The general features of the mitotic and meiotic chromosomes analysed in 91 frogs belonging to nine water frog populations distributed in Southwest Anatolia. The differences found in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes revealed the existence of two groups among the populations: the first "Aegean Group" includes those from Izmir, Bulca, Pazarağaç, and the second – "Lake District Group" from Eber, Akşehir, Gelendost, Eğirdir, Gölcük, and Beyşehir populations. The major distinction appeared in the number of the rod-shaped bivalents in metaphase I, with only one in the "Aegean Group" compared to one or two in the "Lake District Group". This result indicates a new assemblage among Anatolian water frogs and strengthens the suggestion that the "Lake District Group" that have one or two rod shaped bivalents in metaphase I due to the inclusion of hybrid lineages containing both parental genomes. It is clear that at least two separate species are present in Anatolia; one of them is possibly Rana ridibunda from the north and the second is closer to the Balkan species Rana epeirotica and Rana shqiperica.