The history of Islām shows clearly how the question of the Caliphate is of central, enduring and great ongoing importance. While Christianity was split into different religious denominations, in particular during the 5th century due to theological questions about the divine and human nature of Christ, the biggest split in Islām was due to questions about the Caliphate. This article offers an introduction to the divergent approaches to government in Islām and a discussion of recent efforts to restore an Islāmic Caliphate.
See: Abdullahi Ahmed an-NaʿimScharia und säkularer Staat im Nahen Osten und Europa (Berlin: Europa im Nahen Osten—Der Nahe Osten in Europa, Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin2009); Mahmoud Mohamed Taha transl. and introd. by Abdullah Ahmed an-Naʿim The Second Message of Islam (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press 1987).
Ayatollah Ruholla KhomeiniIslamic Government (New York: Manor Books1979) 18 et seq.; Muḥammad ʿAmāra Al-Islām wa falsafat al-ḥukm (الاسلام وفلسفة الحكم: Islam and the Philosophy of Government) 2nd edn. (Beirut: Al-Musasa al-ʿArabīya Press 1979) 49; ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Sanhūrī Al-din wa l-dawla fī l-islām (الدين والدولة في الاسلام : Religion and State in Islam) (Cairo: Maǧalat al-muḥāmāt al-šarʿīya October 1929) 8; H. Munir Al-Dawla l-qānūnīya wa l-niẓām al-siyāsī fī l-islām (الدولة القانونية والنظام السياسي في الاسلام : The Legal State and Political System in Islam) (Baghdad: Dār al-ʿArabīya li-ṯ-Tibāʿa 1978) 55; Tawfīq Muḥammad al-Šāwy Fiqh al-ḥukūma l-islāmīya baīna l-sunna wa l-šīʿa (فقه الحكومة الاسلامية بين السنة والشيعة : Jurisprudence of the Islamic State between Sunnis and Shiʿites) (Beirut: Al-ʿAṣr al-Ḥadiṯ Press 1995) 161.
L. BernardThe Emergence of Modern Turkey (London: Oxford University Press1961) 156 et seq.; S. J. Shaw History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey Vol. iiReform Revolution and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey 1808-1975 (Cambridge ma: Cambridge University Press 1977) 174 et seq.
Born in Samarra in1971he studied in Baghdad and was a religious scholar. He was arrested in 2004 and was detained in Camp Bucca by the us Armed Forces in Iraq. After his release he joined terrorist groups in Iraq.
John L. EspositoUnholy War. Terror in the Name of Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press2002) 45.