Measures of the Principle of Good Faith in European Consumer Protection and Islamic Law, a Comparative Analysis

in Arab Law Quarterly
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Evaluation of the success of consumer protection regulations in many Islamic states reflects defeated outcomes with regard to the application of many declared rights and objectives; it requires the fair implementation of the principle of good faith where clear and specific measures are required. It would be better for Muslim lawmakers to benefit from the European practice and Islamic guidelines; those criteria and measures are provided in the European Proposal of Consumer Rights (the Proposal). The Proposal provides that “A term is off in conjunction with this principle since it creates a significant imbalance of rights and obligations between the contracting parties”. Clear common used terms are provided in the lists of the Proposal. This voice is also well known in Islamic law; contracts of honesty (amāna) and rules of disproportion between the contradictable interests indicate this implementation.

Measures of the Principle of Good Faith in European Consumer Protection and Islamic Law, a Comparative Analysis

in Arab Law Quarterly

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5

On 8 October 2008the European Commission adopted the Proposal for a directive on consumer rights which has the aim of revising Directive (85/577/eec)1 on contracts negotiated away from business premises Directive (93/13) on unfair terms in consumer contracts Directive (97/7/ec) on distance contracts and Directive (1999/44/ec) on consumer sales and guarantees. The Proposal merges these four directives into a single horizontal instrument regulating the common aspects in a systematic fashion simplifying and updating the existing rules removing inconsistencies and closing gaps. It is expected for this proposal to be enacted by the beginning of 2014. Available in English at: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/rights/docs/comm_pdf_com_2008_0614_F_en_proposition_de_directive.pdf (visited on 25/11/2012).

9

See: A. Radowan“Justice and Fairness in Islamic Law, a Comparative Legal Study Between Law and Islamic Fiqh”Colombia Law Rev. (1992): 261.

12

J. Stuyck E. Terryan and T. Vandyck“Confidence Through Fairness? The New Directive on Unfairness? The New Directive on Unfair Business to Consumer Commercial Practices in the Internal Market”Common Market Law Rev. J. 43 (2006): 114.

16

W. Tetely“Good Faith in Contract Particularly in Contract of Arbitration and Chartering”J. Maritime Law Commerce35 (2004): 594; R. Kolb “Principles as Sources of International Law (With Special Reference of Good Faith)” Netherlands Intl. Law Rev. (2006): 20.

23

P.J. Powers“Defining the Indefinable: Good Faith and the United Nations Convention on the Contracts for the International Sale of Goods”J. Law Commerce 18 (1999): 333.

26

See: A. Cox“The Duty to Bargain in Good Faith”Harvard Law Rev. 71(8) (1958): 1401.

28

W. Tetely“Good Faith in Contract Particularly in Contract of Arbitration and Chartering”J. Maritime Law Commerce35 (2004): 567; P. Gey “Bad Faith Under icann’s Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy” Eur. Intellectual Property Rev. 23(11) (2001): 509.

29

See: M. Auer“Good Faith: a Semiotic Approach”Eur. Rev. Private Law2 (2002): 285; Dean supra note 15 at 584; J. Grant “Trade Marks: Bad Faith Requirement of Dishonesty?” Eur. Intellectual Property Rev. J. 27(1) (2005): 14. Good Faith: A Fundamental Principle of International Law 1 May Conference Features Judge Mohammed Bedjaoui available at: http://www.ipb.org/Good%20Faith.pdf (visited on 18/3/2010); R. Kolb “Principles as Sources of Intl. Law (with special reference of Good faith)” Netherlands Intl. Law Rev. (2006): 23.

31

Brownsword et al.supra note 24 at 26.

34

See: Stormesupra note 10 at 5; A.S. Komarov “Internationality Uniformity and Observance of Good Faith as Critical in International of cigs: Some Remarks on Article (7/1)” J. Law Commerce 25 (2006): 75 available at http://www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/cisg25/Komarov.pdf (visited on 14/3/2010).

44

M. Fayyad“Misleading Advertising Practices in Consumer Transactions: Can Arab Lawmakers Gain an Advantage from European Insight?”Arab Law Quart. 26(3) (2012): 278.

49

S. Whittaker“Assessing the Fairness of Contract Terms: the Parties’ ‘Essential Bargain’, its Regulatory Context and the Significance of the Requirements of Good Faith”Zeitschrift für Europäisches Privatrecht Law (2004): 251.

53

M. Schillig“Inequality of Bargaining Power Versus Market for Lemons: Legal Paradigm Change and the Court of Justice’s Jurisprudence on Directive 93/13 on Unfair Contract Terms”Eur. Law Rev. 33(3) (2008): 350.

54

See Collins“Good Faith in European Contract Law”Oxford Legal Studies14 (1994): 229; G. Teubner “Legal Irritants: Good Faith in British Law or How Unifying Law Ends up in New Divergences” Modern Law Rev. J. 16(1) (1998): 11; Komarov supra note 35.

55

N. Bamforth“The Limits of European Union Consumer Contract Law”Eur. Law Rev. 24(4) (1999): 413.

56

Deansupra note 15 at 582.

57

Middlemisssupra note 19 at 401.

58

Whittakersupra note 3 at 85.

66

B. Heiderhoff“The Commission’s 2007 Green Paper on the Consumer Acquis: Deliberate Deliberation?”Eur. Law Rev. 32(5) (2007): 743

71

Schilligsupra note 56 at 352; Dean supra note 15 at 586; Nebbia supra note 37 at 153.

82

A. Hazeem“The Theory of Fraud in Islamic Law”Islamic Law J. (1986): 28.

83

A. Abd el-Khalek“The Regulatory Framework of the Defect of Fraud in Islamic Law”Arab Law Quart. 3 (1986): 237; M. Marganee “Options in Islamic Fiqh and Law” Islamic Law J. (1993): 229.

91

See: H.R. Khan“The Constitutionalism of Islamic Law and the Criteria of Human Rights”Islamic Law J. (1998): 268; K.M. Sarwar and A. Hafeez Consumer Laws in Pakistan a Ready Reference for Consumer and Practicing Lawyers unpublished paper presented to the Consumer Rights Commission of Pakistan.

95

This letter is mentioned in Fayyadsupra note 21.

107

M.K. MasudShatibi’s Philosophy of Islamic Law (Islamabad: International Islamic University1995) 96.

117

A. Dawwas“Abuse in the Exercise of Rights in Islamic Law and the Civil Codes of Arab Countries”Comp. Law Rev. 27(1) (1993): 2.

120

See: Majeedsupra note 108 at 97.

121

See: S.H. SiddiquiIslamic Banking: Genesis and Rationale; evaluation and Review; Prospects and Challenges (Pakistan: Royal Book Company1994) 17; N. Anderson and N. Coulson “The Muslim Ruler and Contractual Obligations” ny Univ. Law Rev. 33 (1958): 917.

122

See: A. Eissawi“The Theory of the Abuse of Right in Islamic Fiqh”J. Soc. Legal Sci. 1(20) (1963): 120.

123

See: L. TougiannosTerminating the Commercial Agency Agreement in the Arab World: Some Concepts to Keep in Mind (London: Graham & Trotman1990) 33; S.H. Amin Commercial Arbitration in Islamic and Iranian Law (Tehran: Vahid Publ. 1999) 41.

124

J.A. WakinThe Function of Documents in Islamic Law (New York: State University of New York Press1972) 7.

125

S.H. Amin“The Shari‛a Factor in International Commercial Arbitration”Press Legal Series (2005): 875.

126

H. GerberState Society and Law in Islam: Ottoman Law in Comparative Perspective (New York: State University of New York Press1994) 44.

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