very important alternative for providing legal certainty as the court system continues to develop towards international standards.